THE BEGINNING AND SPREADING OF WAHHABISM
[*] Translated, for the most part, from Ayyub Sabri Pasha's Turkish work Mir'at al-Haramain: 5 volumes, Matba'a-i Bahriyye, Istanbul, 1301-1306 A.H.
36 - During the time when the Ottoman reign was dominant in the Arabian Peninsula, each state was governed by an official selected from the state. Later on, every region except the Hijaz came into the possession of whomever could usurp it and was governed as sheikhdoms.
The tenets of Wahhabism disseminated by Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab changed into a political form in a short time in 1150 A.H. (1737) and spread all over Arabia. Later, by the order of the Caliph in Istanbul, Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, the Governor of Egypt, liberated Arabia from them with the armed forces of Egypt.
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Muhammad, who believed in the Wahhabis, declared war for the first time in 1205 A.H. (1791) against the amir of Mecca, Sharif Ghalib Effendi. They had disseminated Wahhabism secretly till then. They had killed and tortured many Muslims, enslaved their women and children and usurped their possessions.
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab belonged to the Bani Tamim tribe. He was born in Uyayna village near the town of Huraimila in the Najd Desert in 1111 A.H. (1699) and died in 1206 (1792). Formerly, with the idea of trading, he went to Basra, Baghdad, Iran, India and Damascus, where he won the name "Shaikh an-Najdi" due to his clever and aggressive attitude. He saw and learnt a great deal at these places and set his heart on the idea of becoming a chief. In 1125 (1713 A.D.), he met Hempher, a British spy, in Basra, who understood that this unexperienced young person (ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab) has a desire to be a chief by way of revolution, established a long-term friendship with him. He inspired him the trics and lies that he had learned from the British Ministry of the Commonwealth. Seeing that Muhammad enjoys these inspirations, he proposed him to establish a new religion. So, the spy and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab got what they were looking for. He had thought it proper to found a new Tariqa or reach his goal, and, in preparation for this goal, attended the lectures of the Hanbali 'ulama' in the blessed city of Medina and later in Damascus for some time. When he went back to the Najd, he wrote pamphlets on religious subjects for villagers. He wrote what he learned from the British spy and mixed corrupt information from the Mutazila and other groups of bidat. Many ignorant villagers, particularly the inhabitants of Dar'iyya and their ignorant chief, Muhammad ibn Sa'ud, followed him. The Arabs esteemed ancestral distinctions very highly, and because he did not belong to a well-known family, he used Muhammad ibn Sa'ud as a tool to disseminate his Tariqa, which he named Wahhabism. He introduced himself as the Qadi (Head of the Religious Affairs) and Muhammad ibn Sa'ud as the Hakim (Ruler). He had it passed in their constitution that both would be succeeded only by their children.
In 1306 (1888) when the book Mirat al-Haramain was written, the amir of the Najd was 'Abdullah ibn Faysal, a descendant of Muhammad ibn Sa'ud, and the Qadi was a descendant of Muhammad ibn 'abd al-Wahhab.
Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's father, 'Abd al-Wahhab, who was a pious, pure alim in Medina, his brother Sulaiman ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and his teachers had apprehended from his statements, behavior and ideas, which he frequently had put forward as questions to them when he was a student in Medina, that he would become a heretic who would harm Islam from the inside in the future. They advised him to correct his ideas and advised the Muslims to avoid him. But they soon encountered the very thing they were afraid of, and he started disseminating his heretical ideas openly under the name of Wahhabism. To deceive ignorant and stupid people, he came forward with reforms and innovations incompatible with the books of the 'ulama' of Islam. He dared to be so impetuous as to deem the true Muslims of Ahl as-Sunnat wal-Jamaat as disbelievers. He regarded it as polytheism to ask Allahu ta'ala for something through the mediation of our Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) or other prophets or awliya', or to visit their graves.
According to what Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab learned from the British spy, he who talks to the dead while praying near a grave becomes a polytheist. He asserted that Muslims who said that someone or something beside Allah did something, for example, saying "such-and-such medicine cured" or "I obtained what I asked through our master Rasulullah" or "such-and-such wali" were polytheists. Although the documents Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab made up to support such statements were nothing but lies and slanders, the ignorant people who could not distinguish right from wrong, the unemployed, raiders, ignoramuses, opportunists and the hard-hearted soon assented to his ideas and took their part on his side and regarded the pious Muslims of the right path as disbelievers.
When Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab applied to the rulers of Dar'iyya with the view of disseminating his heresies easily through them, they willingly cooperated with him with the hope of extending their territories and increasing their power. They strove with all their might do disseminate his ideas everywhere. They declared war against those who refused and opposed them. The bestial people and pillagers of the desert competed with one another in joining the army of Muhammad ibn Sa'ud when it was said that it was halal to plunder and kill Muslims. In 1143 (1730), Muhammad ibn Sa'ud and Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab hand in hand arrived at the conclusion that those who would not accept Wahhabism were disbelievers and polytheists, and that it was halal to kill them and confiscate their possessions, and publicly announced their declaration seven years later. Then, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab started fabricating ijtihad when he was thirty-two years old and announced his false ijtihads at the age of forty.
As-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zaini Dahlan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaihi), Mufti of the blessed city of Mecca, described under the topic "Al-fitnat al-Wahhabiyya" the tenets of Wahhabism and the tortures the Wahhabis inflicted upon Muslims? [Al-futuhat al-Islamiyya, second volume, page 228, Cairo, 1387 (1968); photo-offset reproduction of a comparable part, Istanbul, 1395 (1975).] He wrote: "To deceive the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat in Mecca and Medina, they sent their men to these cities, but these men could not answer the questions of the Muslim 'ulama'. It became evident that they were ignorant heretics. A verdict declaring them disbelievers was written and distributed everywhere. Sharif Masud ibn Said, Amir of Mecca, ordered that the Wahhabis should be imprisoned. Some Wahhabis fled to Dar'iyya and recounted what had happened to them." [Al-futuhat al-Islamiyya, second volume, page 234, Cairo, 1387 (1968); photo-offset reproduction of a comparable part, Istanbul, 1395 (1975).]
The 'ulama' of the Hijaz belonging to all the four madhhabs, including Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's brother Sulaiman and also his teachers who had trained him, studied Muhammad's books, prepared answers to his disunionist writings, which were destructive to Islam, and wrote, to call to the attention of Muslims, well-documented books in refutation to his heretical writings. [See above article 5, for the passage translated from Sulaiman ibn Abd al-Wahhab's work As-Sawa'iq al-ilahiyya fi'r-raddi ala'l-wahhabiyya; first published in 1306; second edition (reproduced by photo-offset) in Istanbul in 1395 (1975).]
These books did not help much but rather increased the Wahhabis' resentment against Muslims and excited Muhammad ibn Sa'ud to attack Muslims and augment the bloodshed. He belonged to the Bani Hanifa tribe, so was a descendant of a stupid race that believed in the prophethood of Musailamat al-Kadhdhab. Muhammad ibn Sa'ud died in 1178 (1765), and his son 'Abd al-'Aziz succeeded him. 'Abd al-'Aziz was assassinated, stabbed in the abdomen by a Shiite, in the Dar'iyya Mosque in 1217 (1830). Then, his son Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz became the chief of the Wahhabis. All three strove very hard, as if competing with one another, to shed Muslim blood in order to deceive the Arabs and to disseminate Wahhabism.
The Wahhabis say that Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab disseminated his thoughts in order to attain sincerity in his belief in"Sharif Ghalib fled from fear! And the Ta'ifians do not have the power to resist you! They sent me to communicate that they will surrender the fortress, and they ask you to forgive them. I like the Wahhabis. Come back! You have shed much blood! It is not right to go back without capturing Ta'if. I swear that the Ta'ifians will immediately surrender the fortress. They will accept whatever you want." It was Sharif Ghalib Effendi's fault that Ta'if was lost in vain. If he had stayed in Ta'if, Muslims would not have suffered that doom. Since "Traitors are cowards," the Wahhabis did not believe that the Ta'ifians would surrender readily. But, seeing the flag of truce on the fortress, they sent an envoy to the fortress to investigate the situation. The Ta'ifians, pulled the envoy up to the fortress with a rope. "Gather all your goods here and surrender if you want to save your lives," said the envoy. All their possessions were gathered with the effort of a Muslim named Ibrahim. "This is not enough!" said the envoy, "We cannot forgive you for this much. You should bring more!" He gave them a notebook and said, "List the names of those who do not give! The men are free to go wherever they wish. The women and children will be put in chains." Although they begged him to be a little bit softer, he increased his aggression and harshness. Ibrahim, unable to be patient any more, hit him on the chest with a stone and killed him. During this confusion, the Wahhabis attacked the fortress, thus they escaped from being hit by cannon balls and bullets. They broke the gates and entered the fortress. They killed every woman, man and child they saw, cutting even the babies in cradles. The streets turned into floods of blood. They raided the houses and plundered everywhere, attacking outrageously and madly till sunset. They could not capture the stone houses in the eastern part of the fortress, so they besieged and put those houses under a shower of bullets. a Wahhabite scoundrel shouted: "We forgive you! You may go wherever you want with your wives and children," but they did not yield. Meanwhile, the Wahhabis gathered the people, who had set out to migrate, on a hill and encircled those pure Muslim families, who had grown up amid fondling and affection and most of whom were women and children, and held them to die of hunger and thirst for twelve days, and tortured them by slandering, stoning and cudgeling. The Wahhabis called them one by one and beat them and said, "Tell us where you hid your possessions!" and howled, "Your day of death is coming!" to those who begged for mercy.
Ibn Shakban, after pressing the stone houses violently for twelve days and being unable to make them yield, promised that those who would come out of the houses and give up arms would be forgiven. Muslims believed him and came out, but, with their hands tied behind their backs, they were drawn by Ibn Shakban to the hill where the other Muslims were encircled. Three hundred and sixty-seven men, together with women and children, were put to the sword on the hill (rahmat-Allahi 'alaihim ajmain). They made animals trample on the bodies of the martyrs and left them unburied to be eaten by beasts and birds of prey for sixteen days. They plundered Muslims' houses and gathered all they took into a big heap in front of the gateway of the fortress and sent one fifth of the goods and the money they collected to Sa'ud, sharing the remainder among themselves. The traitors and torrential rains swept away uncountable money and invaluable goods, and there remained little, only forty thousand gold rials, in the hands of Ahl as-Sunnat; ten thousand rials were distributed to the women and children, and the goods were sold very cheaply.
