Final warning a history of the new world order -pt2
The beginning of monetary control
Napoleon said: “When a government is dependent for money upon the bankers, they and not the leaders of the government control the situation, since the hand that gives is above the hand that takes ... financiers are without patriotism and without decency...” Karl Marx said in the Communist Manifesto: “Money plays the largest part in determining the course of history.” The Rothschilds found out early, that when you control the money, you basically control everything else. So, while their political plans were being thwarted, they began to concentrate on tightening their grip on the financial structure of the world.
In the mid-1700’s the Colonies were prospering because they were issuing their own money, called Colonial Scrip, which was strictly regulated, and didn’t require the payment of any interest. When the bankers in Great Britain heard this, the British Parliament passed a law prohibiting the currency, forcing them to accept the debt money issued by them. Contrary to what history teaches, the American Revolution was not ignited by a tax on tea. According to Benjamin Franklin, it was because “the conditions were so reversed that the era of prosperity ended.” He said: “The Colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been the poverty caused by the bad influence of the English bankers on the Parliament, which has caused in the Colonies hatred of England and the Revolutionary War.”
In 1787, our new Constitution gave Congress the power to “coin money, (and) regulate the value thereof (Article 1, Section 8).” After Great Britain tried to destroy and control the currency of our new country, Congress realized the danger of fiat, or paper money created by law. In 1775, paper money had been issued to finance the war, and independent state legislatures passed laws requiring citizens to accept it as legal tender. Since it was created from nothing, and not backed by any precious metal, inflation developed. By the end of the war, it took 500 paper dollars to get one silver dollar. Our forefathers wrote in Article I, Section 10, of the U.S. Constitution: “No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing by gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.”
Alexander Hamilton, an Illuminist, and agent of European bankers, had immigrated to the colonies in 1772 from the British colony of Nevis, on the Leeward Islands in the British West Indies. He married the daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, one of the most influential families of New York. In 1789 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton and Robert Morris successfully convinced the new Congress not to take this power literally, enabling the Bank of North America to be established in 1781, which was similar to the Bank of England. At the time, America had a foreign debt of $12,000 (in money borrowed from Spain, France, Holland, and private interests in Germany), and a domestic debt of $42,000.
In 1790, Hamilton, who favored Central Banking, urged the Congress to charter a privately owned company to have the sole responsibility of issuing currency, in order to handle the country’s financial situation. His Plan called for Congress to create a Central Banking system, with a main office in Philadelphia, and smaller branches located in important cities throughout the country. It would be used to deposit government funds and tax collections, and to issue bank notes to increase the money supply needed to finance the country’s growth. This Bank of the United States would have a capital stock plan of $10 million, with 4/5’s to be owned by private investors, and 1/5 by the U.S. Government. It would be administered by a President, and 25 Board of Directors, with 20 to be elected by the stockholders, and 5 appointed by the government.
Central Banking was initiated by international banker William Paterson in 1691, when he obtained the Charter for the Bank of England, which put the control of England’s money in a privately owned company which had the right to issue notes payable on demand against the security of bank loans to the crown. One of their first transactions was to loan 1.2 million pounds at 8% interest to William of Orange to help the king pay the cost of his war with Louis XIV of France. Paterson said: “The bank hath benefit of interest on all monies which it creates out of nothing.” Reginald McKenna, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (or Treasury), said 230 years later: “The banks can and do create money ... And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of governments and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people.”
Hamilton’s elitist views and real purpose for wanting Central Banking came to light, when he wrote: “All communities divide themselves into the few and the many. The first are rich and well-born, the other the mass of the people. The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right.”
In 1791, Jefferson said: “To preserve our independence, we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt. If we run into such debts, we (will then) be taxed in our meat and our drink, in our necessities and in our comforts, in our labor and in our amusements. If we can prevent the government from wasting the labor of the people under the pretense of caring for them, they (will) be happy.” Even though Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (later to be our 4th President, 1809-17) opposed the Bill, Washington signed it into law on February 25, 1791. Alexander Hamilton became a very rich man. He and Aaron Burr helped establish the Manhattan Co. in New York City, which developed into a very prosperous banking institution. It would later be controlled by the Warburg-Kuhn-Loeb interests, and in 1955 it merged with Rockefeller’s Chase Bank to create the Chase Manhattan Bank.
When Jefferson (1801-09) became President, he opposed the bank as being unconstitutional, and when the 20 year charter came up for renewal in 1811, it was denied. Nathan Rothschild, head of the family bank in England, had recognized America’s potential, and made loans to a few states, and in fact became the official European banker for the U.S. Government. Because he supported the Bank of the United States, he threatened: “Either the application for renewal of the Charter is granted, or the United States will find itself in a most disastrous war.” He then ordered British troops to “teach these impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to Colonial status.” This brought on the War of 1812, our second war with England, which facilitated the rechartering of the Bank of the United States. The war raised our national debt from $45 million to $127 million.
Jefferson wrote to James Monroe (who later served as our 5th President, 1817-25) in January, 1815: “The dominion which the banking institutions have obtained over the minds of our citizens ... must be broken, or it will break us.” In 1816, Jefferson wrote to John Tyler (who became our 10th President, 1841-45): “If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issuance of their currency, first by inflation, and then by deflation, the banks and the corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their father’s conquered ... I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies ... The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the Government, to whom it properly belongs.”
On May 10, 1816, President James Madison signed the Bill, which created the second Bank of the United States. Inflation, heavy debt, and the unavailability of an entity to collect taxes, were some of the reasons given for its rechartering. The new charter allowed it to operate another 20 years, raised its capital stock to $35 million, authorized the creation of bank branches, and the issuing of notes with denominations no smaller than $5.00. The new bank now had the power “to control the entire fiscal structure of the country.” The bank was run by the Illuminati, through such international banker ‘front men’ as John Jacob Astor, Stephen Girard, and David Parish (a Rothschild agent for the Vienna branch of the family).
In 1819, the Bank was declared constitutional by Supreme Court Justice John Marshall (a Mason), who said that Congress had the implied power to create the Bank.
People began to see how much power the Bank really had, and the voter backlash led to the election of Andrew Jackson as President in 1828. His slogan was: “Let the people rule.” Jackson maintained: “If Congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to be used by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or to corporations.” Jackson said that the control of a central bank “would be exercised by a few over the political conduct of the many by first acquiring that control over the labor and earnings of the great body of people.” During the 1828 presidential campaign, Jackson said in an address before a group of bankers: “You are a den of vipers. I intend to rout you out and by the Eternal God I will rout you out.” He went on to say: “If the people only understood the rank injustice of our Money and Banking system, there would be a revolution before morning.” Jackson said that if such a Bank would continue to control “our currency, receiving our public monies, and holding thousands of our citizens in dependence, it would be more formidable and dangerous than the naval and military power of the enemy...”
After fiscal mismanagement by its first President, former Secretary of the Navy, Captain William Jones, the Bank was forced to call in loans and foreclosed on mortgages, which caused bankruptcy, a price collapse, unemployment and a depression. However, the Bank began to flourish under its new President, financier Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844), who petitioned the Congress for a renewal of the Bank’s Charter in 1832, four years before its current charter expired. The Bill for the new Charter passed the Senate, 28-20, and the House 107-85, and everyone knew how Jackson felt. Biddle threatened: “Should Jackson veto it, I shall veto him!” Jackson did veto the Charter, and abolished the Bank in 1832.
He ordered the Secretary of the Treasury to remove all Government deposits from U.S. Banks and deposit them in state banks. On January 8, 1835, Jackson paid off the final installment on our national debt, and it was the only time in history that our national debt was reduced to zero, and we were able to accumulate a surplus, $35 million of which was distributed to the States. Nicholas P. Trist, the President’s personal secretary, said: “This is the crowning glory of A.J.’s life and the most important service he has ever rendered his country.” The Boston Post compared it to Christ throwing the money-changers out of the Temple.
James K. Polk, the Speaker of the House (who later became the 11th President in 1845) said: “The Bank of the United States has set itself up as a great irresponsible rival power of the government.”
The Bank continued to operate until 1836, and it was used by Biddle to wreak havoc upon the economy by reducing loans and increasing the quantity of money. Jackson became the first President of the United States to be censured, which was done in March, 1834, “for removing the government’s deposits from the Bank of the United States without the express authorization of the United States Congress.” It is quite obvious that he did it because of the “abuses and corruptions” of the Bank, and the censure was later reversed by the Senate in 1837. The Bankers continued their attempts to revive the Bank. President John Tyler vetoed two bills in 1841 that would have rechartered the Bank of the United States.
In 1837, the Rothschilds sent another one of their agents to America. His name was August Belmont (real name, August Schonberg, a cousin of the Seligman family of Frankfurt, Germany). In 1829, as a 15 year-old, he started working for the bank in Frankfurt, and proved himself to be a financial genius. In 1832, he was promoted to the bank at Naples, so he could be fully integrated into international banking. He became fluent in English, French, and Italian. His mission was to stir up financial trouble within the southern banks. He ran a bank in New York City, and established himself as a leading figure in financial circles by buying government bonds, and later became a financial advisor to the President.
In 1857, the Illuminati met in London to decide America’s fate. They had to create an incident which would allow the establishment of a Central Bank, and that had to be a war, since wars are expensive, and governments have to borrow to pay for them. Canada and Mexico weren’t strong enough, as evidenced by Santa Anna’s defeat in Texas the year before; England and France were too far away, and Russia wasn’t under their control; so they decided to “divide and conquer,” by fermenting a conflict between the North and the South. The North was to become a British Colony, annexed to Canada, and controlled by Lionel Rothschild; while the South was to be given to Napoleon III of France, and controlled by James Rothschild.
In order to begin a movement that would lead to the secession of the South from the Union, the Illuminati used the Knights of the Golden Circle, which had been formed in 1854 by George W. L. Bickley, to spread racial tension from state to state, using slavery as an issue. War-time members included Jefferson Davis, John Wilkes Booth and Jesse James (1847-1882, a Mason, who after stealing gold from banks and mining companies, buried nearly $7 billion of it all over the western states in hopes of funding a second Civil War). The Ku Klux Klan, formed in 1867, were the military arm of the Knights. The states which seceded, united into the Confederate States of America, which meant they maintained their independence, and that if the South would win, each state would be like an independent country.
Abraham Lincoln informed the people that “combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary machinery of peacetime government had assumed control of various southern states.” He had coastal ports blockaded to keep supplies from being shipped in from Europe
The Rothschilds financed the North through emissaries August Belmont, Jay Cooke (who was commissioned to sell bond issues, arranging with Belmont to sell Union bonds in Europe), J. and W. Seligman and Company, and Speyer & Co.
Judah P. Benjamin (1811-84) of the law firm of Slidell, Benjamin and Conrad, in Louisiana, was a Rothschild agent, who became Secretary of State for the Confederacy in 1862. His law partner, John Slidell (August Belmont’s wife’s uncle) was the Confederate envoy to France. Slidell’s daughter was married to Baron Frederick D´Erlanger, in Frankfurt, who were related to the Rothschilds, and acted on their behalf. Slidell was the representative of the South who borrowed money from the D´Erlangers to finance the Confederacy.
Towards the end of 1861, England sent 8,000 troops to Canada, and in 1862, English, French and Spanish troops landed at Vera Cruz, Mexico, supposedly to collect on debts owed them by Mexico. In April, 1861, the Russian Ambassador to America had advised his government: “England will take advantage of the first opportunity to recognize the seceded states and that France will follow her.” On June 10, 1863, French General Elie-Frederic Forey, with the help of 30,000 additional French troops, took over Mexico City, and controlled most of the country.
Through his representatives in Paris and London, Czar Alexander II in Russia discovered that the Confederates had offered the states of Louisiana and Texas to Napoleon III, if he would send his troops against the North. Russia had already indicated their support for Lincoln, but wanted something more to send their large navy to defend the country. On January 1, 1863, as a gesture of goodwill, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves, just as the Czar had done with the serfs in 1861. On September 8, 1863, at the request of President Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward, Alexander sent the Russian fleet to San Francisco and New York, and ordered them “to be ready to fight any power and to take their orders only from Abraham Lincoln.”
Lincoln said: “The privilege of creating and issuing money is not only the supreme prerogative of Government, but is the Government’s greatest creative opportunity. By the adoption of these principles, the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest.” On February and March, 1862, and March 1863, Lincoln received Congressional approval to borrow $450 million from the people by selling them bonds, or ‘greenbacks,’ to pay for the Civil War. They were not redeemable until 1865, when three could be exchanged for one in silver. They were made full legal tender in 1879.
Thus, Lincoln solved America’s monetary crisis without the help of the International Bankers. The London Times later said of Lincoln’s greenbacks:
“If that mischievous financial policy which had its origin in the North America Republic during the late war in that country, should become indurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off its debts and be without debt. It will become prosperous beyond precedent in the history of the civilized governments of the world. The brains and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.”
Bismarck, the German Chancellor, said in 1876 about Lincoln: “He obtained from Congress the right to borrow from the people by selling to it the ‘bonds’ of States ... and the Government and the nation escaped the plots of the foreign financiers. They understood at once, that the United States would escape their grip. The death of Lincoln was resolved upon.”
Before the Lincoln administration, private commercial banks were able to issue paper money called state bank notes, but that ended with the National Banking Act of 1863, which prohibited the states from creating money. A forerunner of the Federal Reserve Act, it began the movement to abolish redeemable currency. A system of private banks was to receive charters from the federal government which would give them the authorization to issue National Bank Notes. This gave banks the power to control the finances and credit of the country, and provided centralized banking, under Federal control, in times of war. The financial panic created by the International Bankers, destroyed 172 State Banks, 177 private banks, 47 savings institutions, 13 loan and trust companies, and 16 mortgage companies.
Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury (1861-64) under Lincoln, publicly said that his role “in promoting the passage of the National Banking Act was the greatest financial mistake of my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country. It should be repealed, but before that can be accomplished, the people will be arrayed on one side and the bankers on the other, in a contest such as we have never seen before in this country.”
Lincoln said: “The money power preys upon the nation in times of peace and conspires against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. Corporations have been enthroned, an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few and the Republic is destroyed ... I feel at the moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of war.”
On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, and that same evening, an unsuccessful attempt by his fellow conspirators was made on the life of Seward. In 1866, an attempt was made to assassinate Czar Alexander II, and in 1881, the Czar was killed by an exploding bomb.
In Booth’s trunk, coded messages were found, and the key to that code was found among the possessions of Judah Benjamin. Benjamin had fled to England, where he died. It was always known that Lincoln’s death was the result of a massive conspiracy. However, nobody realized how deep and far reaching it was. In 1974, researchers found among the papers of Edwin M. Stanton, Lincoln’s Secretary of War, letters describing the conspiracy cover-up that were written to Stanton, or intercepted by him. They also found the 18 pages that were removed from Booth’s diary, which revealed the names of 70 people (some in code) who were directly or indirectly involved in Booth’s original plan to kidnap Lincoln. Besides Stanton’s involvement in the conspiracy, Charles A. Dana, Assistant Secretary of War (and member of the Illuminati); and Major Thomas Eckert, Chief of the War Department’s Telegraph Office, were also involved.
Journals and coded papers by Colonel Lafayette C. Baker, Chief of the National Detective Police, detailed Lincoln’s kidnap and assassination conspiracy, and subsequent cover-up. The plot included a group of Maryland farmers; a group of Confederates including Jefferson Davis (President of the Confederacy) and Judah Benjamin (the Confederate Secretary of War and Secretary of State); a group of Northern Banking and Industrial interests, including Jay Cooke (Philadelphia financier), Henry Cooke (Washington, D.C. banker), Thurlow Weed (New York newspaper publisher); and a group of Radical Republicans who didn’t want the south reunited with the North as states, but wanted to control them as military territories, and included Sen. Benjamin Wade of Ohio, Sen. Zachariah Chandler of Michigan, and Sen. John Conness of California.
All of these groups pooled their efforts, and used actor John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate patriot. The original plan called for the kidnapping of Lincoln, Vice-President Andrew Johnson, and Secretary of State Seward. The National Detective Police discovered their plans, and informed Stanton. Planned for January 18, 1865, the kidnap attempt failed.
Captain James William Boyd, a secret agent for the Confederacy, and a prisoner of war in the Old Capitol Prison, was used by the National Detective Police to report on the activities of the prisoners, and to inform on crooked guards. He looked similar to Booth, and ironically, had the same initials. Stanton had him released, and Boyd took over the Northern end of the conspiracy, which had been joined by the Police and the War Department. The North wanted to kill Lincoln, while Booth wanted to kidnap him and use him as leverage to get Confederate prisoners of war released.
Booth failed twice in March, and then ended up shooting Lincoln at Ford’s Theater. Boyd, warned that he could get implicated, planned to flee to Maryland. He was blamed for attacking Seward, which he didn’t. Boyd was the one who was shot at Garrett’s farm, and identified as Booth. The Police and Stanton discovered that it was really Boyd, after it was announced to the nation that it was Booth. The only picture taken of Boyd’s dead body was found in Stanton’s collection. The body was taken by Col. Lafayette Baker, to the old Arsenal Penitentiary, where it was buried in an unknown place, under the concrete floor.
Baker and Detectives Luther and Andrew Potter, knew the case wasn’t closed, and had to find Booth to keep him from talking. They followed his trail to New York, and later to Canada, England and India. He allegedly faked his death and returned to the United States, where in Enid, Oklahoma, he revealed his true identity on his deathbed. The mortician, who was summoned, instead of burying the corpse, had it preserved, and it is still in existence today.
Baker broke off relations with Stanton, who was discharged from the Army and as head of the Secret Service in 1866. In 1867, in his book, The History of the U.S. Secret Service, he admitted delivering Booth’s diary to Stanton, and on another occasion, testified that the diary was intact when it was in his possession. This means that Stanton did remove the pages to facilitate a cover-up, because the pages were found in his collection.
Andrew Johnson, who became President, issued the Amnesty Proclamation on May 29, 1865, to reunite the country. It stipulated that the South would not be responsible for the debt incurred, that all secession laws were to end, and that slavery was to be abolished. Needless to say, the Rothschilds, who heavily funded the south, lost a lot of money. In addition, the cost of the support of the Russian fleet cost the country about $7.2 million. Johnson didn’t have the constitutional authority to give money to a foreign government, so arrangements were made to purchase Alaska from the Russians in April, 1867.
It was labeled as ‘Seward’s Folly’ because it appeared that Seward purchased what was then a worthless piece of land, when in fact it was compensation for the Russian Navy. In August, 1867, Johnson, failed in an attempt to remove Stanton from office, and impeachment proceedings were begun against him in February, 1868, by Stanton and the Radical Republicans. Johnson was charged with attempting to fire Stanton without Senate approval, for treason against Congress, and public language “indecent and unbecoming” as the nation’s leader.
Sen. Benjamin F. Wade, President pro tempore of the Senate, next in the line of Presidential succession, was so sure that Johnson would be impeached, that he already had his Cabinet picked. Stanton was to be his Secretary of Treasury. The May 26th vote was 35-19, one short of the necessary two-thirds needed to impeach Johnson.
Col. Lafayette Baker, who threatened to reveal the conspiracy, was slowly poisoned till he died in 1868.
President James A. Garfield, our 20th President, also realized the danger posed by the bankers and said: “Whoever controls the money of a nation, controls that nation.” He was assassinated in 1881, during the first year of his Presidency.
In 1877, in Lampasas County, Texas, a group of farmers formed a group called the Knights of Reliance, who were concerned about the financial power being “concentrated into the hands of a few.” Later renamed the Farmers Alliance, it spread to 120 chapters throughout Texas, and by 1887, the movement stretched up to the Dakotas, and as far east as the Carolinas. By the time 1890 rolled around, this Populist philosophy had succeeded in establishing itself, and they had elected governors and congressmen.
They advocated a progressive income tax; for railroads, communications, and corporations to be regulated by the Federal government; the right to establish labor unions; and government mediation to stabilize falling commodity prices and the initiation of credit programs. They were against the gold standard, and the country’s private banking system, which was centered at Wall Street. They were impressed with Lincoln’s ‘greenbacks,’ because of its ability to adapt in order to meet the credit needs of the economy. They wanted the money supply to be controlled by their elected representatives, and not the money interests of Wall Street. They created the People’s Party, and ran their own independent presidential candidate in 1892. And in 1896, they hitched their wagon to the campaign of Democrat William Jennings Bryan, who lost to McKinley, effectively ending the Populist movement.
This political movement created the initial stirrings for what eventually became the Federal Reserve Act.
THE FEDERAL RESERVE ACT
The end of the Civil War in 1865 ruined the Illuminati’s chances to control our monetary system, as they did in most European countries. So, the Rothschilds modified their plan for financial takeover. Instead of tearing down from the top, they were going to start at the bottom to disrupt the foundation of our monetary system. The instrument of this destruction was a young immigrant by the name of Jacob Schiff.
The Schiff family traced their lineage back to the fourteenth century, and even claimed that King Solomon was an ancestor. Jacob Schiff was born in 1847, in Frankfurt, Germany. His father, Moses Schiff, a rabbi, was a successful stockbroker on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. In 1865, he came to America, and in 1867, formed his own brokerage firm with Henry Budge and Leo Lehmann. After it failed, he went back to Germany, and became manager of the Deutsche Bank in Hamburg, where he met Moritz Warburg (1838-1910), and Abraham Kuhn, who had retired after helping to establish the firm of Kuhn & Loeb in New York.
Kuhn and Loeb were German Jews who had come to the United States in the late 1840’s, and pooled their resources during the 1850’s to start a store in Lafayette, Indiana, to serve settlers who were on their way to the West. They set up similar stores in Cincinnati and St. Louis. Later, they added pawnbroking and money lending to their business pursuits. In 1867, they established themselves as a well-known banking firm.
In 1873, at the age of 26, Jacob Schiff, with the financial backing of the Rothschilds, bought into the Kuhn and Loeb partnership in New York City. He became a full partner in 1875. He became a millionaire by financing railroads, developing a proficiency at railroad management that enabled him to enter into a partnership with Edward Henry Harriman to create the greatest single railroad fortune in the world. He married Solomon Loeb’s oldest daughter, Theresa, and eventually bought out Kuhn’s interest. For all intents and purposes, he was the sole owner of what was now known as Kuhn, Loeb and Company. Sen. Robert L. Owen of Oklahoma indicated that Kuhn, Loeb and Company was a representative of the Rothschilds in the United States.
Although John Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913), the top American Rothschild representative, was the head of the American financial world, Schiff was rapidly becoming a major influence by distributing desirable European stock and bond issues during the Industrial Revolution. Besides Edward H. Harriman’s railroad empire, he financed Standard Oil for John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), and Andrew Carnegie’s (1835-1919) steel empire. By the turn of the century, Schiff was firmly entrenched in the banking community, and ready to fulfill his role as the point man in the Illuminati’s plan to control our economic system, weaken Christianity, create racial tension, and to recruit members to get them elected to Congress and appointed to various government agencies.
In 1636, Miles, John, and James Morgan landed in Massachusetts, leaving their father, William, to carry on the family business of harness-making in England. Joseph Morgan (J. P. Morgan’s grandfather), successful in real estate and business, supported the Bank of the United States. Junius Spencer Morgan (J. P. Morgan’s father), was a partner in the Boston banking firm of J. M. Beebe, Morgan, and Co.; and became a partner in London’s George Peabody and Co., taking it over when Peabody died, becoming J. S. Morgan and Co.
John Pierpont Morgan, or as he was better known, J. P. Morgan, was born on April 17, 1837. He became his father’s representative in New York in 1860. In 1862, he had his own firm, known as J. Pierpont Morgan and Co. In 1863, he liquidated, and became a partner with Charles H. Dabney (who represented George Peabody and Co.), and established a firm known as Dabney, Morgan and Co. He later teamed up with Anthony J. Drexel (son of the founder of the most influential banking house in Philadelphia), in a firm known as Drexel, Morgan and Co. Morgan also became a partner in Drexel and Co. in Philadelphia. In 1869, Morgan and Drexel met with the Rothschilds in London, and through the Northern Securities Corporation, began consolidating the Rothschild’s power and influence in the United States. Morgan continued the partnership that began when his father acted as a joint agent for the Rothschilds and the U.S. Government.
During the Civil War, J. P. Morgan had sold the Union Army defective carbine rifles, and it was this government money that helped build his Guaranty Trust Co. of New York. In 1880, he began financing and reorganizing the railroads. After his father died in 1890, and Drexel died in 1893, the Temporary National Economic Committee revealed that J. P. Morgan held only a 9.1% interest in his own firm. George Whitney owned 1.9%, and H. B. Davison held 1.2%, however, the Charles W. Steele Estate held 36.6%, and Thomas W. Lamont (whose son, Corliss, was an active communist) had 34.2%. Researchers believe that the Illuminati controlled the company through these shares.
In 1901, Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie’s vast steel operation for $500,000,000 to merge the largest steel companies into one big company known as the United States Steel Corporation (in which, for a time, the Rockefellers were major stockholders).
A speech by Senator Norris which was printed in the Congressional Record of November 30, 1941, said: “J. P. Morgan, with the assistance and cooperation of a few of the interlocking corporations which reach all over the United States in their influence, controls every railroad in the United States. They control practically every public utility, they control literally thousands of corporations, they control all of the large insurance companies. Mr. President, we are gradually reaching a time, if we have not already reached that point, when the business of the country is controlled by men who can be named on the fingers of one hand, because those men control the money of the Nation, and that control is growing at a rapid rate.”
The House of Morgan grew larger in 1959, when the Guaranty Trust Co. of New York merged with the J. P. Morgan and Co., to form the Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. They had four branch offices, and foreign offices in London, Paris, Brussels, Frankfurt, Rome, and Tokyo. The firm of Morgan, Stanley, and Co. was also under their control.
Paul Moritz Warburg (1868-1932), and his brother Felix (1871-1937), came to the United States from Frankfurt in 1902, buying into the partnership of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. with the financial backing of the Rothschilds. They had been trained at the family banking house, M. M. Warburg and Co. (run by their father Moritz M. Warburg, 1838-1910), a Rothschild-allied bank in Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Amsterdam, which had been founded in 1798 by their great-grandfather. Paul (said to be worth over $2.5 million when he died), married Nina Loeb, the daughter of Solomon Loeb (the younger sister of Schiff’s wife); while Felix, in March, 1895, married Frieda Schiff, the daughter of Jacob Schiff.
Their brother Max (1867-1946), a major financier of the Russian Revolution (who in his capacity as Chief of Intelligence in Germany’s Secret Service, helped Lenin cross Germany into Russia in a sealed train) and later Hitler, ran the Hamburg bank until 1938, when the Nazis took over. The Nazis, who didn’t want the Jews running the banks, changed its name to Brinckmann, Wirtz and Co. After World War II, a cousin, Eric Warburg, returned to head it, and in 1970, its name was changed to M. M. Warburg, Brinckmann, Wirtz and Co.
Siegmund Warburg, Eric’s brother, established the banking firm of S. G. Warburg and Co. in London, and by 1956, had taken over the Seligman Brothers’ Bank.
The Warburgs are another good example of how the Illuminati controls both sides of a war. While Paul Warburg’s firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co. (who had five representatives in the U.S. Treasury Department) was in charge of Liberty Loans, which helped finance World War I for the United States, his brother Max financed Germany, through M. M. Warburg and Co.
Paul and Felix Warburg were men with a mission, sent here by the Rothschilds to lobby for the passing of a central banking law in Congress. Colonel Ely Garrison (the financial advisor to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson) wrote in his book Roosevelt, Wilson and the Federal Reserve Act: “Mr. Paul Warburg is the man who got the Federal Reserve Act together after the Aldrich Plan aroused such nationwide resentment and opposition. The mastermind of both plans was Alfred Rothschild of London.” Professor E. R. A. Seligman, head of the Economics Department of Columbia University, wrote in the preface of one of Warburg’s essays on central banking: “The Federal Reserve Act is the work of Mr. (Paul) Warburg more than any other man in the country.”
In 1903, Paul Warburg gave Schiff a memo describing the application of the European central banking system to America’s monetary system. Schiff, in turn, gave it to James Stillman, President of the National City Bank in New York City. Warburg had graduated from the University of Hamburg in 1886, and studied English central banking methods, while working in a London brokerage house. In 1891, he studied French banking methods; and from 1892-93, traveled the world to study central banking applications. The bottom line, was that he was the foremost authority in the world on central banking. It is interesting to note, that the fifth plank in the 1848 Communist Manifesto had to do with central banking.
In 1906, Frank A. Vanderlip, of the National City Bank, convinced many of New York’s banking establishment, that they needed a banker-controlled central bank, that could serve the nation’s financial system. Up to that time, the House of Morgan had filled that role. Some of the people involved with Morgan were: Walter Burns, Clinton Dawkins, Edward Grenfell, Willard Straight, Thomas Lamont, Dwight Morrow, Nelson Perkins, Russell Leffingwell, Elihu Root, John W. Davis, John Foster Dulles, S. Parker Gilbert, and Paul D. Cravath. The financial panics of 1873, 1884, 1893, 1907, and later 1920, were initiated by Morgan with the intent of pushing for a much stronger banking system.
On January 6, 1907, the New York Times published an article by Warburg, called “Defects and Needs of Our Banking System,” after which he became the leading exponent of monetary reform. That same year, Jacob Schiff told the New York Chamber of Commerce, that “unless we have a Central Bank with adequate control of credit resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in history.” When Morgan initiated the economic panic in 1907, by circulating rumors that the Knickerbocker Bank and Trust Co. of America was going broke, there was a run on the banks, creating a financial crisis, which began to solidify support for a central banking system. During this panic, Warburg wrote an essay called “A Plan for a Modified Central Bank” which called for a Central Bank, in which 50% would be owned by the government, and 50% by the nation’s banks. In a speech at Columbia University, he quoted Abraham Lincoln, who said in an 1860 Presidential campaign speech: “I believe in a United States Bank.”
In 1908, Schiff laid out the final plans to seize the American monetary system. Colonel (an honorary title) Edward Mandell House (1858-1938), the son of British financier Thomas W. House, a Rothschild agent who made his fortune by supplying the south with supplies from France and England during the Civil War, was Schiff’s chief representative and courier; and Bernard Baruch (1870-1965), whose stock market speculating made him a multi-millionaire by the early 1900’s, and whose foreign and domestic policy expertise led Presidents from Wilson to Kennedy to seek his advice; were the two who were relied on heavily by Schiff to carry out his plans. Herbert Lehman was also a close aide to Schiff.
President Woodrow Wilson wrote about House (published in The Intimate Papers of Col. House): “Mr. House is my second personality. He is my independent self. His thoughts and mine are one. If I were in his place, I would do just as he suggested ... If anyone thinks he is reflecting my opinion, by whatever action he takes, they are welcome to the conclusion.” George Sylvester Viereck wrote in The Strangest Friendship in History: Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: “When the Federal Reserve legislation at last assumed definite shape, House was the intermediary between the White House and the financiers.” Schiff, who was known as the “unseen guardian angel” of the Federal Reserve Act, said that the U.S. Constitution was the product of 18th century minds, was outdated, and should be “scrapped and rewritten.”
In 1908, Sen. Nelson W. Aldrich (father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and grandfather of Nelson and David Rockefeller) proposed a bill, in which banks, in an emergency situation, would issue currency backed by federal, state, and local government bonds, and railroad bonds, which would be equal to 75% of the cash value of the bonds. It was harshly criticized because it didn’t provide a monetary system that would respond to the seasonal demand, and fluctuate with the volume of trade. Aldrich was the most powerful man in Congress, and the Illuminati’s head man in the Senate. A member of Congress for 40 years, 36 of them in the Senate, he was Chairman of the powerful Senate Finance Committee.
In the House of Representatives, Rep. E. B. Vreeland of New York, proposed the Vreeland Bill. After making some compromises with Aldrich, and Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon, at a meeting in a hotel room at the Arlington House, his bill became known as the Vreeland Substitute. It called for the acceptance of asset currency, but only in cases of emergency, and the currency would be based on commercial paper rather than bonds. It passed in the House, 184 -145; but when it got to the Senate, Aldrich moved against it, and pushed for further compromises. The Aldrich-Vreeland Bill, called the Emergency Currency Act, was passed on May 30, 1908, and led to the creation of the National Monetary Commission, which was made up of members of Congress. Now, any monetary legislation sent to Congress, would have to go through this group first.
The Bill approved by the National Monetary Commission was known as the Aldrich Bill, and formed the legislative base for the Federal Reserve Act. It was introduced as an amendment to the Republican sponsored Payne-Aldrich Tariff Bill, in order to have Republican support. It was based on Warburg’s plan, except it would only have 15 districts; half of the directors on the district level would be chosen by the banks, a third by the stockholders, and a sixth by the other directors. On the National Board: two chosen by each district; nine chosen by the stockholders; and seven ex-officio members to be the Governor, Chairman of the Board, two Deputy Governors, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Commerce and Labor, Secretary of Agriculture, and Comptroller of the Currency. Most people were against the Bill, because it finally identified the banking institution as a central bank, and the Democratic Party opposed it in the 1912 Party platform.
Aldrich was appointed as head of the National Monetary Commission, and from 1908-10, at a cost of $300,000, this 16-man committee traveled around Europe to study the central banking system.
In 1910, Warburg gave a speech entitled, “A United Reserve Bank of the United States,” which called for a United Reserve Bank to be located in Washington, D.C., having the capital of $100 million. The country would be divided into 20 districts, and the system would be controlled by a Board of Directors, which would be chosen by the banking associations, the stockholders, and the government. Warburg said that the U.S. monetary system wasn’t flexible, and it was unable to compensate for the rise and fall of business demand. As an example, he said, that when wheat was harvested, and merchants didn’t have the cash on hand to buy and store a large supply of grain, the farmers would sell the grain for whatever they could get. This would cause the price of wheat to greatly fluctuate, forcing the farmer to take a loss. Warburg called for the development of commercial paper (paper money) to circulate as currency, which would be issued in standard denominations of uniform sizes. They would be declared by law to be legal tender for the payment of debts and taxes.
President Theodore Roosevelt said, concerning the criticism of finding capable men to head the formation of a central bank: “Why not give Mr. (Paul) Warburg the job? He would be the financial boss, and I would be the political boss, and we could run the country together.”
After a conference was held at Columbia University on November 12, 1910, the National Monetary Commission published their plan in the December, 1910 issue of their Journal of Political Economy in an article called “Bank Notes and Lending Power.”
On November 22, 1910, Aldrich called a meeting of the banking establishment and members of the National Monetary Commission, which was proposed by Henry P. Davison (a partner of J. P. Morgan). Aldrich said that he intended to keep them isolated until they had developed a “scientific currency for the United States.”
All those summoned to the secret meeting, were members of the Illuminati. They met on a railroad platform in Hoboken, New Jersey, where they chartered a private railroad car owned by Aldrich to Georgia. They were taken by boat, to Jekyll Island, off the coast of Brunswick, Georgia. Jekyll Island is in a group of ten islands, including St. Simons, Tybee, Cumberland, Wassau, Wolf, Blackbeard, Sapelo, Ossabow, and Sea Islands. Jekyll Island was a ‘hideaway resort of the rich,’ purchased in 1888 by J. P. Morgan, Henry Goodyear, Joseph Pulitzer, Edwin and George Gould, Cyrus McCormick, William Rockefeller (John D. Rockefeller’s brother), William K. Vanderbilt, and George F. Baker (who founded Harvard Business School with a gift of $5 million) for $125,000 from Eugene du Bignon, whose family owned it for a century.
Up until the time it was converted into a public resort, no uninvited foot ever stepped on its shores. It was said, that when all 100 members of the Jekyll Island Hunting Club sat down for dinner at the clubhouse, it represented a sixth of the world’s wealth. St. Simons Island, a short distance away, to the north, was also owned by Illuminati interests.