The Wahhabis tore up the copies of the Qur'an al-karim and books of tafsir, hadith and other Islamic books they took from libraries, masjids and houses, and threw them down on the ground. They made sandals from the gold-gilded leather covers of the Qur'an copies and other books and wore them on their filthy feet. There were ayats and other sacred writings on those leather covers. The leaves of those valuable books thrown around were so numerous that there was no space to step in the streets of Ta'if. Although Ibn Shakban had ordered the looters not to tear up the copies of the Qur'an al-karim, the Wahhabite bandits, who were gathered from the deserts for looting and who did not know the Qur'an al-karim, tore up all the copies they found and stamped on them. Only three copies of the Qur'an al-karim and one copy of the Sahih of al-Bukhari were saved from plunder in the big town of Ta'if.
a mujiza: The weather was calm during the plunder of Ta'if. There was no wind. a storm broke out after the bandits went away, and the wind lifted up all the leaves of the Qur'an al-karim and Islamic books and swept them away. soon there was no piece of paper left on the ground. Nobody knew where they were taken.
Under the hot sun, the corpses of the martyrs decayed on the hill in sixteen days. The atmosphere became fetid. Muslims begged, wept and lamented in front of Ibn Shakban to permit them to bury their dead relatives. At last he agreed, and they dug two big hollows, put all the decayed corpses of their fathers, grandfathers, relatives and children into the hollows and covered them with soil. There was no corpse that could be recognized; some of them were only one half or one fourth of a body, for other parts were scattered around by birds and beasts of prey. They were permitted to collect and bury these pieces of flesh because the bad smell bothered the Wahhabis, too. Muslims searched all around and collected and buried them, too, in the two hollows.
It was also for the purpose of insulting and taking revenge on the dead Muslims that the bandits kept the martyrs unburied until they decayed. But, as said in a couplet.
'It will bring ascent, do not grieve that you have fallen,
A building is not restored before it turns to a ruin.'
The status of martyrs (rahmat-Allahi 'alaihim ajmain) in Allah's esteem increases when their corpses are left unburied to decay and to be prey for birds and beasts.
The bandits completely ruined the shrines of as-Sahabat al-kiram, awliya' and 'ulama' after putting the Muslims of Ta'if to the sword and dividing up the loot and the money. When they attempted to dig a grave with a view to take out and burn the corpse of Hadrat 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas, who was one of our Prophet's most beloved companions, they were frightened by the pleasant scent that came out when the first pickaxe hit the ground. They said, "There is a great Satan in this grave. We should blow it up with dynamite instead of losing time by digging." Although they put much powder and tried hard, the powder misfired and they went away in astonishment. The grave was left level with the ground for a few years. Later, Sayyid Yasin Effendi put a very nice sarcophagus on it and protected that blessed grave from being forgotten.
The bandits also tried to dig up the graves of Sayyid 'Abd al-Hadi Effendi and many other awliya', but they were prevented by a karama at each grave. Facing extraordinary difficulties in carrying out this vile intention of theirs, they gave it up.
'Uthman al-Mudayiqi and Ibn Shakban also ordered that the mosques and madrasas should be demolished together with the shrines. Yasin Effendi, a great scholar of Ahl as-Sunnat, said, "Why do you want to demolish mosques, which are built for the purpose of performing salat in congregation? If you want to ruin this mosque because the grave of 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (radi-Allahu 'anhuma) is here, I tell you, his grave is in the shrine outside the big mosque. Therefore, it is not necessary to demolish the mosque." 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi and Ibn Shakban could not make any rejoinder. But, Matu, a zindiq among them, made a ridiculous statement: "Anything doubtful should be annihilated." Then, Yasin Effendi asked, "Is there anything doubtful about mosques?" and the demagogue was silent. After a long silence, 'Uthman al-Budayiqi said, "I do not agree with either of you," and ordered, "Do not touch the mosque, demolish the shrine!"
39 - Although the rascals also attacked Mecca after shedding much Muslim blood in Ta'if, they did not dare to go into the city because it was the time for pilgrimage. Sharif Ghalib Effendi was in Jidda to raise an army to resist the Wahhabis, and the people of Mecca, frightened by the Ta'if calamity, sent a committee to the Wahhabite commander and begged him not to torture them. The Wahhabis entered Mecca in Muharram 1218 A.H. (1803) and disseminated their beliefs. They announced that they would kill those who would visit graves or go to Medina to entreat in front of Rasulullah's shrine. Fourteen days later, they assaulted upon Jidda to capture Sharif Ghalib Effendi, who straightforwardly attacked the Wahhabite bandits from the Jidda fortress and killed most of them. The remainder fled to Mecca. Upon the Meccans begging, they appointed Sharif Ghalib Effendi's brother Sharif 'Abd al-Muin Effendi as the amir of Mecca and went back to Dar'iyya. Sharif 'Abd al-Muin Effendi accepted being the amir in order to protect the Meccans from being tortured by the Wahhabis.
Sharif Ghalib Effendi returned to Mecca with the Jiddan soldiers and the governor of Jidda, Sharif Pasha, thirty-eight days after the bandits were defeated in Jidda. They drove away the bandits left in Mecca, and he became the amir again. The bandits attacked the villages around Ta'if and killed many people to take revenge on the Meccans. They appointed the bandit 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi as the governor of Ta'if. 'Uthman called together all the bandits around Mecca and laid siege to the city with a big gang of looters in 1220 (1805). The Meccan Muslims suffered distress and hunger for months, and there was not even left a dog to eat on the last days of the siege. Sharif Ghalib Effendi understood that there was no other way out but to enter into a treaty with the enemy in order to save citizens' lives. He surrendered the city under the condition that he should be left as the amir of the city and that the Muslims' lives and possessions should be safe.
The bandits captured Medina after Mecca and plundered the most valuable historical treasures of the world, which had been collected in the Khazinat an-Nabawiyya (the Prophetic Treasure) for over a millennium. They treated the Muslims in so rude a manner that it is impossible to put into words. Then, they went back to Dar'iyya after appointing somebody named Mubarak ibn Maghyan as the governor of the city. They stayed in Mecca and Medina and did not let the pilgrims of Ahl as-Sunnat into Mecca for seven years. They covered the Kaba with two sheets of black cloth called Qailan. They forbade smoking the hookah and badly cudgeled those who smoked it. Meccans and Medinans disliked and kept away from them.
Ayyub Sabree Pasha (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) reported in the first volume of his book Mirat al-Haramain, which was published in 1301 A.H. (1883), the tortures inflicted upon the Meccan Muslims as follows:
"The tortures done to the Muslims in the blessed city of Mecca and to the pilgrims every year were so heavy that it is very difficult to describe in detail.
"The chief of the bandits, Sa'ud, frequently sent letters of threat to the amir of the Meccans, Sharif Ghalib Effendi. Although Sa'ud had laid siege to Mecca several times, he had not been able to penetrate into the city until 1218 (1802). Sharif Ghalib Effendi, with the governor of Jidda, assembled the leaders of the pilgrim caravans from Damascus and Egypt in 1217 and told them that the bandits intended to attack the blessed city of Mecca, and that if they would help him they altogether could capture Sa'ud, their chief. But his proposal was not accepted. Then, Sharif Ghalib Effendi appointed his brother Sharif 'Abd al-Muin Effendi as his deputy and went to Jidda. Sharif' Abd al-Muin Effendi, as the amir of Mecca, sent five scholars of Ahl as-Sunnat, namely Muhammad Tahir, Sayyid Muhammad Abu Bakr, Mir Ghani, Sayyid Muhammad 'Akkas and 'Abd al-Hafiz al-'AJami, as a committee of goodwill and forgiveness to Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz in 1218.
"Sa'ud responded and went to Mecca with his soldiers. He appointed 'Abd al-Muin as the head official of the district and ordered that all shrines and graves should be demolished, because, in view of the Wahhabis, the people of Mecca and Medina were not worshiping Allahu ta'ala, but shrines. They said that they would be worshiping Allah in its true form if shrines and graves were demolished. According to Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, all the Muslims had died as disbelievers or polytheists since 500 A.H. (1106); the true Islam was revealed to him, and it was not permissible to bury those who became Wahhabis near the graves of polytheists, by which he referred to the real Muslims.
"Sa'ud attacked Jidda to seize Sharif Ghalib Effendi (rahmat-Allahu 'alaih) and capture Jidda. But, the people of Jidda, hand in hand with the Ottoman soldiers, bravely defeated the enemies and put Sa'ud's soldiers to flight. Sa'ud, gathering those fleeing, returned to Mecca.
"Although Sharif 'Abd al-Muin Effendi (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) tried to be friendly with the Wahhabis in order to protect the Meccan Muslims against massacre and torture, the ferocious Wahhabis increased the severity of torture and pillage day by day. Seeing it was impossible to get along with them in peace, he sent a message to Sharif Ghalib Effendi saying that Sa'ud was in Mecca with his soldiers encamped at the Mu'alla Square and that it would be possible to capture Sa'ud if he assaulted them with a small number of soldiers.
"Upon the message, Sharif Ghalib Effendi took some distinguished soldiers with the governor of Jidda, Sharif Pasha, and attacked the Wahhabis in Mecca at nighttime. He encircled their tents, but Sa'ud fled alive. His soldiers said that they would surrender their arms if they would be forgiven, and their wish was accepted. Thus the blessed city of Mecca was saved from those cruel people. This success frightened the Wahhabis in Ta'if, who also surrendered without any bloodshed. The cruel 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi fled to the mountains in Yaman with his men. Seeing that those who were driven out of Mecca had started robbing villagers and tribesmen in the countryside, Sharif Ghalib Effendi sent messengers to the Bani Saqif tribe and ordered, 'Go to Ta'if and raid the Wahhabis! Take for yourself whatever you capture!' The Bani Saqif tribe attacked Ta'if to take revenge on the looters, and thus Ta'if was saved, too.