Those attending the meeting at the private hunting lodge were said to be on a duck-hunting expedition. They were sworn to secrecy, even addressing each other by code names or just by their first names. Details are very sketchy, concerning who attended the meeting, but most scenarios agree that the following people were present:
- Sen. Aldrich
- Frank A. Vanderlip (Vice-President of the Rockefeller owned National City Bank)
- Henry P. Davison (of the J. P. Morgan and Co.)
- Abraham Piatt Andrew (Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, an Assistant Professor at Harvard, and Special Assistant to the National Monetary Commission during their European tour)
- Paul Moritz Warburg (of Kuhn, Loeb and Co.)
- Benjamin Strong (Vice-President of Morgan’s Bankers Trust Co.)
- Eugene Meyer (a former partner of Bernard Baruch, and the son of a partner in the Rothschild-owned Lazard Freres, who was the head of the War Finances Corporation, and later gained control of the Washington Post)
- J. P. Morgan
- John D. Rockefeller
- Col. House,
- Jacob Schiff
- Herbert Lehman (of Lehman Brothers)
- Bernard Baruch (appointed by President Wilson to be the Chairman of the War Industries Board, which gave him control of all domestic contacts for Allied war materials, which enabled him to make $200 million for himself while working for the government)
- Joseph Seligman (a leading Jewish financier, who founded J. & W. Seligman and Co., who had helped to float bonds during the Civil War, and were known as ‘World Bankers,’ then later declined President Grant’s offer to serve as the Secretary of Treasury)
- Charles D. Norton (President of the First National Bank of New York)
About ten days later, they emerged with the groundwork for a central banking system, in the form of, not one, but two versions, to confuse the opposition. The final draft was written by Frank Vanderlip, from Warburg’s notes, and was incorporated into Aldrich’s Bill, in the form of a completed Monetary Commission report, which Aldrich railroaded through Congress by avoiding the term ‘central bank.’
No information was available on this meeting until 1933, when the book The Federal Reserve Act: It’s Origins and Problems, by James L. Laughlin, appeared; and other information, which was supplied by B. C. Forbes, the editor of Forbes Magazine. In 1935, Frank Vanderlip wrote in the Saturday Evening Post: “I do not feel it is any exaggeration to speak of our secret expedition to Jekyll Island as the occasion of the actual conception of what eventually became the Federal Reserve System.”
The banker-initiated mini-depressions, the last of which had occurred in 1907, helped get Congressional support for the Bill, and on May 11, 1911, the National Citizens League for the Promotion of a Sound Banking System, an Illuminati front-organization, publicly announced their support for Aldrich’s Bill. However, the Aldrich Bill was destined for failure, because he was so closely identified with J. P. Morgan. So, the Illuminati went to Plan B, which was the second version hammered out at the Jekyll Island summit. The National Citizens League publicly withdrew their support of the Aldrich Bill, and the move was on to disguise it, so that it could get through Congress.
Once the new version was ready, they were a little apprehensive about introducing it in Congress, because even if it would be passed by Congress, President Taft would veto it, so they had to wait until they could get their own man elected. That man was Woodrow Wilson.
The Democrats, with the exception of Grover Cleveland’s election, had been out of power since 1869. Being a ‘hungry’ Party, the Illuminati found them easier to infiltrate. During the late 1800’s, they began the process of changing the Democrats from conservative to liberal, and the Republicans, from liberal to conservative.
Wilson graduated from Princeton University in 1879, studied law at the University of Virginia, and received his doctorate degree from Johns Hopkins in 1886. He taught Political Science and History at Bryn Mawr and Wesleyan, and in 1902, became President of Princeton. Because of his support of Aldrich’s Bill, when it was first announced, he was supported by the Illuminati in his successful bid as Governor of New Jersey in 1910. The deal was made through Vanderlip agents, William Rockefeller and James Stillman, at Vanderlip’s West Chester estate. The liaison between the Illuminati and Wilson, would be his prospective son-in-law, William G. McAdoo.
Rabbi Stephen Wise, a leading Jewish activist, told an audience at the Y.M.C.A. in Trenton, New Jersey: “On Tuesday the President of Princeton University will be elected Governor of your state. He will not complete his term of office as Governor. In November, 1912, he will be elected President of the United States. In March, 1917, he will be inaugurated for the second time as President. He will be one of the greatest Presidents in American history.” Wise, who made this prophetic statement in 1910, later became a close advisor to Wilson. He had good reason to believe what he said, because the deal had already been struck. Wilson wasn’t viewed as being pro-banking, and the Democratic Party Platform opposed a Central Bank, which was now linked to the Republicans and the bankers.
The main problem for the Democrats, was the Republican voting edge, and their lack of money. After the Illuminati made the decision to support Wilson, money was no problem. Records showed that the biggest contributors to Wilson’s campaign were Jacob Schiff, Bernard Baruch, Henry Morgenthau, Sr., Thomas Fortune Ryan (mining magnate), Samuel Untermyer, Cleveland H. Dodge (of the National City Bank), Col. George B. M. Harvey (an associate of J. P. Morgan, and editor of the Morgan-controlled Harper’s Weekly, and President of the Harper and Brothers publishing firm), William Laffan (editor of the New York Sun), Adolph Ochs (publisher of the New York Times), and the financiers that owned the New York Times, Charles R. Flint, Gen. Sam Thomas, J. P. Morgan, and August Belmont. All of these men were Illuminati members.
The problem of the voter registration edge was a bit more difficult, but that was a project that the Illuminati had already been working on. The Russian pogroms of 1881 and 1882, in which thousands of Russians were killed; and religious persecution and anti-Semitism in Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria in the early 1890’s, began three decades of immigration into the United States by thousands of Jews. By the turn of the century, a half-million Jews had arrived to the port cities of New York, Baltimore, and Boston. It was the Democrats who initiated a program to get them registered to vote.
Humanitarian committees were set up by Schiff and the Rothschilds, such as the Hebrew Immigration Aid Society, and the B’nai B’rith, so when the Jews arrived, they were made naturalized citizens, registered Democrat, then shuffled off to other large cities, such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit and Los Angeles, where they were given financial help to find a place to live, food, and clothing. This is how the Jews became a solid Democratic voting bloc, and it was these votes that would be needed to elect Wilson to the Presidency.
In 1912, with President William Howard Taft running for re-election against Wilson, the Illuminati needed some insurance. They got it by urging another Republican, former President, Theodore Roosevelt (1901-09) to run on the Progressive ticket. Taft had served as Roosevelt’s Secretary of War (1905-09), and was chosen by Roosevelt to succeed him as President. Now, Roosevelt was running again. Advocating the ‘New Nationalism,’ Roosevelt said: “My hat is in the ring ... the fight is on and I am stripped to the buff.” Identified as ‘anti-business’ because of his stand against corporations and trusts, his proposals for reorganizing the government were attacked by the Illuminati-controlled New York Times as “super-socialism.” His ‘Bull Moose’ Platform said:
“We are opposed to the so-called Aldrich Currency Bill because its provisions would place our currency and credit system in private hands, not subject to effective public control.”
Frank Munsey and George Perkins, of the J. P. Morgan and Co. organized, ran, and financed Roosevelt’s campaign. A recent example of the same plan that pulled votes away from Taft, in order to get Wilson elected, occurred in the 1992 Presidential election. In a 1994 interview, Barbara Bush told ABC-TV news correspondent Barbara Walters, that the third-party candidacy of independent H. Ross Perot was the reason that Bill Clinton was able to defeat the re-election bid of President George Bush.
The Illuminati was able to get the support of perennial Democratic Presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, by letting him write the plank of the Party Platform which opposed the Aldrich Bill. Remember, the second version of the Bill prepared at Jekyll Island was to be an alternative, so public attention was turned against the Aldrich Bill. Wilson, an aristocrat, having socialistic views, was in favor of an independent reserve system, because he didn’t trust the ‘common men’ which made up Congress.
However, publicly, he promised to “free the poor people of America from control by the rich,” and to have a money system that wouldn’t be under the control of Wall Street’s International Bankers. In fact, in the summer of 1912, when he accepted the nomination as the Democratic candidate for the Presidency, he said: “A concentration of the control of credit ... may at any time become infinitely dangerous to free enterprise.” According to the Federal Reserve’s historical narrative, the shift in Wilson’s point of view was “a combination of political realities and his own lack of knowledge about banking and finance (and) after his election to the Presidency, Wilson relied on others for more expert advice on the currency question.”
Because of the voting split in the Republican Party, not only was Woodrow Wilson able to win the Presidency, but the Democrats gained control of both houses in Congress.
DEMOCRAT (Wilson) 435 electoral votes 6,286,214 popular votes
PROGRESSIVE (Roosevelt) 88 electoral votes 4,126,020 popular votes
REPUBLICAN (Taft) 8 electoral votes 3,483,922 popular votes
Rep. Carter Glass of Virginia, Chairman of the Banking and Currency Committee, met with Wilson after his election, along with H. Parker Willis (who was Dean of Political Science at George Washington University) of the National Citizens League, to prepare a Bill, known as the Glass Bill, which began taking form in January, 1913. Now Plan B was set into motion. Remember, the National Citizens League, headquartered in Chicago, had already announced their opposition to the Aldrich Bill, now the Wall Street banking interests had come out against the Glass Bill, which was actually the Aldrich Bill in disguise.
The Wall Street crowd was generally referred to as the ‘money trust.’ However, a 1912 Wall Street Journal editorial said that the term ‘money trust’ was just a reference to J. P. Morgan. The suspicion of the ‘money trust’ peaked in 1912, during an investigation by a House banking subcommittee which revealed that twelve banks in New York, Boston, and Chicago, had 746 interlocking directorships in 134 corporations. Rep. Robert L. Henry of Texas said that for the past five years, the nation’s financial resources had been “concentrated in the city of New York (where they) now dominate more than 75 percent of the moneyed interests of America...” On December 13, 1911, George McC. Reynolds, the President of the Continental and Commercial Bank of Chicago, said to a group of other bankers: “I believe the money power now lies in the hands of a dozen men...” The threat from this powerful private banking system was to be ended with the establishment of a central bank.
To avoid the mention of central banking, Wilson himself suggested that the regional banks be called ‘Federal Reserve Banks,’ and proposed a special session of the 63rd Congress to be convened to vote on the Federal Reserve Act. On June 23, 1913, he addressed the Congress on the subject of the Federal Reserve, threatening to keep them in session until they passed it. Wilson got Bryan’s support by making him Secretary of State, and in October, 1913, Bryan said he would assist the President in “securing the passage of the Bill at the earliest possible moment.”
The Glass Bill (HR7837) was introduced in the House of Representatives on June 26, 1913. The revision mentioned nothing about central banking, which was what the people feared. It was believed that Willis had written the Bill, but it was later discovered that Professor James L. Laughlin, at the Political Science Department of Columbia University, had written it, taking special precaution not to clash with the Bryan plank of the Democratic Party Platform. It was referred to the Banking and Currency Committee, reported back to the House on September 9th, and passed on September 18th.
Sen. Robert Latham Owen of Oklahoma, Chairman of the Senate Banking and Finance Committee, along with five of his colleagues, drafted a Bill which was more open-minded to the suggestions of the bankers. A Bill drafted by Sen. Gilbert M. Hitchcock, a Democrat from Nebraska, called for the elimination of the ‘lawful money’ provision, and stipulated that note redemption must be made in gold. It also provided for public ownership of the regional reserve banks, which would be controlled by the government.
In the Senate, the Glass Bill was referred to the Senate Banking Committee, and reported back to the Senate on November 22, 1913. The Bill was now known as the Glass-Owen Bill. Sen. Owen, who opposed the Aldrich Bill, made some additional revisions, in an attempt to keep them from completely dominating our monetary system. Sen. Elihu Root of New York criticized some of these revisions, and some points were modified. It was passed by the Senate on December 19th.
Since different versions had been passed by both Houses, a Conference Committee was established, which was stacked with six Democrats and only two Republicans, to insure that certain portions of the original Bill would remain intact. It was hastily prepared without any public hearings, and on December 23, 1913, two days before Christmas, when many Congressmen, and three particular Senators, were away from Washington; the Bill was sent to the House of Representatives, where it passed 298-60, and then sent to the Senate, where it passed with a vote of 43-25 (with 27 absent or abstaining).
An hour after the Senate vote, Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law, and the Illuminati had taken control of the American economy. The gold and silver in the nation’s vaults were now owned by the Federal Reserve. Baron Alfred Charles Rothschild (1842-1918), who masterminded the entire scheme, then made plans to further weaken our country’s financial structure.
Although Wilson, and Rep. Carter Glass were given the credit for getting the Federal Reserve Act through Congress, William Jennings Bryan played a major role in gaining support to pass it. Bryan later wrote: “That is the one thing in my public career that I regret- my work to secure the enactment of the Federal Reserve Law.” Rep. Glass would later write: “I had never thought the Federal Bank System would prove such a failure. The country is in a state of irretrievable bankruptcy.”
Eustace Mullins, in his book The Federal Reserve Conspiracy, wrote: “The money and credit resources of the United States were now in complete control of the banker’s alliance between J. P. Morgan’s First National Bank, and Kuhn & Loeb’s National City Bank, whose principal loyalties were to the international banking interests, then quartered in London, and which moved to New York during the First World War.”
The Reserve Bank Organization Committee, controlled by Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo, and Secretary of Agriculture David F. Houston (who along with Glass, later became Treasury Secretaries under Wilson), was given $100,000 to find locations for the regional Reserve Banks. With over 200 cities requesting this status, hearings were held in 18 cities, as they traveled the country in a special railroad car.
On October 25, 1914, the formal establishment of the Federal Reserve System was announced, and it began operating in 1915.
Col. House, who Wilson called his “alter ego,” because he was his closest friend and most trusted advisor, anonymously wrote a novel in 1912 called Philip Dru: Administrator, which revealed the manner in which Wilson was controlled. House, who lobbied for the implementation of central banking, would now turn his attention towards a graduated income tax. Incidentally, a central bank, providing inflatable currency; and a graduated income tax, were two of the ten points in the Communist Manifesto for socializing a country.
It was House who hand-picked the first Federal Reserve Board. He named Benjamin Strong as its first Chairman. In 1914, Paul M. Warburg quit his $500,000 a year job at Kuhn, Loeb and Co. to be on the Board, later resigning in 1918, during World War I, because of his German connections.
The Banking Act of 1935 amended the Federal Reserve Act, changing its name to the Federal Reserve System, and reorganizing it, in respect to the number of directors and length of term.
Headed by a seven member Board of Governors, appointed by the President, and confirmed by the Senate for a 14 year term, the Board acts as an overseer to the nation’s money supply and banking system.
The Board of Governors, the President of the Federal Reserve Bank in New York, and four other Reserve Bank Presidents, who serve on a rotating basis, make up the Federal Open Market Committee. This group decides whether or not to buy and sell government securities on the open market. The Government buys and sells government securities, mostly through 21 Wall Street bond dealers, to create reserves to make the money needed to run the government. The Committee also determines the supply of money available to the nation’s banks and consumers.
There are twelve Federal Reserve Banks, in twelve districts: Boston (MA), Cleveland (OH), New York (NY), Philadelphia (PA), Richmond (VA), Atlanta (GA), Chicago (IL) , St. Louis (MO), Minneapolis (MN), Kansas City (KS), San Francisco (CA), and Dallas (TX). The twelve regional banks were set up so that the people wouldn’t think that the Federal Reserve was controlled from New York. Each of the Banks has nine men on the Board of Directors; six are elected by member Banks, and three are appointed by the Board of Governors.
They have 25 branch Banks, and many member Banks. All Federal Banks are members, and four out of every ten commercial banks are members. In whole, the Federal Reserve System controls about 70% of the country’s bank deposits. Ohio Senator, Warren G. Harding, who was elected to the Presidency in 1920, said in a 1921 Congressional inquiry, that the Reserve was a private banking monopoly. He said: “The Federal Reserve Bank is an institution owned by the stockholding member banks. The Government has not a dollar’s worth of stock in it.” His term was cut short in 1923, when he mysteriously died, leading to rumors that he was poisoned. This claim was never substantiated, because his wife would not allow an autopsy.
Three years after the initiation of the Federal Reserve, Woodrow Wilson said: “The growth of the nation ... and all our activities are in the hands of a few men ... We have come to be one of the worst ruled; one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the civilized world ... no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the free vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress of a small group of dominant men.”
In 1919, John Maynard Keynes, later an advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt, wrote in his book The Economic Consequences of Peace:
“Lenin is to have declared that the best way to destroy the capitalist system was to debauch the currency ... By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate secretly and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizens ... As the inflation proceeds and the real value of the currency fluctuates wildly from month to month, all permanent relations between debtors and creditors, which form the ultimate foundation of capitalism, become so utterly disordered as to be almost meaningless...”
Congressman Charles August Lindbergh, Sr., father of the historic aviator, said on the floor of the Congress:
“This Act establishes the most gigantic trust on Earth ... When the President signs this Act, the invisible government by the Money Power, proven to exist by the Money Trust investigation, will be legalized ... This is the Aldrich Bill in disguise ... The new law will create inflation whenever the Trusts want inflation ... From now on, depressions will be scientifically created ... The worst legislative crime of the ages is perpetrated by this banking and currency bill.”
Lindbergh supposedly paid for his opposition to the Illuminati. When there appeared to be growing support for his son Charles to run for the Presidency, his grandson was kidnapped, and apparently killed.
Rep. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. said of the Bill (Congressional Record, June 10, 1932): “The Bill as it stands, seems to me to open the way to vast expansion of the currency ... I do not like to think that any law can be passed which will make it possible to submerge the gold standard in a flood of irredeemable paper currency.”
On December 15, 1931, Rep. Louis T. McFadden, who for more than ten years served as Chairman of the Banking and Currency Committee in the House of Representatives, said:
“The Federal Reserve Board and banks are the duly appointed agents of the foreign central banks of issue and they are more concerned with their foreign customers than they are with the people of the United States. The only thing that is American about the Federal Reserve Board and banks is the money they use...”
On June 10, 1932, McFadden, said in an address to the Congress:
"We have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks ... Some people think the Federal Reserve Banks are United States Government institutions. They are not Government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the benefit of themselves and their foreign customers ... The Federal Reserve Banks are the agents of the foreign central banks ... In that dark crew of financial pirates, there are those who would cut a man’s throat to get a dollar out of his pocket ... Every effort has been made by the Federal Reserve Board to conceal its powers, but the truth is the FED has usurped the government. It controls everything here (in Congress) and controls all our foreign relations. It makes and breaks governments at will ... When the FED was passed, the people of the United States did not perceive that a world system was being set up here ... A super-state controlled by international bankers, and international industrialists acting together to enslave the world for their own pleasure!”
On May 23, 1933, McFadden brought impeachment charges against the members of the Federal Reserve:
“Whereas I charge them jointly and severally with having brought about a repudiation of the national currency of the United States in order that the gold value of said currency might be given to private interests...
I charge them ... with having arbitrarily and unlawfully taken over $80,000,000,000 from the United States Government in the year 1928...
I charge them ... with having arbitrarily and unlawfully raised and lowered the rates on money ... increased and diminished the volume of currency in circulation for the benefit of private interests...
I charge them ... with having brought about the decline of prices on the New York Stock Exchange...
I charge them ... with having conspired to transfer to foreigners and international money lenders, title to and control of the financial resources of the United States...
I charge them ... with having published false and misleading propaganda intended to deceive the American people and to cause the United States to lose its independence...
I charge them ... with the crime of having treasonably conspired and acted against the peace and security of the United States, and with having treasonably conspired to destroy the constitutional government of the United States.”
In 1933, Vice-President John Garner, when referring to the international bankers, said: “You see, gentlemen, who owns the United States.”
Sen. Barry Goldwater wrote in his book With No Apologies:
“Does it not seem strange to you that these men just happened to be CFR (Council on Foreign Relations) and just happened to be on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, that absolutely controls the money and interest rates of this great country. A privately owned organization ... which has absolutely nothing to do with the United States of America!”
Plain and simple, the Federal Reserve is not part of the Federal Government. It is a privately held corporation owned by stockholders. That is why the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (and all the others) is listed in the Dun and Bradstreet Reference Book of American Business (Northeast, Region 1, Manhattan/Bronx). According to Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution, only Congress has the right to issue money and regulate its value, so it is illegal for private interests to do so. Yet, it happened, and because of a provision in the Act, the Class A stockholders were to be kept a secret, and not to be revealed. R. F. McMaster, who published a newsletter called The Reaper, through his Swiss and Saudi Arabian contacts, was able to find out which banks held a controlling interest in the Reserve:
- the Rothschild Banks of London and Berlin
- Lazard Brothers Bank of Paris
- Israel Moses Seif Bank of Italy
- Warburg Bank of Hamburg and Amsterdam
- Lehman Brothers Bank of New York
- Kuhn, Loeb, and Co. of New York
- Chase Manhattan Bank of New York
- Goldman, Sachs of New York
These interests control the Reserve through about 300 stockholders.
Because of the way the Reserve was organized, whoever controls the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, controls the system, About 90 of the 100 largest banks are in this district. Of the reportedly 203,053 shares of the New York bank: Rockefeller’s National City Bank had 30,000 shares; Morgan’s First National Bank had 15,000 shares; Chase National, 6,000 shares; and the National Bank of Commerce (Morgan Guaranty Trust), 21,000 shares.
A June 15, 1978 Senate Report called “Interlocking Directorates Among the Major U.S. Corporations” revealed that five New York banks had 470 interlocking directorates with 130 major U.S. corporations: Citicorp (97), J. P. Morgan Co. (99), Chase Manhattan (89), Manufacturers Hanover (89), and Chemical Bank (96). According to Eustace Mullins, these banks are major stock holders in the FED. In his book World Order, he said that these five banks are “controlled from London.” Mullins said:
“Besides its controlling interest in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Rothschilds had developed important financial interests in other parts of the United States ... The entire Rockefeller empire was financed by the Rothschilds.”
A May, 1976 report of the House Banking and Currency Committee indicated: “The Rothschild banks are affiliated with Manufacturers Hanover of London in which they hold 20 percent ... and Manufacturers Hanover Trust of New York.” The Report also revealed that Rothschild Intercontinental Bank, Ltd., which consisted of Rothschild banks in London, France, Belgium, New York, and Amsterdam, had three American subsidiaries: National City Bank of Cleveland, First City National Bank of Houston, and Seattle First National Bank. It is believed, that the Rothschilds hold 53% of the stock of the U.S. Federal Reserve.
Each year, billions of dollars are ‘earned’ by Class A stockholders, from U.S. tax dollars which go to the FED to pay interest on bank loans.
How Our Gold Reserves Have Been Manipulated
The Coinage Act of 1792 established a dollar consisting of 371.25 grains of pure silver, but was later replaced with a gold dollar consisting of 25.8 grains of gold. In 1873, the Coinage Act was passed, prohibiting the use of Silver as a form of currency, because the quantity being discovered was driving the value down. In 1875, after temporarily suspending gold convertibility during the Civil War greenback period, the U.S. was put more firmly on the gold standard by the Gold Standard Act of 1900. From 1900 to 1933, gold was coined by the U.S. Mint, and our paper currency was tied into the amount of gold held in the U.S. Treasury reserves.
In July, 1927, the directors of the Bank of England, the New York Federal Reserve Bank, and the German Reichsbank, met to plan a way to get the gold moved out of the United States, and it was this movement of gold which helped trigger the depression. By 1928, nearly $500 million in gold was transferred to Europe.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt accepted the advice of England’s leading economist, John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), a member of the Illuminati, who said that deficit spending would be a shot in the arm to the economy. Most of the New Deal spending programs to fight economic depression, were based on Keynes theories on deficit spending, and financed by borrowing against future taxes. In 1910, Lenin said: “The surest way to overthrow an established social order is to debauch its currency.” Nine years later, Keynes wrote: “Lenin was certainly right, there is no more positive, or subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency ... The process engages all of the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner that not one man in a million is able to diagnose.”
A Presidential Executive Order by Roosevelt on April 5, 1933, required all the people to exchange their gold coins, gold bullion, and gold-backed currency, for money that was not redeemable in precious metals. The Gold Reserve Act of 1934, known as the Thomas Amendment, which amended the Act of May 12, 1933, made it illegal to possess any gold currency (which was rescinded December 31, 1974). Gold coinage was withdrawn from circulation, and kept in the form of bullion. Just as the public was to return all their gold to the U.S. Government, so was the Federal Reserve. However, while the people received $20.67 an ounce in paper money issued by the Federal Reserve, the Reserve was paid in Gold Certificates. Now the Federal Reserve, and the Illuminati, had control of all the gold in the country.
In 1934, the value of gold increased to $35 an ounce, which produced a $3 billion profit for the Government. But when the price of gold increases, the value of the dollar decreases. Our dollar has not been worth 100 cents since 1933, when we were taken off of the Gold Standard. In 1974, our dollar was worth 22-1/2 cents, and in 1983 it was only worth 38 cents. In 2002, it took $13.88 to buy what cost $1.00 in 1933. Since our money supply had been limited to the amount of gold in Treasury reserves, when the value of the dollar decreased, more money was printed.
The first United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, from July 1 to July 22, 1944, which was under the direction of Harry Dexter White (CFR member, and undercover Russian spy), established the policies of the International Monetary Fund. Its goals were to strip the United States of its gold reserves by giving it to other nations; and to merge with their industrial capabilities; as well as their economic, social, educational and religious policies; to facilitate a one-world government.
Because of paying off foreign obligations and strengthening foreign economies, between 1958 and 1968, the amount of gold bullion in the possession of the U.S. Treasury dropped by 52%. Of the amount remaining, $12 billion was reserved by law for backing the paper money in circulation. Our money had been backed by a 25% gold reserve in accordance to a law that was passed in 1945, but it was rescinded in 1968. The amount of gold slipped from 653.1 million troy ounces in 1957, to 311.2 million ounces in 1968, which according to the Treasury Department, was due to sales to foreign banking institutions, sales to domestic producers, and the buying and selling of gold on the world market to stabilize prices. This was a loss of 341.9 million troy ounces. In August, 1971, gold was used only for world trade, because foreign countries wouldn’t accept U.S. dollars. As of November, 1981, sources had indicated that the gold reserve had dropped to 264.1 million troy ounces.
Title 31 of the U.S. Code, requires an annual physical inventory of our gold supply, but a complete audit was never done, so officially, nobody knows what has occurred. After World War II, America had 70% of the World’s supply of loose gold, but today, we may have less than 7%. Sen. Jesse Helms seemed to think that the OPEC nations have our gold, while others believe that 70% of the world’s gold supply is being held by the World Bank, which is dominated by the financial grip of the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers.
Some years ago, I had been contacted by a gentleman in Michigan, whose research indicated that counterfeit $5,000 and $10,000 Federal Reserve Notes had been used to steal U.S. gold reserves. Illegal to own, these notes are actually checks which are used to transfer ownership of large amounts of gold without actually moving the gold itself. Using public records, he found the serial numbers of the bills which were originally printed, and discovered that there are now more in existence.
It has been reported that 40% (13,000 tons) of the world’s gold is five levels below street level, in a sub-basement of the New York Federal Reserve Bank, behind a 90-ton revolving door. Some of it is American-owned, but most is owned by the central banks of other countries. It is stored in separate cubicles, and from time to time, is moved from one cubicle to another to satisfy international transactions.
The Destructive Measures of the Federal Reserve
After March, 1964, Silver certificates were no longer convertible to Silver dollars; and in March, 1968, near the conclusion of the Johnson Administration, Silver backing of the dollar was removed. On the 1929 series of notes, it read: “Redeemable in gold on demand at the United States Treasury, or in gold or lawful money at any Federal Reserve Bank.” This was just like the Silver Certificate, which was guaranteed by a dollar in silver that was on deposit. On the 1934 series of notes, it read: “This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private, and is redeemable in lawful money at the United States Treasury, or at any Federal Reserve Bank.”
The 1950 series bore the same information, but reduced it to three lines, and reduced the size of the type. In the 1953 series, the wording was totally removed, although the bottom portion contained a promise to “pay the bearer on demand.” However, in 1963, even that message was removed, and our dollars became nothing more than worthless pieces of paper because they no longer met the legal requirements of a note, which meant it had to list an issuing bank, and amount payable, a payee or ‘bearer,’ and a time for payment, which was ‘on demand.’
Since 1933, the Reserve has been printing too much money, compared to the declining Gross National Product (GNP). The GNP is the accumulated values of services and goods produced in the country. If the GNP is 4%, then the money produced should only be about 5-6%, thus insuring enough money to keep the goods produced by the GNP in circulation. Additional social services, which are promised during election year rhetoric to gain votes, increase the Federal Budget, so more money is printed. Then the Government will cut the Budget, establish wage and price controls. The extra money in circulation decreases the value of the dollar, and prices go up. Simply put, too much money in circulation causes inflation, and that is what the Reserve is doing, purposely printing too much money in order to destroy the economy. On the other hand, if they would stop printing money, our economy would collapse.
The Reserve is responsible for setting the interest rate that member banks can borrow from the Reserve, thus controlling the interest rates of the entire country. So, what it boils down to, is that the Federal Reserve determines the amount of money needed, which is created by the International Bankers out of nothing. Besides the face value, they charge the government 3¢ to produce each bill. The Federal government pays the Reserve in bonds (which are also printed by the Reserve), and then pay the bonds off at a high rate of interest. That interest will very soon become the largest item in the Federal Budget.
William McChesney Martin, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), and Chairman of the Federal Reserve (FED) during the ‘New Frontier’ years of the Kennedy Administration, testified to the Federal Banking Committee, that the value of the dollar was being scientifically brought down each year by 3-3-1/2%, in order to allow wages to go up. The reasoning behind this, was that the people were being made to think that they were getting more, when in fact they were actually getting less.
The Congress has also contributed to this process, by approving Federal Budgets, year after year, which requires the printing of more money to finance the debt, which, by the end of 2003, was over $6,900,000,000,000 ($6.9 trillion). When Wilson was President, the debt was about $1 billion, and in 1974, the debt was about $1 trillion.
In 1937, Rep. Charles G. Binderup of Nebraska, realizing the consequences of the Federal Reserve System, called for the Government to buy all the stock, and to create a new Board controlled by Congress to regulate the value of the currency and the volume of bank deposits, thus eliminating the FED’s independence. He was defeated for re-election. Others have also tried to introduce various Bills to control the Federal Reserve: Rep. Goldborough (1935), Rep. Jerry Voorhis of California (1940, 1943), Sen. M. M. Logan of Kentucky, and Rep. Usher L. Burdick of North Dakota.
Rep. Wright Patman of Texas (who was the House Banking Chairman until 1975), said in 1952: “In fact there has never been an independent audit of either the twelve banks of the Federal Reserve Board that has been filed with the Congress ... For 40 years the system, while freely using the money of the government, has not made a proper accounting.” Patman, said that the Federal Open Market Committee (who, in addition to the Board of Governors, decide the country’s monetary policy) is “one of the most secret societies. These twelve men decide what happens in the economy ... In making decisions they check with no one– not the President, not the Congress, not the people.”
Patman also said: “In the United States we have, in effect, two governments ... We have the duly constituted Government ... Then we have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the Federal Reserve System, operating the money powers which are reserved to Congress by the Constitution.” During his career, Patman has sought to force the FED to allow an independent audit, lessen the influence of the large banks, shorten the terms of the FED Governors, expose it to regular Congressional review just like any other Federal agency, and to have only officials nominated by the President and confirmed by Congress to be on the Federal Open Market Committee. In 1967, Patman tried to have them audited, and on January 22, 1971, introduced HR11, which would have altered its organization, diminishing much of its power. He was later removed from the Chairmanship of the House Banking and Currency Committee, which he held for years.
On January 22, 1971, Rep. John R. Rarick of Louisiana introduced HR351: “To vest in the Government of the United States the full, absolute, complete, and unconditional ownership of the twelve Federal Reserve Banks.” He said: “The Federal Reserve is not an agency of government. It is a private banking monopoly.” He was later defeated for re-election. During the 1980’s, Rep. Phil Crane of Illinois introduced House Resolution HR70 that called for an annual audit of the FED (which never came to a full vote); and Rep. Henry Gonzalez of Texas introduced HR1470, that called for the repeal of the Federal Reserve Act.
The Federal Reserve System has never been audited, and their meetings, and minutes of those meetings, are not open to the public. They have repelled all attempts to be audited. In 1967, Arthur Burns, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve, said that an audit would threaten the independence of the Reserve.
In 1979, after dismissing Secretary of Treasury, Michael Blumenthal, President Jimmy Carter offered the position to American Illuminati chief, David Rockefeller, the CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank, as did Nixon, but he turned it down. He also turned down the nomination for the Chairmanship of the Federal Reserve Board. Carter then appointed Paul Volcker as Chairman. Volcker graduated from Princeton with a degree in Economics, and from Harvard, with a degree in Public Administration. He was an economist with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1952-57), worked at the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957-61), was with the U.S. Treasury Department (1961-65), Deputy Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs (1963-65), Under Secretary for Monetary Affairs (1969-74), and President of the New York Federal Reserve Bank (1975-79).
In the Nixon Administration, as the Under Secretary for Monetary Policy and International Affairs, the executive branch official who works most closely with the Federal Reserve, he and Treasury Secretary John Connally helped formulate the policy that took us off the gold standard in 1971, because of the dwindling gold reserves at Fort Knox. Volcker was chosen because he was the “candidate of Wall Street.” He was a member of the Trilateral Commission, and a major Rockefeller supporter. Bert Lance, the Georgia banker and political advisor to Carter who became his Budget Director, and was later forced to resign, contacted Gerald Rafshoon, a Carter aide, and said that if Volcker would be appointed, he would be “mortgaging his re-election to the Federal Reserve.”
Lance predicted that he would bring high interest rates and high unemployment. He was confirmed by the Senate Banking Committee in August, 1979, replacing Arthur Burns, an Austrian-born economist who was a CFR member with close ties to the Rockefellers. Volcker was against a gold-back dollar, and gold being used as a form of currency. He attempted to tighten the money situation in order to curb the 10% annual growth in the money supply, and to ease the pressure of loan demand. The result was a dramatic increase in interest rates, which climbed to 13-1/2% by September, 1979, and then soared to 21-1/2% by December, 1980.
Conjecture could dictate that this economic decline was purposely engineered to cause the political decline of Carter. In response to the rising interest rates, Carter said: “As you well know, I don’t have control over the FED, none at all. It’s carefully isolated from any influence by the President or the Congress. This has been done for many generations and I think it’s a wise thing to do.” Even though inflation had skyrocketed to all-time highs, Reagan kept Volcker on. It was Volcker who started the collapse of the U.S. economy.
During the 1970’s, many banks had left the Federal Reserve, and in December, 1979, Volcker told the House Banking Committee that “300 banks with deposits of $18.4 billion have quit the FED within the past 4-1/2 years,” and that another 575 of the remaining 5,480 member banks, with deposits of $70 billion, had indicated that they intended to withdraw. He said that this would curtail their control over the money supply, and that led Congress, in 1980, to pass the Monetary Control Act, which gave the Federal Reserve control of all banking institutions, regardless if they are members or not.
Alan Greenspan, who became the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board in 1987, is a member of the Council of Foreign Relations. He has a bachelor’s and master’s degree, and a doctorate in Economics from New York University. He met Ayn Rand, the author of Atlas Shrugged, in 1952, and they became friends. It is from her that he learned that capitalism “is not only efficient and practical, but also moral.” In February, 1995, the seventh increase in the interest rate, within the period of a year, took place. This put Greenspan in the limelight, as well as the Federal Reserve. It was very interesting how the media spin doctors churned out information that totally skirted the issue concerning the FED’s actual role in controlling our economy.