" 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi gathered the ignorant, savage villagers of the Yaman Mountains and, with the Wahhabis he met on his way, laid siege to Mecca. Meccans suffered severely in the city for three months. Sharif Ghalib Effendi failed in his attempts to sally out against the besiegers, although he tried ten times. The food stocks vanished. The price of bread went up to five rials and butter to six rials per oke (2.8 lb), but later no one sold anything. Muslims had to eat cats and dogs, which later could not be found. They had to eat grass and leaves. When there was nothing left to eat, the city of Mecca was surrendered to Sa'ud on the condition that he should not torture or kill the people. Sharif Ghalib Effendi was not faulty in this event, but he would not have fallen into this situation if he had called for aid from the allying tribes before. In fact, Meccans had begged Sharif Ghalib Effendi, 'We can go on resisting till the time of pilgrimage if you obtain help from the tribes who love us, and we can defeat them when the Egyptian and Damascene pilgrims come.' Sharif Ghalib Effendi had said, 'I could have done it before, but it is impossible now,' confessing his former mistake. He did not want to surrender, either, but the Meccans said, 'Oh Amir! Your blessed ancestor Rasulullah (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam), too, made agreement with his enemies. You, too, please agree with the enemy and relieve us of this trouble. You will be following our master Rasulullah's sunnat by doing so. Because, Rasulullah had sent Hadrat 'Uthman [from Khudaibiya] to the Quraish tribe in Mecca to make an agreement.' Sharif Ghalib Effendi distracted people from this idea of surrender until the last moment and did not go into an agreement. He yielded to the constraint of a man of religious duty named 'Abd ar-Rahman when the people could not endure the difficulty any longer. It was very intelligent of Sharif Ghalib Effendi to have listened to 'Abd ar-Rahman and to use him as a mediator in preventing Sa'ud from torturing the Muslims. He also won the favor of Meccans and soldiers by saying, 'I yielded to make an agreement unwillingly; I was planning to wait till the time for pilgrimage.'
"After the capitulation, Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz entered Mecca. He covered the Magnificent Kaba with coarse felt. He dismissed Sharif Ghalib Effendi (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih). He attacked here and there like a pharaoh and tortured the people in an inconceivable way. Because no help had come from the Ottomans, Sharif Ghalib Effendi was offended. He disseminated the hearsay that the reason for the surrender of Mecca was due to the slackness of the Ottoman government, and he incited Sa'ud not to let the Egyptian and Damascene pilgrims into Mecca in order to provoke the Ottomans to start action against the Wahhabis.
"This behavior of Sharif Ghalib Effendi made Sa'ud get more ferocious, and he increased the torture. He tortured and killed most of the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat and prominent and rich people of Mecca. He threatened those who did not announce that they were Wahhabis. His men shouted, 'Accept Sa'ud's religion! Shelter under his vast shadow!' in markets, bazars and streets. He forced Muslims to accept Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's religion. The number of the faithful people who could protect their true faith and correct madhhab decreased greatly, as it was in the deserts.
"Sharif Ghalib Effendi, seeing the dismal situation and apprehending that Islam would be annihilated also in the Hijaz and the blessed cities as it had in the Arabian deserts, sent a message to Sa'ud, saying, 'You cannot resist the Ottoman army that will be sent from Istanbul if you stay in Mecca after the season of the pilgrimage. You will be captured and killed. Do not stay in Mecca after the pilgrimage, go away!' This message was of no avail but only increased Sa'ud's ferocity and cruelty in torturing Muslims.
"During this period of tyranny and torture, Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz asked an alim of Ahl as-Sunnat, 'Is Hadrat Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam) alive in his grave? Or is he dead like every dead person as we believe he is?' The alim said, 'He is alive with a life which we cannot comprehend.' Sa'ud asked him this question because he expected such an answer on account of which he would easily torture him to death. 'Then, show us that the Prophet is alive in his grave so that we may believe you. It will be understood that you are obstinate in refusing my religion if you answer incongruously, and I will kill you,' said Sa'ud. 'I shall not try to convince you by showing something unrelated to the subject. Let's go to al-Madinat al-Munawwara together and stand in front of the Muwajahat as-Saada. I shall greet him. If he returns my greeting, you will see that our master Rasulullah is alive in his blessed grave and that he hears and answers those who greet him. If we get no answer to my greeting, it will be understood that I am a liar. Then you may punish me in any way you wish,' answered the alim of Ahl as-Sunnat. Sa'ud got very angry at this answer but let him go, for he would have become a disbeliever or polytheist according to his own beliefs if he had done as the alim proposed. He was stupefied for he was not learned enough to make any rejoinder to this answer. He set the alim free so that he might not be disreputed. However, he ordered one soldier to kill him and to immediately let him know when he was killed. But the Wahhabi soldier, by the Grace of Allah, could not find an opportunity to attain his goal. This terrible news reached the ear of that mujahid scholar, who then migrated away from Mecca thinking that it would not be good for him to stay in Mecca any longer.
"Sa'ud sent an assassin after the mujahid when he heard of his departure. The assassin traveled day and night, thinking that he would kill one belonging to Ahl as-sunnat and win much thawab. He caught up with the mujahid but saw that he had died a normal death shortly before he reached him. He tethered the mujahid's camel to a tree and went to a well for water. When he returned, he found that the corpse was gone and only the camel was there. He went back to Sa'ud and told him what had happened. 'Oh, yes!' Sa'ud said, 'I dreamt of that person ascending to the heavens among voices of dhikr and tasbih. People with shining faces said that the corpse was his (the mujahid's) and was being raised up to the heavens because of his correct belief in the Last Prophet (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam).' Thereupon, the Wahhabi said, 'You sent me to murder such a blessed person! And now you do not correct your corrupt belief although you see Allahu ta'ala's favor on him!' and swore at Sa'ud. He repented. Sa'ud did not even listen to the man. He appointed 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi to be the governor of Mecca and went back do Dar'iyya.
"Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz lived in Dar'iyya. He captured the blessed city of Medina, too. Later, he set out for Mecca with those who wanted to go on pilgrimage and those who were able to talk well. Men of religious attire who were to praise and disseminate Wahhabism went ahead. They started reading and explaining the book written by Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab in the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca on Friday the 7th of Muharram, 1221 (1806). The 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat refuted them. [For details, see Saif al-Jabbar, a collection of the Meccan ulama's refutations of Wahhabism, later printed in Pakistan; reprint in Istanbul in 1395 (1975).] Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz arrived ten days later. He settled in Sharif Ghalib Effendi's mansion at Mu'alla Square. He put a part of the cover he wore on Sharif Ghalib Effendi as a demonstration of friendship. And Sharif Ghalib Effendi showed friendship towards him. They went together to Masjid al-Haram and performed tawaf around the Magnificent Kaba together.
"Meanwhile, the news came that a caravan of Damascene pilgrims was coming towards Mecca. Sa'ud sent Masud ibn Mudayiqi to meet the caravan and tell them that they would not be allowed into Mecca. Masud met the caravan and said, 'You disregarded the previous agreement. Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz had sent you an order with Salih ibn Salih that you should not come with soldiers. But you come with soldiers! You cannot enter Mecca, for you have not obeyed the order.' The leader of the caravan, 'Abdullah Pasha, sent Yusuf Pasha to Sa'ud to ask his forgiveness and permission. Sa'ud said, 'Oh Pasha! I would kill all of you if I did not fear Allah. Bring me the sacks of gold coins which you intend to distribute to the people of the Haramain and Arab villagers, and immediately go back! I forbid you the pilgrimage this year!' Yusuf Pasha surrendered to him the sacks of gold and turned back.
"The news that the Damascene caravan was prevented from carrying out the pilgrimage spread as a terrible shock among the Muslim world. Meccan Muslims wept and lamented for they thought that they, too, were forbidden to got to 'Arafat. The following day they were given permission to go to 'Arafat, but were forbidden to go on mahfas or camel-palanquins. Everybody, even judges and 'ulama', went to 'Arafat on donkey or camel. Instead of the Qadi of Mecca, a Wahhabi delivered the khutba at 'Arafat. They returned to Mecca after carrying out the acts necessary to the pilgrimage.
"Sa'ud dismissed the Qadi of Mecca, Khatib-zada Muhammad Effendi, from service upon his arrival to Mecca and appointed a Wahhabi named 'Abd ar-Rahman as the Qadi. 'Abd ar-Rahman summoned Muhammad Effendi, Su'ada Effendi, the mullah (chief judge) of Medina, and 'Atai Effendi, the Naqib (representative of the Sharifs in Mecca) of the blessed city of Mecca, and made them sit on the felt on the floor. He told them to pay homage to Sa'ud. These 'alims clasped hands saying, 'La ilaha illa'llah wahdahu la Sharika lah,' in accord with the Wahhabite belief and sat down on the floor again. Sa'ud laughed and said, 'I command you and the pilgrims of the Damascene caravan to Salih ibn Salih's care. Salih is one of my good men. I trust him. I permit you to go to Damascus on the condition that you will pay 300 kurushes for each mafha -and load- camel and 150 kurushes for each donkey. It is a great favor for you to be able to go to Damascus at such a low price. You may go comfortably and happily under my protection. All pilgrims will travel under these conditions. And this is a justice of mine. I wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan, Hadrat Salim Khan III [rahmat-Allahi 'alaih]. I asked that it be forbidden to build domes on graves, to make sacrifice for the dead and to pray through them.'
"Sa'ud stayed in Mecca for four years. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, the Governor of Egypt, came to Jidda in 1227 A.H. (1812) upon the order of the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud-i 'Adli (rahmat-Allahi 'alaihima). The Egyptian forces he sent from Jidda and Medina jointly drove Sa'ud out from Mecca after a bloody battle."
40 - Sulaiman Khan I, the seventy-fifth Khalifa of Islam and the tenth Ottoman Sultan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) had restored the walls around the blessed city of Medina; the city had not suffered any assault of bandits for 274 years owing to its strong walls, and Muslims had lived in comfort and peace in the city till early 1222 A.H. (1807), when they fell prey to the hands of Sa'ud.
Sa'ud sent the looters he raised from the villages to Medina after capturing al-Makkat al-Mukarrama and the villages around it. He appointed two brothers named Baday and Nadi as commanders of the looters. They plundered the Muslim villages on their way and killed many Muslims. Most of the villages around Medina were set to fire and demolished. The Muslims who were on the right path shown by the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat were looted and put to the sword. There were so many villages burnt and Muslims killed that nobody could make an approximate estimate. The villages around Medina accepted the Wahhabite beliefs for fear of plunder, torture and death. They became servants and slaves to Sa'ud. Sa'ud sent a letter addressing the Medinan Muslims with Salih ibn Salih:
"I begin with the name of He who is the Owner of the Day of Judgement. May it be known by the 'ulama', officials and merchants of Medina that comfort and peace in the world is only for those who attain guidance. Oh the people of Medina! I invite you to the true religion. The 19th and 85th ayats of Surat Al 'Imran says, 'The correct religion in Allah's esteem is Islam. The religion of those who adopt any religion other than Islam will not be accepted. They will suffer loss on the Day of Judgement!' I want you to know about my feelings about you. I bear love and faith towards the people of Medina. I want to come and live in Rasulullah's city with you. I will not distress or torture you if you listen to me and obey my orders. The people of Mecca have been enjoying favor and kindness from me since the day I entered Mecca. I want you to become Muslims anew. You will be safe against plunder, death and torture if you obey my orders. Allah will protect you and I shall be your protector. I send this letter by my trustworthy man Salih ibn Salih. Read it carefully and make a decision with him! What he says is what I say."