In the mid-1970’s, Paper 447, Article 3, from the World Bank, said that the World economy would be fairly stable until 1980, when it would begin falling, in domino fashion. On October 29, 1975, the Wall Street Journal printed a comment by H. Johannes Witteveen, Managing Director of the United Nation’s International Monetary Fund, that the IMF “ought to evolve into a World Central Bank ... to prevent inflation.” Dr. H. A. Murkline, Director of the International Institute University in Irving, Texas, wrote in World Oil: 1976 that he projected that the Federal Government could only hold out till the end of 1981. Dow Theory Letters, Inc. reported that by 1982, the cost of dealing with the national debt “would eat up all the government tax money available.”
The Robbins Report of January 15, 1978, said: “If Carter introduces Bancor, which will be the yielding of our dollar to the ECU (European Currency Unit), this is what will happen: look for hyperinflation and collapse of all the world’s paper money before 1985.” Julian Snyder said in the International Money Line of February, 1978: “The United States is trying to solve its problem through currency depreciation (debasement) ... it will not work. If the crash does not occur this year, it could be postponed until 1982.”
On March 13, 1979, while meeting at Strasbourg, France, the Parliament of Europe, which governs the European Economic Community (Common Market), oversaw the establishment of a new European money system. Known as the ECU, it was backed by 20% of the participating countries’ gold reserves (about 3,150 tons). What little strength our dollar had, came from the fact that all nations buying oil from OPEC, had to use U.S. dollars. Then came the word in March, 1980, from Arab diplomatic sources at the United Nations that the Chase Manhattan Bank was making plans to drop the dollar in lieu of the ECU.
Dr. Franz Pick, a well known authority on world currency, said in December, 1979, in the Silver and Gold Report: “The most serious problem we face today is the debasement of our currency by the government. The government will continue to debase the dollar until ... within 12-24, months it will shrink to 1 cent ... at which time Washington will be forced to create the new hard currency ... A currency reform is nothing but a fancy name for state bankruptcy ... A currency reform completes the expropriation of all kinds of savings ... it will wipe out all public and private bonds, most pensions; all annuities, and all endowments.”
Against all odds, our economy has continued to hang on, even though financial analysts have continued to forecast disastrous conditions.
In 1993, Sen. Bob Kerrey (Democrat, NE) promised to support President Bill Clinton’s Budget Plan, if Clinton would appoint a Committee to study the condition of the American economy. The President established a 32-member bipartisan committee and in August, 1994, they issued their report. According to the committee’s findings, by the year 2012, unless drastic changes are made, we won’t even be able to pay the interest on the national debt. Knowing this, the federal government has allowed the trend to continue, almost as if they’re trying to run our economy into the ground. It seems obvious that the destruction of the American economy has been part of a deliberate plot to financially enslave our nation.
The New Money
Dr. Pick said that late 1983 or early 1984 was the target date for the ‘new money.’ Carl Mintz, a staff member of the House Banking Committee, had said: “I believe it’s in the billions of dollars, and it’s buried in lots of places." In the late 1970’s, it was believed to have already been printed, and stored at the Federal Reserve Emergency Relocation Facility in Culpepper, Virginia, which is built into the side of a mountain, and would be able to continue functioning during the aftermath of a nuclear or natural disaster; and the 200,000 sq. ft. Federal Reserve underground facility in Mt. Weather, Virginia (near Berryville), which is the primary relocation area for the President, Cabinet Secretaries, Supreme Court Justices, and several thousand federal employees (Congress would be relocated to an underground facility in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia). It is believed, that when our monetary system is finally destroyed, a reorganization will occur within the confines of a world government, and new money will be issued.
Rep. Ron Paul, Republican from Texas, who was on the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, wrote about the new money in a letter to Charles T. Roberts, Executive Vice-President of the Hull State Bank in Texas:
“In a closed briefing for the members of the House Banking Committee on November 2nd, representatives of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Federal Reserve, and the Secret Service described plans for making changes in Federal Reserve Notes beginning in 1985 (although the long range target is 1988) ... These changes, which will probably include taggents, security threads, and colors, and may include holograms, diffraction gratings, or watermarks, will be made in coordination with six other nations: Canada, Britain, Japan, Australia, West Germany and Switzerland. Japan, for example, will begin recalling its present currency in November, 1984, and have it nearly completed within six months ... According to the government, the only reason for the currency changes is to deter counterfeiting. Although it was admitted by one spokesman in the group that there would have to be a call-in of our present currency for new currency to work, the spokesmen for the government were adamant in saying that there was no other motive for a currency change...”
According to law, only the Treasury Secretary has the authority to change the currency.
Over $3 million had been spent under ‘counterfeit prevention’ authority for the development of the new money, which according to the Currency Design Act (HR6005) hearings would be issued by the Federal Reserve Board. It was first reported by the Patterson Organization in Cincinnati, Ohio, that in a July, 1983 market survey in Buena Park, California, people were shown proposed designs for “new U.S. dollar bills.” The variations shown, consisted of each denomination being a different color; Federal Reserve seals replaced with a design utilizing reflective ink; and other optical devices like holograms (a process which produces a three-dimensional image which can change color depending on the angle it is viewed), and multilayer diffraction gratings (similar to a hologram); as well as bills containing metal security threads, and planchettes (red and blue colored discs incorporated into the paper, similar to threads) to trigger scanning equipment which would detect its presence, and to sort cash faster. A consumer research firm from Illinois was hired by the Treasury Department to gauge the public’s reactions to the various designs.
It was shown that a drastic change would not be accepted, so a process of incrementalism was adopted. It was decided that the Bureau of Printing and Engraving would have a fine metallic strip running through the currency, leaving the basic design intact; however, they later decided to use a clear imprinted polyester strip, woven into the paper, running vertically on the left side of the Federal Reserve Seal. The length of the translucent polyester filament reads “USA100” for $100 bills, “USA50” for $50 bills, and so on; and can only be read if held up to direct light. It was reported that a company called Checkmate Electronics, Inc., which manufactures the equipment needed to scan checks, scanned the new money, and found the strip to contain “machine detectable” aluminum. Their scan produced an indecipherable bar code.
Though the basic design did not change, there was microscopic type printed around the picture which reads, “The United States of America,” but appeared to only be a line. This currency with oversized, off-center portraits, was introduced in 1996 with the $100 bills, then $50 bills and $20 bills (1998), and culminated with $10’s and $5’s in 2000. The Government discontinued printing any of the old money, and began emptying their vaults to get rid of the old bills. The old money was never recalled, and continued to be circulated.
Then in June, 2002, only a few years after the last makeover, the rumors of colored money became a fact, as the Bureau of Engraving and Printing announced that further changes were being made to our money for security reasons. In October, 2003, the new, colored $20 bill (the most counterfeited note), was introduced. The new bill retained the security thread, color-shifting ink, and watermark; but also had the colors of green and peach added to its background, as well as small yellow “20’s” printed on the back. The new $50 and $100 bills will be coming in 2004 and 2005.
Some financial experts have theorized that when every denomination is changed over, that the business sector may not want to accept old bills, which would then become worthless, and could create a financial emergency. But Federal officials have said that the old money would be accepted, but scrutinized. It has been suggested that the government could really take advantage of the situation, that in order for people to exchange their old money for new, an exchange rate may be determined which would benefit the economy. For example, it may take two old dollars to exchange for a new one. It is possible that we may be experiencing the final transition to the “new money.”
This transitional currency may be just another step in testing the public’s willingness to accept economic change. The Reserve formally had about seven currency sorting machines which counted up to 55,000 bills per minute, but by the end of 1983, they had received 110 new machines which could count up to 72,000 bills per minute. Jane Kettleson, an economic consultant to the U.S. Paper Exchange, said that, “the FED will have the capability to physically replace the entire U.S. currency in circulation in just four days time.”
The International Monetary Fund has been responsible for the decline of our dollar, and our present economic situation. The first step to initiating this ‘crash’ was the Monetary Control Act of 1980, which instead of a 6:1 ratio, mandated the Federal Reserve to only have one dollar on deposit for every twelve they create. Further plans were made during a meeting of Western leaders at Williamsburg, Virginia, on May 28-30, 1983.
International cooperation has been intense to coordinate currency changes among its member governments. In 1985, officials from the Morgan Bank in New York met with the Credit Lyonnais Bank in France. They established the European Currency Unit Banking Association (ECUBA), to get world cooperation for a unified currency, and had support from bankers in Europe, Japan, and the United States. It was an offshoot of the Banking Federation of the European Community (BFEC), which has been engaged in shutting down small banks in order to develop a conglomerate of a few huge banks. In October, 1987, the Association for the Monetary Union of Europe (AMUE), secretly met and recommended that the ECU (European Currency Unit) replace existing national currencies; and that all European Central Banks be combined into one and issue the ECU as the official unified currency (which is scheduled to occur in the year 2000).
It is believed that the plan is to have only three central banks in the world: The Federal Reserve Bank, the European Central Bank, and the Central Bank of Japan. In a June, 1989 hearing of the Senate Banking Securities Subcommittee, Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, said that exchange rates could be fixed in order to solve the problem of uniformity between the currencies of various nations.
Many countries have issued new money, such as Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, France, Germany, Australia, and Brazil. Of the countries that already had, most currencies had a common 1” square, usually on the left side of the bill. Held over a light, a hologram appears on the spot, barely visible to the naked eye, which cannot be reproduced on a copier. It is believed that this spot is being reserved for a central World Bank overprint. They also contain metallic strips that can be detected when they pass through scanners at airports and international borders.
On May 10, 1994, when USA Today carried a page one article concerning major changes in the design of the paper currency, which was expected to take place by the end of the year, it was accompanied with a picture of the new $100 bill, featuring a larger portrait of Benjamin Franklin which had been pushed to the right side of the bill, and the Eagle in the center. The line “United States of America” appeared along the top right, and the line “One Hundred Dollars” appeared on the lower left, with the serial number being placed over that. There was a conspicuous open spot on the left side of the bill, very similar to the new currency in other countries, which some researchers feared was being reserved for some future use.
The institution of a common world-wide currency may be delayed because of the possibility of moving right to a cashless system, making paper money obsolete. The Visa MagiCard was the first step towards a national debit card. With this card, you could make purchases at any of the 10 million merchants who accepted Visa, and have the amount electronically deducted from your checking account. Financial experts said at the time, that within only a few years, there would be more debit cards than credit cards. Since then, there has been a massive campaign to promote debit cards, and a move to accommodate their use in all areas of life.
More and more banks have decided not to return people’s cancelled checks, because of the expense to do so; and it seems likely that there is a plan underway to gradually move away from the use of paper checks. With the existence of debit cards, and the fact that credit cards are so easily attainable, there’s no doubt that we’re being pushed into an electronic economy of Direct Deposit and Automatic Withdrawal. When total saturation has been achieved, then the stage will be set. Sure, it’s really convenient to whip out a piece of plastic to buy things, and to have all your financial affairs handled through the bank’s computer system. But do you realize, that when their plan is complete, you will be nothing more than a number in a computer. Everything you do can be tracked; and with a click of a mouse, or the press of a button, you could be denied access to your own money.
In a letter to Edward M. House (President Wilson’s closest aide), dated November 23, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt said: “The real truth of the matter is, and you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government of the U.S. since the days of Andrew Jackson.” Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Company, said: “It is well enough that the people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning.” In 1957, Sen. George W. Malone of Nevada said before Congress about the Federal Reserve: “I believe that if the people of this nation fully understood what Congress has done to them over the past 49 years, they would move on Washington: they would not wait for an election ... It adds up to a preconceived plan to destroy the economic and social independence of the United States.”
THE FEDERAL INCOME TAX
With the Illuminati in complete control of our monetary system, they were ready for the next step. They couldn’t touch the money of the people, because the Constitution did not contain any provision for the taxing of income; so they now set into motion a plan to accomplish this, in order to oppress the middle class, and increase the lower class, who would have to depend on the government for their survival.
From 1862-72, to support the Civil War effort, Congress enacted the nation’s first income tax: 3% on incomes from $600 to $10,000, and 5% for incomes above that, which was later deemed to be insufficient, and it was increased twice, till it reached a high of 10% on all incomes over $5,000. The tax was criticized because it wasn’t apportioned among the states according to population. The Act of 1862 also provided for a sales tax, excise tax, and inheritance tax; and established the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue, who was given the power to assess, levy, and collect taxes, and was given the authority to enforce tax laws. In 1868, tobacco and alcoholic beverages were taxed.
The income tax was discontinued in 1872, but after heavy lobbying by the Populist Party, it was reinstated in 1894, as part of the Wilson-German Tariff Bill, when Congress enacted a 2% tax on all incomes over $4,000 a year. On May 20, 1895, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the tax was unconstitutional, because it was not distributed among the states in accordance with the Constitution. Newspapers controlled by the Illuminati denounced the Court’s decision.
When the income tax legislation was introduced in the Senate in 1894, Sen. Aldrich had come out against it, saying it was “communistic and socialistic,” but in 1909, he proposed the 16th Amendment to the Constitution, with the support of President Taft, which called for the creation of a progressive graduated income tax. It was ratified in February, 1913, and levied a 1% tax on all incomes over $3,000, and a progressive surtax on incomes over $20,000. Although praised by reformers, conservatives said it was “a first step toward complete confiscation of private property.”
According to a 2-volume investigative report called The Law That Never Was, by William J. Benson (who had been a special agent with the Illinois Department of Revenue for 10 years) and M. J. Beckman, on February 25, 1913, shortly before the end of his term, Secretary of State Philander C. Knox ignored various irregularities, and fraudulently declared that the 16th Amendment had been ratified by three-fourths (or 36) of the 48 states. Benson traveled to all the states’ archives, and to the National Archives in Washington, DC, obtaining more than 17,000 pages of documents, all properly notarized and certified by state officials, that proved that the 16th Amendment was never ratified.
A 16-page memo dated February 15, 1913, to Knox, from his solicitor, stated that only four states had “correctly” ratified the amendment, that Minnesota had not forwarded their copy yet, and that the resolutions from 33 states contained punctuation, capitalization, or wording different than the Resolution that was approved by Congress. The memo read:
“In the certified copies of the resolutions passed by the legislatures of the several states ratifying the proposed 16th amendment, it appears that only four of these resolutions (those submitted by Arizona, North Dakota, Tennessee and New Mexico) have quoted absolutely accurately and correctly the 16th amendment as proposed by Congress. The other thirty-three resolutions all contain errors either of punctuation, capitalization, or wording. Minnesota, it is to be remembered, did not transmit to the Department a copy of the resolution passed by the legislature of the state. The resolutions passed by twenty-two states contain errors only of capitalization or punctuation, or both, while those of eleven states contain errors in the wording...”
Benson discovered that some word changes and misplaced commas were done by legislative intent. State Legislatures voting to ratify a proposed Constitutional amendment, must use a certified, exact copy, as passed by the Congress. Since this was not done, legally, the Government can only collect an income tax within the guidelines set forth by the Supreme Court in Pollock v. Farmers Loan & Trust Co., 157 U.S. 429 (1895), and all sections of the Internal Revenue Code, based on the 16th Amendment, are not valid.
So, of the 48 states:
Eight states (Rhode Island, Utah, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Kentucky, Florida, Virginia, and Pennsylvania) did not approve or ratify the amendment.
Texas and Louisiana were forbidden by their own state constitution to empower the federal government to tax their citizens.
Vermont and Massachusetts rejected the amendment with a recorded vote count, but later declared it passed without a recorded vote only after the amendment had been declared ratified by Knox.
Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, California, and Washington violated their own state constitutions during their ratification procedures.
Minnesota had not sent any copy of its resolution to Knox, let alone a signed and sealed copy, as was required by law.
Oklahoma, Georgia, and Illinois had made unacceptable changes in the wording, as did some of the above states (in addition to the other unacceptable procedures).
When you deduct these 21 states, you only had a proper ratification by only 27 states, far less than the Constitutionally-mandated 36.
Because of his diligence, Benson was arrested and imprisoned on income tax charges, but later released.
Why the Federal Government Doesn’t Have Jurisdiction Over States
According to Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution of the United States:
“The Congress shall have power ... to exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful building...”
This passage reveals the true intention of our forefathers, which was for the Federal Government to coordinate the efforts of all the States in order to combine their resources when it came to things like trade and defense, since the States were actually like separate countries. Therefore, the Congress only had jurisdiction over the area of Washington, D.C., and non-state territories like Alaska, and Hawaii (before they became states); and the present countries of Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and others; and Federal property such as military bases. This area will be hereinafter referred to as the District (as in the District of Columbia), as it is in the United States Code (see 26 USC 7701(a) (1), and 26 USC 3121(e) (1) ).
Since America is a Republic, and not a democracy, the Government has a responsibility to protect the inalienable rights of its citizens, as granted by the Constitution, rather than to grant privileges, known as civil rights, which are decided by the will of the majority. When the sovereign state citizen gave power to the State Constitution, which created State Government; this in turn gave power to the U.S. Constitution, which created the Federal Government; which has, in a sense, incorporated and gave power to the United States Government; which has turned the U.S. citizen into a subject of the U.S. Government. Therefore, the Federal Government has been able to wield its influence over the entire country, rather than just the area referred to as the District.
This is possible, because, for all intents and purposes, there are two of every state. For example, the official name of Pennsylvania is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; but to the U.S. Government, it is known as the State of Pennsylvania. There are even two state flags. One with a gold fringe, which represents the State of Pennsylvania, and martial law under the U.S. Government; and one without the fringe, which represents the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The gold-fringed flag was reserved for use by the General of the Army, where it was present at military headquarters and displayed at court martials. Its use elsewhere, as a government battle flag, was only to be done at the discretion of the President, within his role as the Commander-in-Chief of the military, to establish the jurisdiction of the military presence. This gold-fringed flag, which is common in many public places, such as courthouses, and schools, is not the national flag which represents our constitutional republic. It is a symbol of federal government jurisdiction.
When Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated on March 4, 1933, he called for an emergency session of Congress on March 9th, where the Emergency Banking Relief Act (also known as the War Powers Act, which seized all the country’s constitutional gold and silver coinage) was passed, which gave FDR the power to issue any order, and do anything he felt was necessary to run the country, without restriction, by authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (which placed all German citizens under the authority of the President, because they were enemies of the U.S.).
In 1917, Chapter 106, Section 2, subdivision (c), of the Trading with the Enemy Act, defined the Enemy as someone “other than citizens of the United States…” and in 1933, according to Chapter 106, Section 5, subdivision (b), the Act designated as the Enemy “any person within the United States.”
America was under the authority of an emergency war government. According to the book Constitution: Fact or Fiction by Dr. Eugene Schroder (with Micki Nellis), our Constitution was actually nullified on March 9, 1933, when President Franklin Roosevelt declared a national emergency. As recorded in Congressional Record in 1933, Rep. James Buck said: “...the doctrine of emergency is the worst. It means that when Congress declares an emergency, there is no Constitution. This means it’s dead.” Senate Report 93-549 (Senate Resolution 9, 93rd Congress, 1st Session) in 1973 said that since 1933 “the United States has been in a state of declared national emergency … A majority of the people of the United States have lived all their lives under emergency rule.
For 40 years freedoms and governmental procedures guaranteed by the Constitution have, in varying degrees, been abridged by laws brought into force by states of national emergency...” The Act was never repealed after the World War II, because Roosevelt died; and Truman used the extraordinary powers he gained through the rewriting of the War Powers Act to establish the National Security infrastructure, which included the C.I.A.
The “national emergency” technically ended on September 14, 1976, when the 93rd Congress passed H.R. 3884, the National Emergencies Termination Act (50 USC 1601, Public Law 94-412) in response to President Richard Nixon’s abuse of the Trading with the Enemy Act (which was part of Roosevelt’s emergency legislation). Though he had promised an end to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, he actually escalated the war by authorizing the secret bombing of Cambodia.
And then later, in December, 1972, Nixon ordered American B-52’s to drop over 36,000 tons of bombs over Haiphong and Hanoi. Congress then appointed the Special Committee on the Termination of the National Emergency, headed by Sen. Frank Church (D-ID), who began having hearings in July, 1973. Even though it appeared that the emergency legislation was repealed, the last paragraph said that it didn’t apply to any “authorities under the act of October 6, 1917, as amended.”
Chuck Morse wrote in his article “Is the ‘National Emergency of FDR’ Still In Place?” that: “This was a classic example of sleight of hand. In fact, Congress exempted all laws, based on the emergency of 1933 that were already in place. Rather than being based on the authority of the President under a ‘national emergency’ these federal laws would now be codified as a permanent part of the U.S. Federal Code. Included among the codified laws would be Section 5(b) of the Trading with the Enemy Act, which classifies the American citizen as an enemy of the government.”
The declaration of a National Emergency can legally empower the President to suspend the Constitution. According to Senate Report 93-549, the “President may: Seize property, organize commodities, assign military forces abroad, institute Martial Law, seize and control transportation and communication, regulate operation of private enterprise, restrict travel, and in a plethora of particular ways, control the lives of all American citizens.”
President Carter declared a new national emergency in 1979 during the Iranian hostage crisis, and Bill Clinton, during his two terms in office, declared 12 National Emergencies.
A 1976 Senate report noted that there were 470 extraordinary grants of power to the President, during times of National Emergency.
However, because of Executive Orders 6073, 6102 (gold confiscation), 6111, 6260 and 6262 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it is believed that the District went bankrupt in 1933, and since then, has undergone various “reorganizations.” The Secretary of Treasury was appointed “receiver” in the bankruptcy (Reorganization Plan, No. 26, 5 U.S.C.A. 903; Public Law 94-564; Legislative History, pg. 5967). Representative James A. Traficant, Jr. of Ohio, according to the Congressional Record (pg. H1303), on March 17, 1993, said: “Mr. Speaker, we are now in Chapter 11. Members of Congress are official Trustees presiding over the greatest reorganization of any bankrupt entity in world history, the United States government…”
It was in 1933 that FDR enacted the Social Security Act, which effectively redefined the word “employee” to indicate “government worker.” Then came the Public Salary Tax Act in 1939, which gave the U.S. Government the power to levy a tax on those people who were either government employees, or who lived and worked in a “Federal Area.” A year later, the Buck Act was passed, which gave the U.S. Government the power to create a “Federal Area” so they could levy the Public Salary Tax. Since it was unconstitutional to tax anyone outside of the jurisdiction of the District, this Act, in Section 110(d) and (e), made the land within the territorial boundaries of a State, a “Federal Area.”
This, in effect, created a paper state, known as a Federal Area, for the purposes of the U.S. Government; and those people who were sovereign state citizens, now found themselves also living in this Federal Area. Now the U.S. Government had to make that citizen one of their subjects by bringing them under the jurisdiction of the District.
This was accomplished by deceiving the citizen into entering an adhesion contract with the U.S. Government, such as a Social Security application, an Income Tax form, a Driver’s License application, a Bank Account application, and other similar things. Contrary to what most people believe, it is not mandatory to apply for a Social Security number; however, in order for a sovereign state citizen to be eligible for Social Security benefits, they have to waive the rights given to them under our Republic.
Probably, the most incredible example of the adhesion contract is the Income Tax system. In 1884, it was accepted that the “property which every man has is his own labor (and) as it is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable.” Therefore, since ‘wages’ are received as compensation for labor, it can not be legally taxed. ‘Income,’ however, is the process of profiting from a business (someone else’s labor) or investments, and is taxable, as in a Corporation, which is an artificial entity which is given the right to exist by the State.
The Constitution only allows the Congress to collect taxes, and that is limited to a uniform excise tax on gasoline, alcohol, tobacco, telephone bills, firearms, and tires, things revolving in one way or another around interstate commerce. The payment of these taxes are voluntary, because they are based on consumption. These funds go directly to the U.S. Treasury to pay the expenses of the country.
Because we live in a Republic, the Internal Revenue Service Code, Title 26 USC, could not be passed into law by the Congress, and instead, was passed only as a Resolution, which is a formal expression of intent that was to pertain only to citizens of the District. So, how do they make you a citizen of the District? In the upper left-hand corner of the 1040 Federal Income Tax form is a place to put your preprinted address label, which is designated with the words “label here.” However, to the left of that is the word “label,” which seemingly identifies the entire section as a whole.
However, the word “label” actually has another legal meaning that has nothing to do with your name and address. According to Black’s Law Dictionary, “label” is defined as: “A slip of ribbon, parchment, or paper, attached as a codicil to a deed or other writing to hold the appended seal.” Since your “seal” is your signature, the “label” is actually a codicil which indicates you are waiving your constitutional right as a sovereign state citizen to become a citizen of the District and its Federal Area.
Although the Internal Revenue Service is considered to be a Bureau of the Department of Treasury, like the Federal Reserve, they are not part of the Federal Government (Diversified Metal Products v. IRS et al. CV-93-405E-EJE U.S.D.C.D.I.; Public Law 94-564; Senate Report 94-1148, pg. 5967; Reorganization Plan No. 26; Public Law 102-391), and in fact were incorporated in Delaware in 1933. It is pointed out that all official Federal Government mail is sent postage-free because of the franking privilege, however, the IRS has to pay their own postage, which indicates that they are not a government entity. They are in fact a collection agency for the Federal Reserve, because they do not collect any taxes for the U.S. Treasury.
All funds collected are turned over to the Federal Reserve. If you have ever sent a check to the IRS, you will find that it was endorsed over to the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve, in turn, deposits the money with the International Monetary Fund, an agency of the United Nations (Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th edition, pg. 816), where it is filtered down to the International Development Association (see Treasury Delegation Order No. 91), which is part of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, commonly known as the World Bank. Therefore, it is now clear, that the American people are unknowingly contributing to the coming World Government.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the “Governor” of the International Monetary Fund (Public Law 94-564, supra, pg. 5942; U.S. Government Manual 1990/91, pgs. 480-81; 26 U.S.C.A. 7701(a)(11); Treasury Delegation Order No. 150-10); the United States has not had a Treasury since 1921 (41 Stat. Ch. 214, pg. 654); and for all intents and purposes the U.S. Treasury is the IMF (Presidential Documents, Volume 29, No. 4, pg. 113; 22 U.S.C. 285-288).
Chief Justice John Marshall said: “The power to tax involves the power to destroy.” Alan Keyes, the former ambassador to the UN, who ran for President in 2000 said:
“We ought to have realized that the income tax is utterly incompatible with liberty. It is actually a form of slavery. A slave is someone the fruit of whose labor is controlled by somebody else. A slave is not somebody with nothing. Rather, he has only what the master lets him have … Under the income tax, the government takes whatever percentage of the earner's income it wants. The income tax, therefore, represents our national surrender to the government of control over all the money we earn. There are, in principle, no restrictions to the pre-emptive claim the government has.”
The income tax was intended to rob the earnings of the low and middle class; or as the saying goes, “the more you make, the more they take.” However, the tax didn’t touch the huge fortunes of Illuminati members. The tax was an indication that the U.S. was heading for a planned war, because they couldn’t go into a war without money. Since the tax provided less than 5% of total Federal revenues, increases were later made to accommodate World War I, FDR’s New Deal, and World War II. In July, 1943, workers in this country were subject to a payroll withholding tax in the form of a “victory tax” that was touted as a temporary tax to boost the economy because of the War, and would later be discontinued. However, the deduction remained because it forced compliance.
Under the guise of philanthropy, the Illuminati avoided taxation by transferring their wealth to tax-free foundations.
Foundations are either state or federally chartered. The first was chartered by Benjamin Franklin in 1790, in Philadelphia and Boston, from a $4,444.49 fund, to make loans “to young married artificers (artisans) of good character.” In 1800, the Magdalen Society was established in Philadelphia, “to ameliorate that distressed condition of those unhappy females who have been seduced from the paths of virtue, and are desirous of returning to a life of rectitude.” In 1846, the Smithsonian Institution was established by the bequest of English scientist James Smithson “for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” The Peabody Education Fund was initiated in 1867 by banker George Peabody, to promote education in the South.
Before 1900, there were only 18 foundations; from 1910-19, there were 76; during the 1920’s, 173; the 1930’s, 288; the 1940’s, 1,638; and during the 1950’s, there were 2,839 foundations.
United Press International (UPI) reported on July 19, 1969, that the top 596 foundations had an income that was twice the net earnings of the country’s 50 largest commercial banking institutions.
According to Rep. Wright Patman, in a report to the 87th Congress, it is because of the existence of foundations, that “only one-third of the income of the nation is actually taxed.”
Some of the important foundations are: Ford Foundation (Ford Motor Co.), Rockefeller Foundation (Standard Oil), Duke Endowment (Duke family fortune), John A. Hartford Foundation (Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea), W. K. Kellogg Foundation (the Kellogg Cereals), Carnegie Corp. (Carnegie Steel), Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (General Motors), Moody Foundation (W. L. Moody’s oil, realty, newspapers, and bank holdings), Lilly Endowment (Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals), Pew Memorial Trust (Sun Oil Co. or Sunoco), and the Danforth Foundation (Purina Cereals), which all have assets of well over $100 million.
The first Congressional Committee to investigate the tax-free foundations was the Cox Committee in 1952, led by Rep. Eugene E. Cox, a Democrat from Georgia. Its purpose was to find out which “foundations and organizations are using their resources for purposes other than the purposes for which they were established, and especially to determine which such foundations and organizations are using their resources for un-American and subversive activities or for purposes not in the interest or tradition of the United States.”
Cox discovered that officers and trustees of some foundations were Communists, and that these foundations had given grants to Communists or Communist-controlled organizations. A former Communist official, Maurice Malkin, testified that in 1919 they were trying “to penetrate these organizations (foundations), if necessary take control of them and their treasuries ... that they should be able to finance the Communist Party propaganda in the United States.” During the investigation, Cox died, and the facts were glossed over in a cover-up.
Another member of the Committee, Rep. Carroll Reece of Tennessee, the former Chairman of the Republican National Committee, forced another investigation in 1953, to see if foundations were being used “for political purposes, propaganda, or attempts to influence legislation.” The Washington Post called the investigation “unnecessary,” and that it was “stupidly wasteful of public funds.” Reece even referred to a “conspiracy.”
The Eisenhower Administration was clearly against the probe. Three of the four who were selected for the Committee, with Reece, were House members who had voted against the investigation. Rep. Wayne Hays of Ohio worked from the inside to stall the investigation. During one 3-hour session, he interrupted the same witness 246 times. He prohibited evidence discovered by two of its investigators from being used. Rene A. Wormser, legal counsel to the Committee, revealed why, in his 1958 book Foundations: Their Power and Influence: “Mr. Hays told us one day that ‘the White House’ had been in touch with him and asked him if he would cooperate to kill the Committee.”
Wormser also revealed that the Committee had discovered that these foundations were using their wealth to attack the basic structure of our Constitution and Judeo-Christian ethics; and that the influence of major foundations had “reached far into government, into the policy-making circles of Congress and into the State Department.”
Reece’s Special Committee to Investigate Tax Exempt Foundations discovered that many foundations were financing civil rights groups, liberal political groups, political extremist groups, and supporting revolutionary activities throughout the world. The Committee reported:
“Substantial evidence indicates there is more than a mere close working together among some foundations operating in the international field. There is here, as in the general realm of social sciences, a close interlock. The Carnegie Corporation, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Rockefeller Foundation and, recently, the Ford Foundation, joined by some others, have commonly cross-financed, to a tune of many millions ... organizations concerned with internationalists, among them, the Institute of Pacific Relations, the Foreign Policy Association (which was “virtually a creature of the Carnegie Endowment”), the Council on Foreign Relations, the Royal Institute of International Affairs and others ... and that it happened by sheer coincidence stretches credulity.”
On August 19, 1954, Reece summed up his investigation: “It has been said that the foundations are a power second only to that of the Federal Government itself ... Perhaps the Congress should now admit that the foundations have become more powerful, in some areas, at least, than the legislative branch of the Government.” The investigation ended in 1955, when funding was withheld.
The Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Family
- John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. (1839-1937)
- John Davison Rockefeller, Jr. (1874-1960)
- John Davison Rockefeller, III (1906-78)
- Nelson Rockefeller (1908-79)
- Laurance Rockefeller (1910- )
- Winthrop Rockefeller (1912-73)
- David Rockefeller (1915- )
John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937), grandfather of former Vice-President Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, and David Rockefeller (head of the Chase Manhattan Bank) was the richest man of his time. He started out in 1859 as a produce merchant, turning to oil in 1865, at the age of 26. In 1870, when Standard Oil of Ohio was incorporated, Rockefeller controlled 21 out of 26 refineries in Cleveland.
By 1871, Standard Oil was the largest refining company in the world. In 1879, he controlled over 90% of all refined oil sold in the country, with 20,000 producing wells, and 100,000 employees. In 1884, he moved his main office to New York City; and by 1885, Standard Oil virtually controlled the entire oil industry in the United States, and had set up branches in Western Europe and China.
The Rockefellers and Rothschilds have been partners ever since the 1880’s, when Rockefeller was able to get a rebate on each barrel of oil he shipped over the Pennsylvania, Baltimore and Ohio railroads, which were owned by Kuhn, Loeb and Co.
In 1888, details concerning the Rockefeller Oil Trust began to leak out in the newspapers. In Ohio, at the time, a company within the state could not own stock in a company in another state, which occurred when Rockefeller bought out smaller companies. Using the secret Trust, which was established in 1879, the trustees for the companies that had been taken over, the 37 Standard Oil stockholders, and Standard Oil of Ohio, relayed all out-of-state subsidiary stock to three clerks from Standard Oil. In 1882, the three “dummy” trustees, 42 Standard Oil stockholders, and Standard Oil of Ohio, transferred all its stock to nine trustees, who were controlled by Rockefeller.
In March, 1892, the Ohio Supreme Court ordered Standard Oil to withdraw from the Trust, after Ohio and other states outlawed trusts. Rockefeller countered by moving Standard Oil to New Jersey, who allowed their corporations to hold stock in out-of-state companies, thus, Standard Oil of New Jersey became that holding Company.
In 1889, Rockefeller helped establish, with a grant of $600,000, the University of Chicago. He promised to support the school for ten years, which he did, donating $34,708,375. In 1901, he incorporated the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University), with a grant of $200,000. In 1903, he established the Rockefeller General Education Board, which he donated $42 million to, within a two-year period (and $129 million in total). The Board was organized by Fred Gates, the front man for the Pillsbury flour company. In 1909, the Rockefeller Sanitation Commission was established, to which he gave $1 million.
Rockefeller’s goal was for Standard Oil to be the world’s only refining company, and to that end, it was alleged that he blew up a competitor’s refinery in Buffalo, New York. He owned large blocks of stock in quite a few newspapers, including the Buffalo People’s Journal, the Oil City Derrick (in Pennsylvania), the Cleveland Herald, and the Cleveland News Leader. He had contracts with over 100 newspapers in Ohio, to print news releases and editorials furnished by a Standard Oil-controlled agency, in return for advertisement.
He ‘owned’ several New Jersey and Ohio state legislators. Rep. Joseph Sibley, of Pennsylvania, was President of the Rockefeller-controlled Galena Signal Oil Co.; and in 1898, Rep. John P. Elkins, also of Pennsylvania, accepted a $5,000 bribe from Standard Oil. In 1904, Sen. Bois Penrose of Pennsylvania received a $25,000 bribe from Rockefeller, and Sen. Cornelius Bliss received $100,000. Others who received Standard Oil bribes: Sen. Matthew Quay (PA), Sen. Joseph B. Foraker (OH), Sen. Joseph Bailey (TX), Sen. Nathan B. Scott, Sen. Mark Hanna (OH), Sen. Stephen B. Elkins (WV), Rep. W. C. Stone (PA), and Sen. McLaurin (SC). President William McKinley, through Sen. Mark Hanna, was a pawn of Standard Oil and the bankers.