This letter frightened the Medinans very much. They had heard about the tortures and massacre inflicted upon the Ta'ifian women and children (rahmat-Allahi ta'ala 'alaihim ajmain) a few days ago and had shuddered with fear. They could say neither 'yes' nor 'no' to Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz's letter. They could surrender neither their lives nor their religion.
Seeing no answer to the letter, the head of the bandits, Baday the treacherous, attacked Yanbu', the seaport of Medina. After capturing Yanbu', he laid siege to Medina and severely attacked the 'Anbariyya gate of the walls. Just on that day, the Damascene pilgrims came with their leader 'Abdullah Pasha. Upon seeing the city under siege, the pilgrims and the accompanying soldiers started fighting against the bandits. About two hundred bandits were killed in two hours of bloody battle while the remainder ran away.
The Muslims enjoyed peace in Medina until 'Abdullah Pasha completed his duties of pilgrimage, but the traitorous Baday besieged the city again after the Damascene pilgrims left. He captured Quba, Awali and Qurban and built two bastions in the district. He barred the roads to the city and demolished the aqueducts called the 'Ain az-zarqa.' Thus, the Muslims were left without food and water.
a mujiza: The water of the well at the Baghchat ar-Rasul in Masjid an-Nabi increased and its hardness decreased and brackish taste disappeared after the 'Ain az-zarqa' was demolished and the water-supply in the city was exhausted. No Muslim suffered thirst. Formerly, this well was known for its brackish water.
The siege continued for months. The Muslims endured heavy distress in the hope that the Damascene pilgrims would come and rescue them again. At last, the pilgrims arrived, but the head of the caravan, Ibrahim Pasha, said, "Surrender the city to them," because he did not have sufficient armed forces to fight against them. The Muslims thought that Ibrahim Pasha had talked and agreed with Baday and obtained promise that the Muslims would not be tortured or harmed. They wrote the following letter to Sa'ud and sent it by a council of four representatives, namely Muhammad Tayyar, Hasan Chawush, 'Abd al-Qadir Ilyas and 'Ali:
"We offer the respect to be paid to you and say salams. May Allahu ta'ala make you successful in your deeds which are compatible with His approval! Oh Shaikh Sa'ud! Ibrahim Pasha, the amir of the Damascene pilgrims, arrived and saw that the city was besieged, the roads barred, and the water cut off by Baday. He asked the reason and learnt that it was an order of yours. As we hope you bear no evil intention towards the people of Medina, we think that you have no information about these unbecoming and evil events. We, the notables of Medina, assembled and decided to inform you of what has been happening to us. We unanimously elected the four best, purest persons and sent them to you as messengers. We pray to Allahu ta'ala that they will come back to us with good news to make us happy."
Sa'ud treated the messengers very violently upon reading the letter and was not ashamed of saying that he was very angry with and hostile towards the people of Medina. The messengers begged him much to forgive them and imploringly cast themselves at his filthy feet. But, he said, "I conclude from your letter that you will not obey my orders, that you will not accept my true religion, that you are trying to deceive me with soft words for you are overwhelmed by thirst, hunger and distress, and that you are begging just to get rid of this distress. There is no other way out but to do whatever I wish. I will make you groan and vanish as I did with the people of Ta'if, if you pretend to be accepting my orders but speak or act unfavorably." He forced the Muslims to renounce their madhhabs.
The fallacious, heretical terms dictated to the Medinan messengers by Sa'ud are written in detail in the book Tareekh-i Wahhabiyyan.
The Medinan messengers went back to Medina after accepting Sa'ud's orders under compulsion. The Medinans, stupefied by these events, showed acceptance unwillingly, as the one who falls into the sea grasps the serpent. They surrendered the Medina fortress to seventy men of Baday as required by the seventh clause of the agreement. One of the terms of the agreement was that the shrines in Medina should be demolished. They unwillingly fulfilled the terms in order not to be tortured. Although they did so unwillingly, these deeds of theirs gave way to very bad consequences.
No answer came from the letters written to Istanbul for help. The Medinans lived under torture and oppression for three years. When they lost hope of help from Istanbul, they wrote a letter to Sa'ud asking for forgiveness and mercy and sent it to Dar'iyya with Husain Shakir and Muhammad Saghayee. But Sa'ud did not receive the messengers for he had heard that the people of Medina had asked Istanbul for help before. He set out for Medina with a large flock of brigands to increase the oppression and torture on the Medinans.
All the savages and villagers of the deserts of Arabia recognized Sa'ud as the ruler of the Najd, who signed the letters he wrote to here and there with the title "al-Imam ad-Dar'iyyat al-majdiyya wal-ahkami 'd-da'wati 'n-Najdiyya."
As soon as he entered Medina, Sa'ud ordered the servants of shrines themselves to demolish the shrines. Although the Muslims had demolished many noble shrines as required by the third clause of the terms accepted three years before, they had not dared to touch a few shrines which they knew to be great and blessed. The servants of these shrines started demolishing them while weeping and lamenting. The servant of Hadrat Hamza's (radi-'Allahu 'anh) shrine said he was very old and could not do anything, and Sa'ud ordered a treacherous slave of his to demolish the shrine. That person climbed up the dome to start demolishing it but fell down and died, and Sa'ud, the filthy, gave up demolishing Hadrat Hamza's shrine, yet he had its door removed. After supervising the operation of this base order of his, he made a speech on the dais constructed in Manaha Place. He said that the Medinans did not want to obey him, but became munafiqs out of fear and wanted to go on being polytheists as before. He added, in a very ugly and impertinent voice, that those who took refuge in the fortress should come and show humility, and that those who did not come would suffer the "Wahhabite justice" performed in Ta'if.
Everybody was frightened when the fortress gates were closed and it was announced in every street that all the people should assemble in Manaha Place. They supposed they, too, like the Ta'ifians, would be tortured to death. They went to Manaha Place after kissing away, the children's tears and saying good-bye to and mutually asking forgiveness from their wives. Men and women assembled in two separate groups and bowed their neck towards the bright dome of Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) blessed shrine. The blessed city of Medina had not suffered such a sad day ever before. Sa'ud was mad and enraged with a blind grudge towards the Muslims. But, Allahu ta'ala protected the city of Medina from being painted with blood, with the blessing of Rasulullah. After insulting the Muslims with unbecoming and mean words incompatible with modesty, Sa'ud ordered his bandits to settle in the Medina fortress. He appointed Hasan Chawush, one of the rascals he trusted the most, to be the governor of Medina and went back to Dar'iyya. He came to Medina again after performing hajj in Mecca during the pilgrimage season. Sa'ud came out from his den to the courthouse when the Damascene caravan went two or three days' way away from Medina. Without even a tremble of his dark, stony heart, he let his bandits plunder the precious gifts; the works of art of great historical value; invaluable pieces of art gilded with gold and inlaid with jewels and with precious stones; and select copies of the Qur'an al-karim and rare books, which had been kept in Rasulullah's blessed shrine and in the treasure of Masjid an-Nabawi that had been sent as choice, elaborate gifts by Muslim sultans, commanders, artists and 'ulama' from the whole Muslim world over a millennium. The fire of hatred in him against the Muslims did not calm down even after this shameful vileness of his, and he went on demolishing the remaining graves belonging to the Sahabis and martyrs. Although he attempted to demolish the dome of Rasulullah's blessed shrine, the Muslims' cries and entreaties made him give up; yet he ruined the Shabakat as-Saada, fortunately not touching the walls. He ordered that the walls around Medina should be repaired. He assembled the Medinans in Masjid an-Nabi. He closed the gates of the Masjid and delivered the following speech on the dais:
"Oh congregation! I have summoned you here to advise you and to warn you to obey my orders. Oh people of Medina! Your religion has now been completed. You became Muslims. You pleased Allah. Do not ever admire the false religion of your fathers and grandfathers any more! Do not pray to Allah to show mercy upon them! They all died as polytheists. They all were polytheists. I have explained how you should worship and pray to Allah in the books which I gave to your men of religious authority. It should be known that your possessions, children, wives and blood are mubah for my soldiers if you do not obey my men of religious authority! They will chain and torture all of you to death. It is forbidden in the religion of Wahhabism to stand in front of the Prophet's shrine with an attitude of respect to say salat and salam as your grandfathers used to do. You must not stand in front of the shrine, but walk away and say only, 'As-salamu 'ala Muhammad,' while passing by. According to the ijtihad of our imam Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, this much respect is sufficient for the Prophet."
Sa'ud, after making many similar unbecoming and vulgar slanders, which we dare not to quote, let the gates of Masjid as-Saada be opened. He appointed his son 'Abdullah the governor of Medina and went to Dar'iyya. Thereafter, 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud left no harm undone to the Medinan Muslims.