The ‘rebates’ Rockefeller received from various railroads, were actually kickbacks. These rebates made it possible for him to keep his prices lower so he could bankrupt his competition. He said: “Competition is a sin.” Standard Oil also made kickbacks, in the form of stock, to railroad people, such as William H. Vanderbilt, who received stock without contributing any capital, as did various bankers who lent money freely to Standard Oil.
Willie Winkfield, a Rockefeller messenger, sold evidence of Rockefeller’s bribery to William Randolph Hearst’s New York American, for $20,500, and Hearst revealed the information at election time, in an attempt to get the Rockefeller stooges out of office. In 1905, an exposé by Ida M. Tarbell, called The History of Standard Oil Co., which came on the heels of an 1894 book by Henry Demarest Lloyd, called Wealth Against Commonwealth, began to turn public opinion against Standard Oil.
Robert M. LaFollette, Sr., in a speech to the Senate in March, 1908, said that fewer than 100 men controlled the business interests of the country. However, a few years later, through an analysis of the Directory of Directors, it was discovered that through interlocking directorates, less than a dozen men controlled the country’s business interests. Most notable were Rockefeller and Morgan.
In March, 1910, Sen. Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island, introduced a Bill of Incorporation for the Rockefeller Foundation, but it came at a time when there was an antitrust suit against Standard Oil, and the Bill was withdrawn. On May 15, 1911, Standard Oil was found to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, and the U.S. Supreme Court ordered, in a 20,000 word decision, the breakup of Standard Oil of New Jersey. The Court said that Standard Oil wanted to establish a monopoly in order “to drive others from the field and exclude them from their right to trade,” and that “seven men and a corporate machine have conspired against their fellow citizens. For the safety of the Republic, we now decree that the dangerous conspiracy must be ended...”
Standard Oil was forced to dissolve into 38 separate companies, including Standard Oil of Indiana (Amoco), Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio), Standard Oil of Louisiana, Standard Oil of New Jersey (Exxon, which is one of the largest corporations in the world, controlling 321 other companies, including Humble Oil and Venezuela’s Creole Oil), Standard Oil of New York (Socony or Mobil); and others such as Continental Oil (Conoco), Atlantic-Richfield (Arco), Gulf, Phillips 66, Texaco, and Marathon Oil, which were also Rockefeller-controlled companies. Rockefeller owned 25% of Standard Oil of New Jersey, which meant that he now owned 25% of all 38 Standard Oil subsidiaries. In 1914, the Congressional Record referred to Standard Oil as the “shadow government” and as the extent of its holdings became known, its value tripled.
In May, 1913, after three years of Congressional opposition, the New York State Legislature voted to establish the Rockefeller Foundation (which was located in the Time-Life Building), “to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world.” However, a 1946 report stated that the “challenge of the future is to make this one world.” The endowment to establish the Foundation totaled $182,851,000, and was given in securities, enabling the foundation to disperse over $1 billion, even though it is only third in total assets compared to the Ford and Johnson Foundations.
In 1899, with an estimated wealth of $200,000,000, Rockefeller “retired.” But, only in regard to being involved in the day-to-day operation of the company. He didn’t officially retire until 1911, when he resigned as President of Standard Oil. He had become America’s first billionaire, yet when he died, he only left a taxable estate of $26,410,837.10, which after Federal and State taxes were levied, left about $16 million. The remainder of his fortune had been left to surviving relatives ($240 million), his sons ($465 million), and his foundations.
Rockefeller, said to own 20% of American industry, between 1855 and his death in 1937, gave away nearly $550 million. In 1855, when he was 16, he gave $2.77 of his meager earnings to charity, 1856 ($19.31), 1857 ($28.37), 1858 ($43.85), 1859 ($72.22), 1860 ($107.35), 1861 ($259.97), 1865 ($1,012), 1869 ($5,000), 1871 ($6,860), 1879 ($29,000), 1880 ($32,865), 1884 ($119,000), 1891 ($500,000), 1892 ($1,500,000), 1893 ($1,472,122), 1907 ($39,170,480), 1909 ($71,453,231), 1913 ($45,499,367), 1914 ($67,627,095), and 1919 ($138,624,574). He gave $182,851,480 to the Rockefeller Foundation, $129,209,167 to the General Education Board, $73,985,313 to the Laura Spelman and Rockefeller Memorial Fund, and $60,673,409 to the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. (1874-1960), who was married to Abby Aldrich, daughter of Sen. Nelson Aldrich, according to a February, 1905 McClure’s magazine article, was part of a corrupt political machine. He continued the charitable tradition of his father. He spent over $40 million to buy up land and convert it to National Parks, donating it to the public. The most prominent of these parks is the Jackson Hole Preserve at the Grand Teton National Park in northeastern Wyoming. In 1926, he reconstructed the colonial town of Williamsburg, Virginia, spending $52.6 million to restore 81 colonial buildings, and rebuild 404 others from original plans, on their original foundations. Over 700 modern homes were torn down in the 83 acre area to bring the 18th century town back to life. He also built 45 other buildings, including three hotels to serve the public, and planted gardens.
In 1929, he began building the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a complex of 14 buildings, at a cost of $125 million, which was to surpass the stature of the Dupont’s Empire State Building. The Rockefeller empire is run from the 55th and 56th floors of the RCA building, at 30 Rockefeller Plaza.
Rockefeller was quoted to have said: “So it may come to pass that someday ... no one will speak of ‘my country,’ but all will speak of ‘our world’.”
He pushed his sons into five different areas of influence: John III, into philanthropy; Nelson, into government (4-term Governor of New York, and Vice-President under Ford); Laurance, into business; Winthrop, into oil (also 2-term Governor of Arkansas); and David, into banking (Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank and Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York).
The Rockefellers, undeniably the richest family in America, increased their fortune by marrying into other wealthy and influential families. By 1937, there existed “an almost unbroken line of biological relationships from the Rockefellers through one-half of the wealthiest sixty families in the nation.”
Percy Rockefeller (John, Jr.’s cousin), married Isabel Stillman, daughter of James A. Stillman, President of National City Bank, and William G. Rockefeller (another cousin), married S. Elsie Stillman.
Ethel Geraldine Rockefeller married Marcellus Hartley Dodge, which linked Standard Oil and National City Bank, to the $50,000,000 fortune of the Remington Arms Company and the Phelps Dodge Corp.
J. Stillman Rockefeller (grand nephew of John, Sr.) married Nancy C. S. Carnegie, the grand niece of Andrew Carnegie. Their son was named Andrew Carnegie Rockefeller.
Edith Rockefeller (John, Jr.’s sister), married Harold F. McCormick, an heir to the International Harvester Co. fortune. Their son, Fowler, grandson to John, Sr. and Cyrus McCormick (who invented the Reaper), married Fifi Stillman, the divorced wife of James Stillman.
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller, was married to Mary Todhunter Clark, the granddaughter of the President of the Pennsylvania Railroad. They were later divorced.
Winthrop Rockefeller married Jeanette Edris, a hotel and theater heiress; and John (Jay) D. Rockefeller IV (one of John, Jr.’s grandsons), the family’s only Democrat (2-term Governor, and later U.S. Senator, of West Virginia), married Sharon Percy, the daughter of Sen. Charles Percy, who had been one of the Senate’s most influential members.
All together, the Rockefeller family had been joined in marriage to the Stillman, Dodge, McAlpin, McCormick, Carnegie, and Aldrich family fortunes, and its wealth has been estimated to be well over $2 billion. Some estimates even claim it to be as high as $20 billion. To compare, John Paul Getty, Howard Hughes, and H. L. Hunt, had fortunes between $2-$4 billion; and the Duponts and Mellons had fortunes between $3-$5 billion.
Ever since the TNEC hearings in 1937, which convened for the purpose of finding out who was controlling the American economy, the Rockefellers had been able to avoid any sort of accounting in regard to their vast assets and holdings. That ended in December, 1974, when Nelson Rockefeller was nominated to be Vice-President. Two University of California professors, Charles Schwartz and William Domhoff, circulated a report called “Probing the Rockefeller Fortune” which indicated that 15 employees working out of room 5600 of the RCA building had positions on the boards of almost 100 corporations that had total assets of $70 billion. This was denied by the family, and in an unprecedented event, a family spokesman, J. Richardson Dilworth, appeared before the U.S. House of Representatives’ Judiciary Committee during the 1975 ‘Hearings into the Nomination of Nelson Rockefeller to be Vice-President of the United States’ to document the family’s wealth, which he said only amounted to $1.3 billion.
Part of the Rockefeller’s financial holdings consists of real estate, foremost being the 4,180 acre family estate at Pocantico Hills, north of New York City, which has 70 miles of private roads, 75 buildings, an underground archives, and close to 500 servants, guards, gardeners and chauffeurs. They also maintain over 100 residences in all parts of the world. Besides investments held in personal trusts, the family also holds stock in numerous companies.
Some of their major holdings:
- Chase Manhattan Bank
- American Telephone & Telegraph (AT & T)
- Eastman Kodak
- General Electric
- Texas Instruments
- Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing
- Monsanto Chemical
- Aluminum Co. of America (Alcoa)
- Bethlehem Steel
- General Motors
- International Paper
- Sears and Roebuck
- Standard Oil of California (Chevron)
- Standard Oil of New York (Mobil)
- Standard Oil of Indiana, U.S. Steel
- International Basic Economy Corp.
- International Harvester
- Quaker Oats
- Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel
- Federated Department Stores
- Walgreen Stores
- Transcontinental Gas Pipeline
- Consolidated Edison
- Anaconda Copper Co.
- General Foods
- Pan American World Airways
- E. I. du Pont de Nemours
- W. R. Grace, Inc.
- Corning Glass Works
- Owens Corning Fiberglass
- Cummins Engine
- R. R. Donnelly and Son
- Dow Chemical
- Teledyne, Inc.
- International Telephone and Telegraph (IT & T)
- S. S. Kresge
- National Cash Register
- American Home Products
- Delta Airlines
- Braniff Airlines
- Northwest Airlines
- United Airlines
- Burlington Industries
The financial core of the family fortune included the Chase Manhattan Bank, Citicorp (which grew out of the Rockefeller-controlled First National City Bank), the Chemical Bank of New York, First National Bank of Chicago, Metropolitan Equitable, and New York Mutual Life Insurance. By the 1970’s, Rockefeller-controlled banks accounted for about 25% of all assets of the 50 largest commercial banks in the country, and about 30% of all assets of the 50 largest life insurance companies.
The Chase Manhattan Bank, however, remains the supreme symbol of Rockefeller domination. Founded in 1877 by John Thompson, the Chase National Bank was named after Salomon P. Chase (Lincoln’s Secretary of Treasury). It was taken over by the Rockefellers in a merger with their Equitable Trust Co., whose President was Winthrop Aldrich, son of Sen. Nelson Aldrich. In 1955, it merged with the Bank of Manhattan (which had been controlled by Warburg; and Kuhn, Loeb and Co), the oldest banking operation in America (founded in 1799 by Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr), which had 67 branches in New York, and $1.6 billion in assets. Although it was only the sixth largest bank (over $98,000,000 in assets), it was the most powerful.
In 1961, the Chase Manhattan Bank Plaza was built in downtown Manhattan, at a cost of $125,000,000. It is 64 stories high, with five basement floors, the lowest of which contains the largest bank vault in the world.
They had 28 foreign branches, and over 50,000 banking offices in more than 50 countries, and had a controlling interest in many of the largest corporations in America. Some of those that were listed in the Patman Report: American National Bank and Trust, Safeway Stores, Reynolds Metals, White Cross Stores, J. C. Penney, Northwest Airlines, Eastern Airlines, TWA, Pan American World Airways, Western Airlines, Consolidated Freightways, Roadway Express, Ryder, Wyandotte Chemicals, Armstrong Rubber, A. H. Robins, G. D. Searle, Sunbeam, Beckman Instruments, Texas Instruments, Sperry Rand, Boeing, Diebold, Cummins Engine, Bausch and Lomb, CBS-TV, International Basic Economy Corp., Addressograph-Multigraph, Aetna Life, American General Insurance Co., Allegheny-Ludlum Steel, National Steel.
Men from the Chase Manhattan’s Board of Directors have also sat on the Boards of many of the largest corporations, which have created a system of interlocking directorates. Some of these have been: Allegheny-Ludlum Steel, U.S. Steel, Metropolitan Life, Travelers Insurance, Continental Insurance, Equitable Life Assurance, General Foods, Chrysler Corp., Standard Oil of Indiana, New York Times, Cummins Engine, Burlington Industries, ABC-TV, Standard Oil of New Jersey, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco, Scott Paper, International Paper, International Basic Economy Corp., International Telephone & Telegraph, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, Anaconda Copper, Allied Stores, Federated Department Stores, R. H. Macy, Colgate-Palmolive, Bell Telephone of Pennsylvania, Consolidated Edison of New York, DuPont, Monsanto, Borden, Shell Oil, Gulf Oil, Union Oil, Dow Chemical, Continental Oil, Union Carbide, and S. S. Kresge.
Chase also owned or controlled the Banco del Commerce (with over 100 branches in Columbia and Peru), Banco Continental (with about 40 branches in Peru), Banco Atlantida (with 20 branches in the Honduras), Nederlandsche Crediet (with over 60 branches in the Netherlands), and Standard Bank Group (with over 1,200 branches in 17 African countries).
Through a subsidiary, the Chase Investment Corp., they owned a sheep and cattle raising operation in Australia, hotels in Puerto Rico and Liberia, a ready-mix concrete facility in Brazil, a cotton textile mill in Nigeria, a paint factory in Venezuela, a steel mill in Turkey, a petrochemical plant in Argentina, a bus line in the Virgin Islands, and bowling alleys in England.
Our tax dollars, through the Export-Import Bank, International Monetary Fund, Cooperation for Overseas Investment, and the International Stabilization Fund, are used to give aid to other countries, some who were communist. Millions of dollars were given to Yugoslavia, including hundreds of jets, many of which ended up being given to Castro in Cuba.
Chase, and the Export-Import Bank financed 90% of the $2 billion loan to build the Kama River truck complex in Russia, which was equipped with the world’s largest industrial computer system, with the capability of producing up to 200,000 ten-ton trucks a year. A U.S. Government official who toured the facility, reported that V-12 diesel engines were being produced there, and said: “There is only one vehicle in Russia that uses that type of engine, and that’s a Russian battle tank.” Besides the production of trucks, they also have the capability of producing jeeps, military transports and rocket launchers. The repayment period for the loan was twelve years, with a 4-1/2 year grace period. The loan repayment was guaranteed by the U.S. taxpayers through government agencies like the Overseas Private Investment Corp., and the Foreign Credit Insurance Association.
Chase Manhattan and the Bank of America lent about $36 million for the Bechtel Corp. to build and equip an international Trade Center in Moscow, which had been arranged by Armand Hammer of Occidental Petroleum, a personal friend of Lenin, and son of one of the founders of the U.S. Communist Party.
The Export-Import Bank, and other private American banks also put up all but $40 million for a $400 million fertilizer plant in Russia.
In 1967, the International Basic Economy Corp. (with 140 subsidiaries and affiliates), owned by all five Rockefeller Brothers, run by Richard Aldrich (grandson of Sen. Nelson Aldrich), and Rodman Rockefeller (son of Nelson Rockefeller, and a CFR member); and Tower International, Inc., headed by Cyrus S. Eaton, Jr., a Cleveland financier (who was the son of a man who started his career as secretary to John D. Rockefeller, later making his own fortune), joined to promote trade among the Iron Curtain countries. In 1969 the IBEC announced that N. M. Rothschild and Sons of London had become a partner.
This partnership built a $50 million aluminum production center in Russia, and announced a multi-million plan for Russia and other Eastern European countries, which included the building of large hotels in Bucharest, Sofia, Budapest, Belgrade, Prague, and Warsaw; rubber plants, and a glass plant in Romania. In addition, Tower International made an agreement with the Soviet patent and licensing organization, Licensintorg, to promote Soviet-American trade, which up to that time, was done by Amtorg Trading Corp., the official Soviet agency in America. This gave the Rockefellers and Eatons complete control over what technology was sent to Russia.
David Rockefeller, the head of the Chase Manhattan, and the family patriarch, controls many secondary interlocks which contribute to the family’s power and influence. Some of these have been: Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Honeywell, Inc., Northwest Airlines, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., Allied Chemical Corp., General Motors, Chrysler Corp., International Basic Economy Corp., R. H. Macy and Co., Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Co. of New York, American Express Co., Hewlett-Packard, Exxon, Equitable Life Assurance Society of the U.S., Federated Department Stores, General Electric, Scott Paper, AT & T, Burlington Industries, Wachovia Corp., R. J. Reynolds Industries, U.S. Steel Corp., Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., May Department Stores, Sperry Rand Corp., and Standard Oil of Indiana.
On July 9, 1968, the New York Times reported on a study by a House Banking Subcommittee, headed by Rep. Wright Patman of Texas, which said: “A few banking institutions are in a position to exercise significant influence, and perhaps even control, over some of the largest business enterprises in the nation.” Just as the Rockefellers have these extensive interlocking connections, other leading bankers, the other 107 directors of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks, and members of the Council on Foreign Relations, Trilateral Commission, and Bilderbergers, also have similar connections to these and hundreds of other major corporations. Now you can see how these like-minded individuals have been able to control American industry and business.
Though the Rockefeller Foundation is the primary foundation of the family, there are many others operated by them, such as the Rockefeller Family Fund, Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Martha Baird Rockefeller Fund for Music, Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Fund, John D. Rockefeller III Fund, Rockefeller Institute, Standard Oil (Indiana) Foundation, Esso Education Foundation, American International Foundation for Economic and Social Development, China Medical Board, Agricultural Development Council, Government Affairs Foundation, Sealantic Fund (oversees contributions to religious charities “to strengthen and develop Protestant education” to which John Rockefeller, Jr. contributed $23 million), Jackson Preserve, Inc., Council on Economic and Cultural Development, and the Chase Manhattan Bank Foundation. There are some who believe that the Rockefellers may run close to 200 trusts and foundations.