41 - During those years, the Ottoman State was busy with foreign affairs and was trying to extinguish the fire of rebellion incited by freemasons. When Sa'ud's torture to the Muslims and insults towards Islam reached an unbearable severity in 1226 A.H. (1811), the Caliph of the Muslims, Sultan Mahmud Khan 'Adli II (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), sent a written order to the Governor of Egypt, Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), to punish the bandits. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha set out an army corps from Egypt under the command of his son Tosun Pasha in the month of Ramadan. Tosun Pasha captured Yanbu' town, the seaport of Medina, but he was defeated in a severe battle at a place between the Safra Valley and the Judaida Pass on his way to Medina during the first days of Dhu 'l-Hijja, 1226. Although Tosun Pasha did not suffer any harm, most of the Ottoman Muslims were martyred. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha grieved about this misfortune and set out with a bigger army corps armed with eighteen cannons, three big mortars and many other weapons. They passed the Safra Valley and the Judaida Pass in Shaban 1227 (1812). They captured many villages without any combat in Ramadan. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, as he was advised by Sharif Ghalib Effendi, acted very intelligently in gaining these successes by distributing 118,000 rials to the villages which easily gave in to money. If Tosun Pasha had consulted Sharif Ghalib Effendi as his father did, he would not have lost his big army corps. Sharif Ghalib Effendi was the amir of Mecca appointed by the Wahhabis; however, he had a heartfelt desire to liberate Mecca from those ferocious bandits. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha also captured Medina without bloodshed at the end of Dhu 'l-Qada. Reports of these victories were sent to Egypt to be communicated to the Caliph. The people of Egypt rejoiced over the victories for three days and nights, and the good news of the victories were made known to all Muslim countries. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha had sent a division to Mecca via Jidda. The division arrived in Jidda early in Muharram 1228 and marched on towards Mecca. They entered Mecca easily by following the plans secretly organized by Sharif Ghalib Effendi. The bandits and their commander had fled the city and taken refuge in the mountains when they had heard the news that the Ottoman division was nearing Mecca.
Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz had turned back to his den of mischief, Dar'iyya, in 1227, after the pilgrimage and a visit to Ta'if where much Muslim blood had been shed. He was astonished to learn that al-Madinat al-Munawwara and then al-Makkat al-Mukarrama were taken by the Ottomans when he arrived in Dar'iyya. Just during those days, the Ottoman soldiers attacked Ta'if but met no resistance, for the tyrant of Ta'if, 'Uthman al-Mudayiqi, and his soldiers had fled from fear. The good news was presented to the Caliph of the Muslims in Istanbul, Hadrat Sultan Mahmud Khan 'Adli, who felt very happy and expressed thanks in the deepest sense for this blessing of Allahu ta'ala. He sent his thanks and gifts to Muhammad 'Ali Pasha and ordered him to go to the Hijaz again to inspect and control the bandits.
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, obeying Sultan Mahmud Khan's order, set out from Egypt again. At that time, Sharif Ghalib Effendi was in Ta'if with the Ottoman soldiers, busy with searching for the bloody-handed tyrant 'Uthman. After a well-organized search, 'Uthman was arrested and sent to Egypt and then to Istanbul. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha sent Sharif Ghalib Effendi to Istanbul when he arrived in Mecca and appointed his brother Yahya ibn Masud Effendi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) to be the amir of Mecca. Mubarak ibn Maghyan, another bandit, was also arrested and sent to Istanbul in Muharram 1229. These two bandits, who shed the blood of thousands of Muslims, got the punishment they deserved after being paraded in the streets of Istanbul for exposition. Sharif Ghalib Effendi, who served as the amir of Mecca for 26 years, was given a warm welcome of respect and love in Istanbul, and he was sent to Salonika where he reposed until he passed away in 1231 (1815). His shrine in Salonika is open to visitors.
A division was sent out to clear the places far down to Yaman after sweeping the bandits out from the blessed cities in the Hijaz. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha went to help this division with his soldiers and cleared the whole district. He came back to Mecca and stayed there until Rajab 1230, then he appointed his son Hasan Pasha to be the governor of Mecca and returned to Egypt. Sa'ud bin 'Abd al-'Aziz died in 1231 and his son, 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud, succeeded him. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha sent his son Ibrahim Pasha with a division under his order against 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud. 'Abdullah made an agreement with Tosun Pasha that he would be loyal to the Ottomans on the condition that he would be recognized as the governor of Dar'iyya, but Muhammad 'Ali Pasha did not accept this agreement. Ibrahim Pasha set out from Egypt towards the end of the year 1231 and arrived in Dar'iyya in the beginning of 1232. 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud resisted against Ibrahim Pasha with all his soldiers but was arrested after very bloody battles in Dhu 'l-Qada 1233 (1818). The good news of the victory was welcomed in Egypt with a salute of a hundred guns from the castle and rejoiced over for seven days and nights. All the streets were decked with flags. Takbirs and munajat (supplications) were recited on the minarets.
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, who deemed it a very important duty to clear the blessed cities in Arabia of the bandits, struggled hard to achieve this goal and expended innumerable gold coins for this cause. [It is now seen with sorrow that the Saudi government is in a struggle to disseminating their heretical beliefs all over the world by expending many more dollars. There is no way out other than to learn true Islam by reading the books of Religion written by the ulama of Ahl as-Sunna in order to save ourselves from the destruction of la-madhhabism.]
'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud with his ferocious looters who had tortured Muslims were arrested and sent to Egypt. They were all taken to Cairo before the eyes of innumerable people in Muharram 1234. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha gave a very kind and happy welcome to 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud. The conversation between them was as follows:
"You have struggled very hard!" the Pasha said.
"War is an affair of fate and luck," Ibn Sa'ud answered.
"How do you find my son Ibrahim Pasha?"
"He is very brave. His intelligence is much greater than his bravery. We strove hard, too. But, it happened as Allah had decreed."
"Do not worry! I shall write a letter of intercession for you to the Caliph of the Muslims."
"What was fated will happen."
"Why do you carry that casket with you?"
"In it, I keep very valuable things that my father took from the Hujrat an-Nabawiyya. I shall offer it to our magnificent Sultan."
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha ordered the casket to be opened. Three copies of the Qur'an al-karim with invaluable gildings, 330 very large pearls, a large emerald and gold chains, all stolen from the Hujrat an-Nabawiyya, were seen.
"This is not all of the valuable treasures taken from the Khazinat an-Nabawiyya. There should be more, shouldn't there?" Muhammad 'Ali Pasha inquired.
"You are right, my noble lord. But, this is all I could find in my father's treasure. My father was not the only one who attended the plunder of the Hujrat as-Saada. The Arab chiefs, notables of Mecca, the servants of he Haram as-Saada and the amir of Mecca, Sharif Ghalib Effendi, were all his partners in the plunder. What was seized belonged to whomever grasped it."
"Yes, that is right! We found many things with Sharif Ghalib Effendi [rahmat-Allahi 'alaih] and took them from him," said Muhammad 'Ali Pasha. [Ayyub Sabri Pasha comments in his text: "It should be thought that Sharif Ghalib Effendi took them with the purpose of saving them from being plundered by the Wahhabite looters. Muhammad Ali Pasha said, 'Yes, that is right!' not because he believed that Sharif Ghalib Effendi really looted, but because he accepted the reason why there were so very few things in the casket."]
After this conversation, 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud and his accomplices were sent to Istanbul. These ferocious bandits, who had murdered thousands of Muslims were hung in front of a gate of the Topkapi Palace.
Ibrahim Pasha demolished the Dar'iyya fortress and returned to Egypt in Muharram 1235 A.H. And one of Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's sons was brought to Egypt and kept in prison till he died.
After 'Abdullah ibn Sa'ud, Tarkee ibn 'Abdullah of the same lineage became the chief of the Wahhabis in 1240 (1824). Tarkee's father, 'Abdullah, was the uncle of Sa'ud ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. In 1249, Mashshari ibn Sa'ud killed Tarkee and took the reign. And Faysal, Tarkee's son, murdered Mashshari to succeed him in leading the Wahhabis in 1254 A.H. (1838). Though he tried to resist the soldiers sent by Muhammad 'Ali Pasha the same year, he was captured by Mirliwa (Brigadier-general) Khurshid Pasha and was sent to Egypt, where he was imprisoned. Then, Sa'ud's son Khalid Bey, who had lived in Egypt till then, was appointed to be the amir of Dar'iyya and sent to Riyadh. Khalid Bey, who was trained according to Ottoman manners, was a polite person with the faith of Ahl as-Sunnat. Therefore, he managed to remain as the amir only for one and a half years. Someone named 'Abdullah ibn Sazyan, pretending to be faithful towards the Ottoman State, captured many villages. He assaulted Dar'iyya and announced himself as the amir of the Najd. Khalid took refuge in Mecca. Faysal, who was in prison in Egypt, fled and, with the help of Ibn ar-Rashid, the amir of Jaba as-Samr, went to the Najd and killed Ibn Sazyan. Taking the oath of allegiance to the Ottoman State, he was appointed the amir of Dar'iyya in 1259. he kept his word till he died in 1282 (1865).
Faysal had four sons, namely 'Abdullah, Sa'ud, 'Abd ar-Rahman and Muhammad Said. The eldest one, 'Abdullah, was appointed as the amir of Najd. Sa'ud rose in rebellion against his elder brother with the people he gathered around him on the Bahrain Island in 1288 A.H. (1871). 'Abdullah sent his brother Muhammad Said to defeat Sa'ud, but Said's soldiers were defeated. Sa'ud had the desire of capturing all the cities of the Najd, but, because 'Abdullah was an amir appointed by the Ottoman State, Fareeq (Major-General) Nafidh Pasha was sent with the sixth army to defeat Sa'ud. Sa'ud and all the rebels with him were annihilated, and the Najd regained comfort and peace, and all the Muslims prayed for the Caliph of the Faithful (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih). In 1306 (1888), however, Muhammad ibn ar-Rashid captured the Najd and imprisoned 'Abdullah.
About one million savages of Asir who lived in the Sawwat Mountains between the cities of Ta'if and San'a had been made Wahhabis when Yaman had been invaded. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, after clearing the home of raiders had postponed the clearance on these mountains to a later date. This district was also taken under the control of the Ottomans during the time of Sultan 'Abd al-Majid Khan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) in 1263 A.H.
The people of Asir had an amir, whom they elected, and a governor, who was appointed by the Ottoman State. They frequently rebelled against the governor who treated them kindly, but they deemed it an act of worship to obey their amir. They even attacked the port of Hodeida in Yaman during a rebellion when Kurd Mahmud Pasha was the governor, but they were killed by a fatal simum. Although they rebelled and attacked Hodeida again in 1287, a small number of Ottoman soldiers heroically prevented them from entering the town. Thereupon, a group of soldiers were sent under the command of Radif Pasha and the dens of brigands on the steep mountains were captured one by one by the fine plans and organization of Radif Pasha and the Ottoman staff officers. The dens of mischief and rebellion were cleared away. When Radif Pasha fell ill, Ghazi Ahmad Mukhtar Pasha was appointed to civilize the savages in the deserts of Yaman and in the Asir Mountains and to establish and disseminate Islamic knowledge and morals in that district.
The Arabian Peninsula had been governed by the Ottomans since 923 A.H. (1517), when Yavuz Sultan Salim Khan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) conquered Egypt and became the first Turkish caliph. Although the cities were governed in full peace and quietness, the nomadic, ignorant people in the deserts and on the mountains were left to be governed by their own shaikhs or amirs. These amirs occasionally rebelled. Most of them became Wahhabis and started attacking people and killing Muslims. They robbed and killed the pilgrims.
In 1274 (1858), the British organized a revolution and overthrew the Islamic State in India and worked mischief also in Jidda; nevertheless, peace was maintained with the policy implemented by Namiq Pasha, the governor of Mecca at that time.
All the rebellious, savage amirs were brought to obedience and put under the control of the Ottoman State in 1277.
It is noted in the book Mirat al-Haramain that twelve million people lived on the Arabian Peninsula in 1306 A.H. (1888) when the book was written. Although they were very intelligent and understanding, they were also extremely ignorant, cruel and murderous. Their allegiance to Sa'ud increased the intensity of their barbarism.
Amir Ibn ar-Rashid, the great grandson of Ibn ar-Rashid, fought with the Ottomans against the British during the First World War. 'Ali, his son, the amir of Ha'il, a town south-east of Medina, passed away in 1251 (1835) and was succeeded by his elder son 'Abdullah ar-Rashid, who governed as the amir for thirteen years. His eldest son and successor, Tallal, was poisoned by Faysal ibn Sa'ud and, as a result, went mad and committed suicide with a revolver in 1282 (1866). Mu'tab, his brother, became the amir after him, but Bandar ibn Tallal killed his uncle Mu'tab and took the reign. This amir, too, was assassinated by his uncle, Muhammad ar-Rashid, who later captured the Najd and Riyadh and imprisoned amir 'Abdullah ibn Faysal, who belonged to the Sa'udi family, and took him to Ha'il. 'Abd ar-Rahman, 'Abdullah ibn Faysal's brother, fled with his son, 'Abd al-Aziz, and took refuge in Kuwait. Muhammad ar-Rashid died in 1315 (1897). He was succeeded by his brother's son, 'Abd al-'Aziz, whose cruelty caused the rise of Wahhabism again: the amirs of Riyadh, Qasim and Buraida, united with 'Abd al-'Aziz who was then in the village of Al-Muhanna. 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Faysal [ibn Sa'ud] set out for Riyadh from Kuwait with twelve dromedaries. He entered Riyadh one night in 1319 (1901). At a feast, he killed Ajlan, the governor of Riyadh, appointed by 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn ar-Rashid. The people of Riyadh, who had suffered much cruelty till then, elected him as the amir. Thus, the Saudi State was established in Riyadh. Many battles took place for three years. 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn ar-Rashid was killed. The Ottomans intervened in the dispute in 1333 (1915) and an agreement was made with 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn Sa'ud on the condition that he would be the head official in Riyadh. Later, Rashidees and Sa'udis fought a battle in Qasim; Abd al-'Aziz ibn Sa'ud suffered defeat and retreated to Riyadh.
On the 17th of June, 1336 [This is not in the year of the Hijra (Hegira), with which Arabic months are used, but in the Rumi calendar, which was introduced after the Tanzimat (1839). The Ottoman State used only the Hijri calendar before the Tanzimat.] (1918), 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman, with the encouragement from the British, published a declaration saying that Sharif Husain and those with him in Mecca were disbelievers and that he was performing jihad against them; he assaulted Mecca and Ta'if but could not capture these two cities from Sharif Husain Pasha. The British soldiers seized Sharif Husain ibn 'Ali Pasha and took him to Cyprus in 1342 (1924). The Pasha died in a hotel where he was imprisoned in 1349 (1931). 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman easily captured Mecca and Ta'if in 1924. Earlier, on February 28th, 1337 (1919), the Ottoman soldiers, who had guarded Medina against the amir of Mecca, Sharif Husain Pasha, who was not on friendly terms with the Ittihajjilar ['Unionists'; members of Ittihad wa Taraqqi Jam'iyyati, the secret 'Union and Progress Society,' which later became the Union and Progress Party.] who had taken the government of the Ottoman Empire under their own control at that time, had left the Hijaz in accord with the terms of the Mondros Armistice. Sharif 'Abdullah, Sharif Husain Pasha's son, had settled in Medina but the British government banished him from Medina to Amman after his father's death. He founded the State of Jordan in 1365 (1946) but was killed by British assassins while he was performing salat in Masjid al-Aqsa in 1307 (1951). His son, Tallal, succeeded him but soon handed the rule to his soon Malik Husain because of his illness. Sharif Husain Pasha's second son, Sharif Faysal, founded the State of Iraq in 1339 (1921) and died in 1351 (1933). He was succeeded by his son, Ghazi, who died in 1939 at the age of twenty-one. The next ruler of Iraq, his son Faysal II, was murdered by General Qasim in the coup of August 14, 1958, when he was twenty-three years old. Qasim was killed in a second coup. Iraq and Syria were captured by the socialist Ba'th Party after several coups and became dependencies of Russia.
'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman attacked Medina many times. He even bombed Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) blessed shrine in an attack in 1926 but, fortunately, could not capture the city. The following news was reported in the paperson Sa'at in Istanbul on September 9, 1344 (1926):
MEDINA BOMBARDED - We had previously reported that the Muslims of India were agitated by the bombardment of Medina by 'Abd al-'Aziz [Ibn Sa'ud]. The Times of India published in India says:
"The recent news that Medina was assaulted and the Qabr an-Nabawi was bombarded caused such a great agitation among Indian Muslims as no other event has ever caused before. The Muslims living all over India showed how much they respected that sacred place. This serious grieving in India and Iran will certainly influence Ibn Sa'ud and prevent him from such vile actions so that he may not incur the hatred of all Muslim countries against him. The Indian Muslims have openly expressed this to Ibn Sa'ud."
The partisans of the Union and Progress Party who governed the Ottoman Empire during the First World War were ignorant of Islam. They lacked Islam, Islamic training and morals. Most of those who took active parts in the government were freemasons, who tortured the Muslims in Arabia, too, as they did all over the Empire. They oppressed Muslims very ruthlessly. The people of Arabia, who were used to justice, mercy, favor and respect during the reign of Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid Khan II (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), loved the Turks as their brethren. They were astonished at the torture and robbery committed by the Unionists. The son-in-law and other relatives of Sharif Husain ibn 'Ali Pasha, the Amir of Mecca (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), and many Arab notables were tortured to death by the Unionist Jamal Pasha in Damascus.
After the Unionist army came from Saloniki to Istanbul and dethroned Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid Khan II, they locked in dungeons many notables of the government, 'ulama' and authors of the time of the Caliph, and murdered others by shooting them from behind when they were leaving their offices or mosques after prayer. They used Sultan Rashad (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), whom they brought to the Caliphate, like a puppet, and the legislators they appointed like tools under the threat of pistols in running the Empire from war to war, from one disaster to another. Ignoring Islam totally, they took to torturing the people and amusing themselves in dissipation. They sent into exile or hanged those zealous patriots, foresighted and sincere Muslims who opposed this crazy current flowing at full speed. Sharif Husain ibn 'Ali Pasha was one of these sagacious Muslims who held the rank of Mir-i miran or Beghler Beghi (provincial governor) and served the Caliph and the Empire during Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid Khan's reign. To keep him away from Istanbul, he was appointed the Amir of Mecca when he opposed the Unionists' putting the Empire into the disaster of the First World War. The unionists gave the name of "Jihad-i akbar" falsely to the declaration of war, which was prepared by Anwar Pasha and signed by Sultan Rashad on 22 Dhu'l-Hijja 1332 (October 29, 1914), and sent its copies to all Muslim countries. poor Sultan Rashad supposed that he was the real caliph but could not help complaining, "They do not listen to me at all!" to his close companions, expressing that he was aware of the tricks played, when he was forced to sign orders incompatible with Islam.
Sharif Husain Pasha (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) saw that the Unionists, exploiting the faith of Muslims and talking about jihad against non-Muslims, were leading the great empire to partition, that they were throwing thousands of Muslim youth into the fire, that their unawareness and dissipation were not compatible with their words in the least. He tried to find a way out to save Muslims from the hands of these bandits, and the Empire from the dangerous consequences likely to come. Upon hearing that Jamal Pasha amused himself outrageously and killed the notable personages of the Sharif in Damascus, he sent his son Sharif Faysal Effendi to Damascus [to investigate the matter]. Faysal Effendi saw what they had heard was true and informed his father of all the wicked events. Sharif Husain Pasha could not endure any more and published two declarations, one on 25 Shaban 1334 (1916), and the second on 11 Dhu'l-Qada 1334, in order to make Muslims aware of what was going on. The Unionists called those two just invitations "declarations of rebellion." The hired pens of the Unionist press in Istanbul swore at and slandered Sharif Husain Pasha vilely and spitefully. The Unionists, instead of paying attention to Sharif Husain Pasha's declarations, proclaimed him to be a traitor disloyal to the country. They sent regiments on him to defeat him. They made brothers fight with one another for years. They caused the martyrdom of many innocent people in order not to leave Mecca and Medina to those khalis Muslims who were the sons of our Prophet (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam). Worst of all, they surrendered those blessed places to the murderers of Islam, ignorant and cruel bandits of deserts. Nevertheless, it eventually came out that Sharif Husain Pasha was right. The Unionists handed the Ottoman Empire to the enemies and fled the country. If it were not for the Turkish Independence Victory on 30th of August 1340 (1922), the Turks and Islam would have been completely annihilated as Sharif Husain Pasha feared, and the dagger trusted by the British through the terms of the Sevres Treaty (Aug. 10, 1920) would have annihilated the Muslim World.