Prior to their appointments, Cyrus Vance (Secretary of State under Carter) and Dean Rusk (Secretary of State under Kennedy) were both Presidents of the Rockefeller Foundation.
You have seen how powerful the Rockefeller family is, now let’s look at how the Rockefeller Foundation has used its money.
Through interlocking directorates, the Foundation controls the Carnegie Endowment, and the Ford Foundation. While the Carnegie Endowment deals with education, as it relates to international matters; the Rockefeller Foundation concentrates on education, as it relates to domestic issues. It financed and influenced seven major policy-making agencies: Social Science Research Council (who explored the means of controlling people through scientific methods, such as mass media), Russian Institute of Columbia University (who developed methods of conditioning Americans into accepting a merging of the Soviet Union and America under a one-world government), Council on Foreign Relations, National Bureau of Economic Research (who worked closely with the Federal Reserve Board), Public Administration Clearing House (in Chicago), Brookings Institution, and the Institute of Pacific Relations (who was responsible for planning the communist subversion of America).
The Rockefeller Foundation provided over $50,000 to fund the Building America textbook series, which played up Marxism, and sought to destroy “traditional concepts of American government.” Over 100 communist organizations contributed material, including the writings of over 50 communist writers. The California Legislature said that the books contained “purposely distorted references favoring Communism...” The Foundation contributed money to the pro-communist New School for Social Research in New York City, and funded projects for the communist-staffed Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Rep. Cox said that the Rockefeller Foundation has “been used to finance individuals and organizations whose business it has been to get communism into private and public schools of the country, to talk down to America, and play up Russia...” The Foundation also funded the Kinsey Report, which heralded a new era of sexual immorality.
The purpose of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, is the “support of efforts in the U.S. and abroad that contribute ideas, develop leaders, and encourage institutions in the transition to global interdependence.” In 1974, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund gave grants to: A.C.L.U. Foundation ($45,000); Atlantic Institute for International Affairs, in Paris ($10,000); Carnegie Endowment for International Peace ($60,000); Columbia University ($9,500); Council on Foreign Relations ($125,000), Foreign Policy Association ($20,000); International Institute for Strategic Studies, in London ($5000); NAACP ($145,000); National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. ($10,000); National Urban League ($100,000); Trilateral Commission ($50,000); U.N. Association of the U.S.A., Inc. ($25,000); United Negro College Fund, Inc. ($10,000); and the U.S. Conference for the World Council of Churches, Inc. ($2,500).
The Carnegie Endowment
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) came to the United States as a poor immigrant from Scotland in 1848, and never became an American citizen. He built the Carnegie Steel Corporation, which he sold to J. P. Morgan for $500 million, who incorporated the company into the United States Steel Corporation in 1901, enabling Carnegie to retire and concentrate on his philanthropic activities.
In 1889, William Torrey Harris, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, told a high-ranking railroad official that the schools were being scientifically designed not to overeducate children. He believed that the schools should alienate children from their parents and religion. In 1890, Carnegie wrote eleven essays which were published under the title The Gospel of Wealth. The underlying premise was that the free-enterprise system had been locked-up by men such as himself, J.P. Morgan, and John D. Rockefeller, and that they not only owned everything, but also controlled the government. His worry, was that subsequent generations would realize this, and work against them. His solution was to control the education system, and to create a direct relationship between the amount of education a person had, and how good of a job they could get. Therefore, this created a motivation for children to attend school, where they would be taught only what the social engineers of this country wanted them to know.
This was to be accomplished by instituting the educational system developed by Prussia between 1808 and 1819. German Philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) in his “Addresses to the German Nation” (1807-08) said that he did not trust parental influence and preferred education to be carried out in a “separate and independent” environment controlled by the state. Prussia became the first government to have compulsory education, setting up a three-tiered system. The children of the elite, about one-half of one percent, went to schools called academies, and were taught to think and be independent. About 5-1/2% went to Realschulen, where they were partially taught how to think. The other 94% went to Volkschulen, where the idea of being a follower and a good citizen was stressed.
This system of education was brought to the United States through the effort of a coalition of big business led by Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, and Rockefeller; major universities like Columbia, Johns Hopkins, the University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago; and large foundations like Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford, Mellon, Peabody, Sage, and Whitney. The success in creating an organized compulsory educational system in this country has allowed the elite of this country to prevent each generation from truly understanding how this country is actually run, thus keeping them from doing anything about it. This ‘dumbing-down’ has enabled the government to more easily assimilate the people of this country into a population which can be easily deceived and controlled.
John Dewey, known as the “Father of American Education,” was a Socialist, and a founding member of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (who changed their name to League for Industrial Democracy, which he became the President of), and one of the 34 signers of the Humanist Manifesto in 1933. In his My Pedagogic Creed (1897) and The School and Society (1899), he expressed his belief at how the schools should be instrumental in developing a socialist society in America.” His system of ‘progressive education’ would deemphasize academics, and use psychology to do that. The July, 1908 Hibbert Journal quoted him as saying: “Our schools … are performing an infinite significant religious work. They are promoting the social unity out of which in the end genuine religious unity must grow.”
With a grant of $27,000,000, Carnegie established the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, in 1900, which became the Carnegie-Mellon University in 1967, when it merged with the Mellon Institute, which had been founded in 1913. In 1905, he established the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, which, within a 20 year period, gave over $20 million to retiring teachers (and widows) at universities and technical schools in the United States and Canada to support the profession and encourage higher education. In 1904, in the U.S., and 1908 in the United Kingdom, he set up the Carnegie Hero Fund to reward heroic deeds by civilian citizens, and gave out close to $500,000,000. He also established the world renowned Carnegie Hall, and over 2,000 public libraries. He was also a major supporter of the Tuskogee Institute in Alabama, which was founded by Booker T. Washington.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was established in 1910, to promote international peace and bring about the abolition of war; and the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1911 (with a grant of $125,000,000), was set up “to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States by aiding technical schools, institutions of higher learning, libraries, scientific research, hero funds, useful publications, and by such other agencies and means as shall time to time be found appropriate therefore.”
With such a history of philanthropic contributions, the Carnegie Endowment, on its face, appeared to be innocent. However, its goal of promoting international peace, was just a ruse to disguise its true purpose to promote one-world government.
The first three Presidents of the group were: Elihu Root, socialist and former Secretary of State under President Theodore Roosevelt, who was a leading advocate of the League of Nations; he was succeeded in 1925 by Nicholas Murray Butler, the former President of Columbia University; and then Alger Hiss, the communist who helped found the United Nations. Their President during the 1960’s, was Joseph E. Johnson (a member of the CFR), a close friend of Hiss, who was known as the “permanent unofficial Secretary of State.” He worked closely with the Donner Foundation, which financed the Temple of Understanding, an occult organization connected to the Lucis Trust in England (a group of Satan worshipers with ties to the Theosophical Society). Members of the Temple met at the Endowment headquarters in the United Nations Plaza. Among their members: Robert McNamara (Secretary of Defense under Kennedy and Johnson), Eleanor Roosevelt, Thomas Watson (President of IBM), Max Lerner, James Linen (of Time-Life), Norman Thomas, James A. Pike, Ellsworth Bunker, and John D. Rockefeller IV.
The 1934 Yearbook of the Carnegie Endowment, said that they were “an unofficial instrument of international policy, taking up here and there the ends of international problems and questions which the governments find it difficult to handle, and ... reaching conclusions ... which officially find their way into the policies of government.”
The 1947 Yearbook recommended:
“…that the Endowment work for the establishment of the United Nations headquarters in New York ... that the Endowment construct its programs primarily for the support of the United Nations ... that the Endowment’s programs should be broadly educational in order to encourage public understanding and support of the United Nations at home and abroad ... that Endowment supported organizations such as International Relations Clubs in colleges, the Foreign Policy Association, the Institute of Pacific Relations, the Council on Foreign Relations, and local community groups be utilized to achieve these goals, of achieving broader understanding and support for the United Nations.”
The Carnegie Endowment and Rockefeller Foundation gave over $3,000,000 to the Institute of Pacific Relations, who used the media to convince the American people that the Communists in China were agricultural reformers. The Endowment has also given money to the Council on Foreign Relations, the Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies, the United Nations Association of the U.S., and the American Civil Liberties Union Foundation.
Norman Dodd, who in July, 1953, was appointed as the research director of the Special Congressional Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations, said he discovered that the oldest tax exempt foundations were established before the initiation of income taxes, therefore they existed for a different purpose. He examined minutes of the Board of Trustees, and found that for the first year, the members concentrated on whether there was any means more effective than war to alter the life of the people of a nation. They concluded that to get America into an upcoming war, they had to control the diplomatic machinery of the State Department.
Dodd discovered that all high-level appointments in the State Department took place only after they had been cleared through a group called the Council of Learned Societies, which was established by the Carnegie Endowment. He saw in the minutes of the Carnegie Board, record of a note to President Wilson, requesting that he “see to it that the War does not end too quickly.”
Syndicated columnist Joseph Kraft, writing in Harper’s in July, 1958, said that records indicated that the Carnegie trustees hoped to involve the U.S. in a world war to set the stage for world government. Dodd said they wanted “to bring the idea of ‘one-world’ (government) to the point where it is acceptable to the people of this country. That is the primary aim, and everything that has happened since then is a means to that one end.” Their memos indicated that they believed their efforts were successful, because the war “had brought about a change in the American psyche.”
In the archives of the Endowment, Dodd discovered that they felt that the “only way to maintain control of the population was to obtain control of education in the U.S. They realized this was a prodigious task so they approached the Rockefeller Foundation with the suggestion that they go in tandem and that portion of education which could be considered as domestically oriented be taken over by the Rockefeller Foundation and that portion which was oriented to international matters be taken over by the Carnegie Endowment.” Dodd said that “they decided that the success of this program lay in an alteration in the matter in which American history was to be presented.”
The Guggenheim Foundation agreed to award fellowships to historians recommended by the Carnegie Endowment, and a group of 20 were assembled, and sent to London, where they were briefed and became founding members of the American History Association. In 1928, the A.H.A. was given a grant of $400,000 by Carnegie to write a 7-volume study on the direction the nation was to take. The secret of its success would be that it would be done gradually.
Rene Wormser, legal counsel to Reece’s Committee, said that the Carnegie Endowment was attempting to mold the minds of our children by deciding “what should be read in our schools and colleges.” He also described how the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Carnegie Endowment, and the Carnegie Corporation jointly sponsor conferences to push the goals of the United Nations.
The investigation by Reece’s Special House Committee, found that the Carnegie Corporation financed the writing and publication of the Proper Study of Mankind by Stuart Chase, the book praised by the communist agents Harry Dexter White and Lauchlin Currie, which outlined an “ideal” society in which the individual is suppressed. Over 50,000 copies of the book were distributed by the foundation to libraries and scholars. They also gave a $340,000 grant to print a 17-volume study on American education by Dr. George Counts, which was later called “an educational program for a socialist America.”
The Ford Foundation
In 1903, Henry Ford, Sr. (1863-1947) founded the Ford Motor Company, and in 1907, he bought out all of his partners, so his family would control the entire company. In 1924, he was so popular, that various polls indicated that he would be elected President if he ran.
In 1936, with his son Edsel, he established the Ford Foundation as an inheritance tax dodge, which he saw as a plot to take money away from Americans; and for his family to retain control after his death. An enemy of the establishment, Ford wanted American hero Charles A. Lindbergh (who supported the conservative ‘America First’ movement) to be the Director of his Foundation, but Lindbergh refused. Ford, and his son Edsel, died before the Foundation’s leadership could be placed in safe hands, and control passed to Edsel’s widow, and grandson Henry Ford II (who later married into the Rothschild family), who brought in such ‘insiders’ as William Benton, Dr. Robert M. Hutchins (who became Associate Director), and Paul G. Hoffman (who became the Chief Administrator).
The Ford Foundation, with assets of $4 billion, is the world’s largest endowment. They own 90% of Ford Motor’s stock. Ford also established the Edison Institute; and the Henry Ford Hospital, which gave two-thirds of its grants to education, and one-third to communications, public health, economic development, science, engineering, senior citizens, the humanities and the arts.
- financed a Black voter registration drive in Cleveland, which helped elect the city’s first Black mayor ($175,000)
- financed the pro-Castro Mexican-American Youth Organization in Texas
- gave grants to the Marxist Black group known as C.O.R.E. ($475,000)
- the leftist National Students Association ($315,000)
- the socialist Citizens Crusade Against Poverty ($508,500)
- the communist-controlled Southern Christian Leadership Conference ($230,000 )
- the leftist Urban League ($1,600,000)
- the pro-Vietcong American Friends Service Committee, which encouraged pacifism, resistance to military service and preparedness, and conscientious objectors ($100,000)
- National Council of Churches ($108,000); Anti-Defamation League ($35,000)
- National Catholic Conference for Interracial Justice ($552,000)
- American Jewish Congress ($100,000)
- American Council for Nationalities Service ($200,000)
- National Committee Against Discrimination in Housing ($162,000)
- Council on Foreign Relations ($1,000,000)
- Adlai E. Stevenson Institute of International Affairs ($1,000,000)
- UNESCO ($200,000); United Nations Association ($150,000)
- Institute for International Education ($1,625,000)
- American Assembly ($166,000)
- World Affairs Council ($102,000)
- Congress for Cultural Freedom ($1,500,000)
- the Committee for Economic Development’s Foreign Policy Research ($275,000)
- National Committee on U.S.-China Relations ($250,000)
- the communist-staffed Southern Regional Council ($648,000)
- the leftist National Educational Television and Radio Center ($6,000,000)
- the Public Broadcast Laboratory ($7,900,000)
In November, 1953, Norman Dodd, Director of Research for the House Special Committee investigating the tax-exempt foundations, was told by Roman Gaither, President of the Ford Foundation, “that most of the men who are now running the foundations, formerly worked for the State Department, the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Association, the Marshall Plan or other foreign relief agencies, and that in those capacities, they were working under instructions from the White House to bring about such sociological, economic, and political changes, as would make union with communist Russia easy and comfortable for the American people. Now, in the foundations, we are working toward the same objectives.” He said that the Ford Foundation operated under directives which “emanate from the White House,” and that the “substance of the directives under which we operate is that we shall use our grant-making power so to alter life in the United States that we can be comfortably merged with the Soviet Union.”
The Fund for the Republic (one of the six other Ford-controlled foundations), founded in 1953 under the direction of Robert G. Hoffman and Robert M. Hutchins, are known for their attacks on the internal security program of America, and criticism towards the FBI and Congressional committees investigating communism. They were responsible for ending the anti-communist fervor that was sweeping the country. They were also responsible for the establishment of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, in Santa Barbara, California, who developed a Constitution for one-world government.
Robert McNamara, an executive with the Ford Motor Co., became the Foundation’s President in 1960, later resigning to serve as the Secretary of Defense (1961-68) in the Kennedy and Johnson Administration. He helped lay the foundation for the SALT treaty. In 1968, he became President of the World Bank. McGeorge Bundy, a CFR member, the Chief Advisor for Foreign Affairs for Kennedy and Johnson, became President of the Foundation in 1966. He ushered in an era of social unrest by announcing that the Negro movement, “the first of the nation’s problems,” would be his top priority.
THE STOCK MARKET CRASH AND DEPRESSION
The Federal Reserve Board held a secret meeting on May 18, 1920, to plan a depression. Large banks began calling in loans, causing stocks to drop from a high of 138.12 in 1919, to a low of 66.24 in 1921. When the value of government bonds plummeted, they were forced to call in even more loans. When thousands of the banks’ customers could not pay their notes, the banks seized their assets.
After 1922, profits rose, and with the Federal Reserve’s ability to lend ten times more than their reserves, credit was easily obtained. From 1923 to 1929, $8 billion was sliced off of the deficit. The Reserve expanded the money supply by 62%, and this excess money was used to bid the stock market up to fantastic heights. The media began publicizing that there was an enormous profit to be made from the stock market. This push was planned at a meeting of the International Bankers in 1926, who made the boom possible, and who was going to bring about financial disaster later.
In 1928, the House hearings on the Stabilization of the Purchasing Power of the Dollar, revealed that the Federal Reserve Board had met with the heads of various European central banks at a secret luncheon in 1927 to plan what they believed may be a major crash. On February 6, 1929, after Montagu Norman, Chairman of the Bank of England, came to the United States to meet with Andrew Mellon, the Secretary of Treasury, the Reserve reversed its monetary policy by raising the discount rate, and during the next few months, after Paul Warburg had issued a tip in March, 1929, Illuminati members, who knew what the future held, got their money out of the stock market, reinvesting it in gold and silver. In the year before the crash, 500 banks failed.
On October 24, 1929, the New York banking establishment began calling in their loans, forcing their customers to sell stock at ridiculously low prices in order to pay off the loans. Stock prices fell by 90%, and U.S. Securities lost $26 billion. Thousands of smaller banks and insurance companies went bankrupt, and people who had been millionaires, were now broke. To prolong the depression after the crash, from 1929 to 1933, the Reserve began to reduce the money flow by one-third.
The Great Depression, as it became known, was engineered by the Illuminati to take money from the people, and to make them dependent on the Government through the subsequent New Deal programs of Roosevelt. Congressman Louis T. McFadden, Chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee said: “It was no accident. It was a carefully contrived occurrence ... The International Bankers sought to bring about a condition of despair here so they might emerge as the rulers of us all.”
To a limited extent, this same method was used to create minor ‘depressions’ in 1937, 1948, 1953, 1956, 1960, 1966, 1970, and 1979.
In his book, My Exploited Father-in-Law by Curtis Dall (son-in-law of Franklin D. Roosevelt) wrote: “The depression was the calculated ‘shearing’ of the public by the World Money powers, triggered by the planned sudden shortage of supply of call money in the New York money market … The One World Government leaders and their ever close bankers have now acquired full control of the money and credit machinery of the U.S. via the creation of the privately owned Federal Reserve Bank.”