It will be clearly understood from a careful study of Sharif Husain Pasha's declarations translated below that he did not have any such idea as "Arab independence." He was not a nationalist. He wanted all Muslims to go on living brotherly under the flag of Islam. The pure Muslims in Mecca and Medina believed that all Muslim nations were brethren and loved them as their brothers, while the Unionist newspapers insulted the Arabs by calling black dogs "Arab, Arab!" and making up such terms as "Arabic hair" for "Fuzzy hair" and "Arabic soap" for "soft soap" and "black Fatma (Fatima)" for "cockroach." What a pity the Unionist partisans lacked the faithful soul and noble understanding of those Muslims. While regarding those sincere Muslims as rebels, they kept silent for the rebellion of those who attacked the Turkish soldiers and captured the Ottoman lands. The Unionists, who ordered the Turkish soldiers again and again to fight with the pure Muslims of the Prophet's family, wrote letters of alliance to the rebellious 'Abd al-'Aziz ibn 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Faysal, saying, "Come to Medina with your soldiers; we shall go to Mecca with you and arrest amir Husain who raised rebellion against the Sultan." 'Abd al-'Aziz did not even answer their letters, because he did not want Turks in Mecca. He had already made an agreement with the commander of the British forces, which were on Bahrain Islands in those days. He was in a struggle of assaulting and capturing the Ottoman cities on the coast of the Persian Gulf with the weapons he obtained from the British and was expecting Arabia to be given to him. And so it happened as follows:
Faruqi Sami Pasha was appointed the mutasarrif (governor of a subdivision of a province) of the Qasim town to end the bloody battles which had been taking place between the tribe of 'Abd al-'Aziz and that of Ibn ar-Rashid in the Najd deserts. Although 'Abd al-'Aziz planned to capture Sami Pasha and the Turkish soldiers with the view of taking them to Riyadh, the shaikhs in Qasim prevented him by advising him that it would be very hard to settle the problem that would arise with the [Ottoman] State. But he played a trick on Sami Pasha, saying, "It will be difficult to supply food for all these soldiers in Qasim. You may suffer hunger. Go back to Medina." Sami Pasha thought that this was friendly advice and went to Medina. After the soldiers left, "Abd al-'Aziz removed the Ottoman flag from the castle, and thus Qasim was captured. Next, he attacked al-Khassa, the capital of the province of Najd, and captured the city by defeating the Ottomans. The Unionists approved and did not react against 'Abd al-'Aziz, especially Talib an-Naqib, a modernist reformer of religion and the deputy of Basra, introduced his assaults as service to Islam. Meanwhile, "Abd al-'Aziz attacked Ibn ar-Rashid, too, but he was badly defeated and ruined. Many in the Sa'udi family were killed. There were British-made weapons and many hats among the booty taken from 'Abd al-'Aziz. This blow to 'Abd al-'Aziz postponed his attacks upon Mecca and Medina. With the incitement of the famous British spy Captain [later Colonel] Lawrence, he declared war against Sharif Husain Pasha and attacked Mecca on June 17th, 1336 (1918) but was defeated and went back to the Najd. [Abd-ul-Aziz ibn Abd ar-Rahman took over Mecca and Taif in 1342 A.H. (1924) and Medina in 1349 (1931) from the British forces and founded the state of Saudi Arabia on September 23, 1351 (1932). After his death in 1373 (1953), his successor was his son, Saud, who was the twentieth descendant of the Saudi lineage. Having led a life of debauchery, he died in a drunken sexual debauch in Athens in 1964. His succeding brother Faisal generously expended millions of gold coins, which he collected from petroleum companies and pilgrims every year, in the dissemination of Wahhabism in every country. He was killed by his nephew in his palace in Riyadh in 1395 (March 1975), and his brother Khalid became the ruler of Saudi Arabia. In 1402 (1982), Khalid died and was succeeded bu Fahd.]
The commandants of Medina, Basri Pasha and Fakhree Pasha, although they closely observed the perfidies of 'Abd al-'Aziz, proclaimed Sharif Husain Pasha and his sons to be rebels, deeming it a duty for themselves to obey the orders of the Unionists. They were used like tools to make Muslim brothers strangle one another. Ghalib Pasha, the Governor and Commander of the Hijaz, was not deceived by the Unionists for he was a foresighted, experienced commander of extensive Islamic knowledge. He understood from his detailed, careful investigation and examination that Sharif Husain Pasha was right and that he wrote his two declarations out of his love for Islam and the whole Muslim nation. He issued the following "Daily Command" to defend Sharif Husain Pasha against the slanders:
"There should not be any doubt about the sincerity of Hadrat Amir [Sharif Husain Pasha]. There is no such possibility that he would incite rebellion. The hearsay about him is not true in the least. Sharif Husain Pasha is devoted to the Caliph of the Faithful in full obedience and always prays for the long life of His Majesty."
Ghalib Pasha sent copies of this statement to Jamal Pasha, the commander of the fourth army and one of the ring-leaders of the Unionist bandits, and also to Istanbul. He openly defended Sharif Husain Pasha by stating that he was a sincere Muslim and was correct in his cause. Unfortunately, the Unionists deemed Sharif Husain Pasha and his sons are great obstacles in their way and feared very much that they would enlighten Muslims and prevent their oppressions and other excessive behavior. They plotted filthy tricks to put the Sharifs in the position of rebels. The brave Turkish officers in Medina were ordered to fight against them, and the brothers were made to shed one another's blood for years. At last, most innocent officers, who shot the Sharifs regarding them as rebels or even traitors, understood that they were misled. Hundreds of officers united and founded Merkez hay'ati (the Central Council) under the leadership of Colonel Amin Beg, the Chief of Staff of the Division. They revealed the murders that had been committed in the Hijaz by publishing various declarations. They said: "The commandant [Fakhree, or Fakhr ad-din Pasha] and his flatterers are lying. The Arabs and the Turks will go on living together as two brother nations as they have done before. Haven't we been already brothers? Are we not connected to each other with historical and religious bonds? Will the Noble Nation of the Arabs (Qawm-i Najib-i 'Arab) be our enemies if they become independent? If you ask it to them, they, too, will say 'No!' We shall continue working in unity. Hadrat Sharif [Husain Pasha] prepared camels for our soldiers to go to the sea-port Yanbu'. He sent medicine for the sick. He kindly thought of our comfort on our journey to Yanbu'. Is this not a sign of great humanity? Can there be a better example of brotherhood? If, instead of this favor, he had said, 'You can go to Yanbu' on foot,' would we say, 'No! We are heroes! We shall hang and slay you! We want cars? It is not bravery to die aimlessly from now on. This declaration of ours is meant for those who could not see the truth. The majority has come to understand the truth. Would our master Hadrat Prophet (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) approve of this cruelty?"
Fakhr ad-din Pasha, the Commandant of Medina, was still insisting on obeying the orders of the Unionist government. The Turkish officers encircled his Badroom early on 10 January 1337 (1919). First Lieutenant Shawkat Bey, his aide-de-camp, heard the noise and came out. He saw colonels, lieutenant-colonels, lieutenants, selected infantrymen and gendarmes climbing up the stairs. They took away the aide-de-camp. Those who entered the Badroom held the pasha by the wrists and took him to the sea-port of Yanbu' between two officers in a car. The officers and the soldiers were happy to travel homeward to Istanbul. However, the British forces took them to Egypt ant kept them in prison for six months. The pasha was banished as a prisoner of war to Malta on August 5th. He was kept there for two years. Because he had deemed it a duty to his country to obey the mad orders of the Unionists, this brave Turkish commandant had remained inactive in Medina and had not found the opportunity of fight against the British forces, the ferocious enemies of Islam. The Unionists, after they took hold of the government, not only partitioned the country of heroes but also caused many patriots of this country like Fakhr ad-din Pasha to groan in the enemy dungeons. They shed the blood of thousands of innocent Muslims and Muslim Turks in order not to give the Sacred Lands, Mecca and Medina, to the Sharifs who were khalis Muslims of our Prophet's family. They left the Sacred Lands to the bloody-handed, stony-hearted people who were the historical enemies of true Muslims and Turks.
SHARIF HUSAIN PASHA'S FIRST DECLARATION:
Those with a good knowledge of history know very well that the amirs of al-Makkat al-Mukarrama have been the first among those Muslim leaders and rulers to affiliate with ad-Dawlat al-'aliyyat al-'Osmaniyya (the Supreme Ottoman Empire) to strengthen Muslim Unity.
These Arab amirs have always been strictly loyal to the Ottomans because the Ottoman sultans have been zealous in executing the Holy Book of Allah and the Sunnat of Rasulullah and obeying Islam and because they sacrificed their bodies for this purpose. For instance, I tried to break up the siege of Abha by attacking with armed forces raised from Arabs against Arabs to protect the honor and dignity of ad-Dawlat al-'Osmaniyya in the year 1327 ; one year later, I carried out that action to success under the command of one of my sons, again for the same purpose. As everyone knows, I have never deviated from this great aim.
The appearance of Ittihad wa Taraqqi Jamiyyati, their taking control state affairs and their administration, which is corrupt at its very foundation, have caused, as known by everyone, many domestic and foreign disorders and many battles and shocked the greatness and power of the Empire, and, by entering into the last war, [The First World War.] led the Empire into a very dangerous situation. There is no one who does not see and experience the dismal situation; it is not necessary to explain the details.
We do not want to see any people of Islam loosen their relations with this great Muslim empire and be in grief and difficulties. The unity of the people of the Ottoman [Empire] has been spoilt and thus the people's trust in the security of their possessions and lives is lost because of the executions by hanging and imprisonment in dungeons and the banishment of Muslim and non-Muslim citizens who live on the last portion of our empire. The distress that the people in the Sacred Lands suffered has been so severe that the people of moderate status have had to sell the doors and windows of their houses and household utensils, and even the timber from the roofs of their houses.
The Unionists, unsatisfied with all of what they have done, have also attempted to distort the Book of Allah and the Exalted Sunnat, which are the only bonds between the Exalted Ottoman State and the Muslims; the newspaper Ijtihad, which is published in the capital of the Exalted Ottoman State before the eyes of the Grand Vizier, Shaikh al-Islam and all viziers and senators, is not ashamed of insulting our Prophet with unbecoming writings and, in addition, taking advantage of not being criticized, presumptuously tries to change the ayats of the Qur'an al-karim and dares to ridicule the ayat about inheritance. [See our book The religion Reformers in Islam for these insolent writings by Ziya Gokalp.]
Besides, they have attempted to abolish one of the five fundamentals of Islam as follows: they ordered the soldiers in al-Makkat al-Mukarrama, al-Madinat al-Munawwara and Damascus not to fast in the honorable month of Ramadan to make them feel as if they were like the soldiers fighting against the Russian army. They have not held back from removing many such Islamic fundamentals and committing and making others commit the things Allahu ta'ala forbids.
They have deprived our Majestic, Exalted Sultan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) even of the right of appointing a general secretary to the Palace as they have taken away all rights from His Majesty. They themselves have ignored the constitution they themselves wrote [and announced to the world by depriving the Ottoman Sultan of the right of serving Muslims' affairs.] They have left the Ottoman Sultan deprived of his constitutional rights. All Muslims and foreigners see this vile behavior and feel disgusted. The reason why we have kept silence about and attributed to [their possible] good [intention] such behavior [of theirs, which, in fact, was] meant to abolish Islam up to now, was because it was feared that it would be an act of sowing seeds of mischief and discord among Muslims.
[We see now that] the wide-spread hearsay that the government of the Supreme Ottoman Empire has left in the hands of Anwar, Jamal and Tal'at pashas was not without foundation. The meaning of this hearsay is getting clearer day by day; as everybody understands openly, they do whatever they wish, and they make others do whatever they say, and their orders are more powerful than the constitution and the laws. An order sent to the Qadi (judge) of the mahkamat ash-Shariyya (canonical court) of Mecca states that the witnesses should be listened to in the presence of the judge and that the tazkiya [(Pronouncement of the) investigation of the antecedents of a witness in order to assess whether his testimony is acceptable.] not recorded in the presence of the judge should not be accepted. This order is an abrogation of the explicit order of the Qur'an al-karim that tazkiya should be practiced among Muslims.
Moreover, the famous 'ulama' of Islam and the notable Arab citizens such as Amir 'Umar al-Jazayri, Amir 'Arif ash-Shahabi, Shafiq Beg, al-Muayyad Shukru Beg, al-Asani, 'Abd al-Wahhab, Tawfiq Beg, al-Basat, 'Abd al-Hamid az-Zarawi and 'Abd al-Ghani al-Arisi and many other virtuous, useful people like them have been hanged or shot illegally, without any trial. Many families have been ruined by their orders given when they were in a drunken stupor. Perhaps I could find an excuse for those murders which would not be committed even by hard -and stony-hearted dictators, but what excuse could be found acceptable for banishing their remaining sinless, innocent families, wives and children, from their homes and countries, thus loading them with sorrow over sorrow and calamity over calamity?
It is obvious that it is never compatible with logic, justice and humanity in any case to banish and tyrannize women and children while it has already been a sufficient penalty [upon women and children] to see their husbands and fathers killed or decay in dungeons for whatever reason it was. The 164th ayat al-karima of Surat al-Anam declares, "No one should be punished for another's guilt!" To what rule could these brutal actions of the Unionists be conformable, while this [Qur'anic] commandment enlightening upon justice is explicitly obvious? Even if we could find a political reason, a law, supporting this second murder [of banishing], what excuse could be made for the unjust seizure of the possession and property of those women and children who have lost their husbands and fathers? Let us be silent about this very vile action of theirs for a moment; let us neglect our duty of protecting the innocent and oppressed people for the peace of the nation and the country. But, what reason can ever be shown as an excuse for insulting, playing with the dignity and personified chastity of the chaste, honest and honorable daughter of the famous mujahid, heroic amir 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza'iree? Was there no common woman left to be played and amused with? Is there anyone who cannot understand the ideas and the aim of those who attack the historically certified nobility and honor of the blessed ladies who are the apples of Muslims' eyes?
We have mentioned above some of the scandals, which everybody knows of among the illegal, immoral, unfair, excessive and stupid actions of the Unionists. I reveal these for all of humanity and our faithful brethren. Those who read and understand will make their conscientious decision. I cannot help writing another heart-breaking, very mean and insolent action of these militant partisans [Unionists] against Muslims, in order to clearly expose their understanding of Islam and their final aim:
During the demonstration arranged by the people of al-Makkat al-Mukarrama to end the attacks directed towards their lives and honesty, two of the shells fired from the guns at Qal'at al-Jiyad to Bait-Allah (the Holy Mosque), the qibla of Muslims and the Kaba of the believers, by the order of a Unionist commander, hit one at a point one meter and the other three meters from the sacred Stone, the Hajar al-aswad. The Sutrat ash-Sharifa, the cover of the Kabat al-Muazzama, caught fire from these shells and the people, to extinguish the fire, had to open the door and climb on the Kabat al-Muazzama. Although they [the soldiers] saw the fire, they kept Maqam al-Ibrahim and the mosque Haram ash-Sharif under cannonade and martyred some Muslims. The people could not enter the masjid, and salat could not be performed in the masjid for days. I leave it to all the Muslims all over the world to see the beliefs and ideas of those who attempt to insult and harm the Kabat al-Muazzama, despite the necessity that Muslims should respect and revere mosques and the Kabat al-Muazzama. We cannot leave the future of the Islamic religion and that of all my compatriots as a plaything in the hands of the Unionists with such mentalities and beliefs. Allahu ta'ala protected our people from being caught unaware. The Muslims of the Hijaz have now taken independence by their own endeavor and have decided to protect this country of heroes from the Unionist partisans who have been annoying this country. They have attained a perfect and absolute independence by the power of their own faith and heroism, which has added golden pages to the history, without going into any agreement with a foreign country or accepting foreign aid of any kind.
We are making progress towards our sacred aim of protecting the Religion of Islam and glorifying the kalimat at-tawhid by departing from the countries groaning under the tyranny and torture of the Unionist partisans who have pestered the people of Islam. We shall learn every branch of science which is conformable to and fit for Islam. We shall found advanced industry. We shall try with all our hearts and souls to advance on the way of civilization. We expect that all our brothers-in-Islam in the Muslim world will brotherly support this action of ours, which is intended to execute the wajib, the duty, and that they will help us in our sacred jihad.
We hold out our hands to our glorious Allah, who is the Lord of lords, and pray and beg Him to lead us to and make us attain success on the right path for the love of His exalted Prophet. His help reaches to and is sufficient for everyone who begs Him. He is the Best Helper.
25 Shaban, year 1334 
Amir of al-Makkat al-Mukarrama
Sharif Husain ibn Ali
SHARIF HUSAIN PASHA'S SECOND DECLARATION:
I thought it proper to publish this second declaration for the enlightened compatriots and learned Muslims, thinking that there might be some doubt about the endeavors and ideas of ours, the people of he Hijaz, who have started an action for the reasons stated in the first declaration. I am warning our brothers in the light of the latest apparent proofs and evidences.
The foresighted Muslims and the learned, experienced personages of the Ottoman community and the wise and intelligent ones of the whole world do not approve of the Ottoman Empire having entered into the General War. [The First World War.] There are two reasons for this [disapproval]:
The first reason is domestic: the Supreme Ottoman State had recently come out from the wars of Trablusgharb [Tripoli] and Balkan, and her military and economic powers had suffered great fatigue, even ruination, and the people who were her source of power had become exhausted. The soldiers in the Ottoman nation had been called under arms for wars one after another just after they had returned home and started earning the livelihood for their household, and this situation had become a tragedy for the people. Because the General War to which the Unionists have recently forced the State is extremely terrible and destructive compared to the previous wars, it has been very unwise to have led the people to such a dangerous war by loading the people with heavy taxes and torturous duties.
The second reason is foreign: the Unionist government has made a big mistake in choosing the side on which to take part. The Ottoman Empire is an Islamic State. The geographical situation of her lands is of great importance and extends widely. The length of her coastlines is greater than the length of her borderlines. Therefore, the Ottoman dynasty, those exalted sultans, have almost always cooperated with those states which have had a Muslim majority and a dominant naval power. This policy of theirs has nearly always been successful. The inexperienced, ignorant leaders of the Unionists, being taken in by the appearance and deceived by baseless, false words, have changed this policy of the Ottoman sultans (rahmat-Allahi 'alaihim ajmain). Those who are able to distinguish right from wrong and who are well versed in history have foreseen the bad and very bitter results of this stupid decision and avoided cooperating with the Unionists. Even I explained my view in detail and tried to warn them by giving historical examples when my opinion was asked for by telegram about entering into this last war, this disaster. The answer I then telegraphed is a sound document showing my ideas, goodwill and loyalty towards the Empire and my struggle for the protection of the honor of Islam.
The bitter, destructive consequences we had feared and piteously told of at the beginning of the war are coming about now: the border of the Ottoman Empire in Europe is almost drawn back down to the city walls of Istanbul today; the vanguards of the Russian army are torturing the Ottoman people in the provinces of Sivas and Musul; the British army captured the provinces of Basra and Baghdad; thousands of Ottoman children have been captured in the desert of al-Arish as the result of Jamal Pasha's stupid guidance. There is no doubt that the faithful compatriots, who see this grievous course and the disaster the Empire will suffer as a consequence of this course directed by the Unionists, are to choose between two things:
The first is [to accept] the eradication of the Ottoman Empire from the [world] map - her annihilation.
The second is to find the means of protection against this disastrous annihilation. I leave it to the whole Muslim world to investigate, to think, to consult one another, and to make the necessary proposals on this matter.
We took action rightfully before the dangers encircled the country and annihilated Muslims. If we could know, or even hope, that we would he helpful to the country and the nation by being loyal to this unconscious, stupid administration of the Ottoman Empire, which is a plaything in the hands of a dictatorial minority, we would not say anything or move in any way, but be patient and endure every hardship, even die. But it is very obvious that this [silence] will do not good but make the situation worse. How could it not be obvious while there is a hundred-percent probability that if we follow the way were are forced to follow [by the Unionists], we will suffer the disaster which the nations who followed such ways have suffered. Is there anyone who does not see that the Unionists have broken the huge empire into pieces and put the people into utter trouble? The huge empire is being sacrificed for the pleasure of Anwar, Jamal, Tal'at and their friends.
The foreign policy of the Ottoman Empire has been the established policy accepted by the Ottoman sultans over the centuries of experience and consultations with the notables of the Empire. This policy is the policy of co-operation with the British and French governments. This policy has always been beneficial to our State and nation throughout history. Those who made us neglect this policy are the said Unionist dictators.
Now we oppose the ignorant, foolish policy and brutal, torturous administration of the Unionists. We see that the Empire is being led to destruction and we never approved of it. It should be known by everyone that our opposition is against Anwar, Jamal, Tal'at and their accomplices. Every Muslim approves this just action. Every compatriot supports and is with us on this right cause. Even the Head of the Empire, the Caliph of the Faithful, is on our side with his heart and conscience. The most sound evidence supporting this is that the Wali-'ahd (Heir to the Throne) Yusuf 'Izz ad-din Effendi has been attacked and martyred by the Unionists.
I say again: the great Ottoman Empire is being sacrificed for the evil intentions and by the destructive actions of these dictators. We seek refuge in Allahu ta'ala from their wickedness.
I can't help exposing another evil deed of the Unionists, which warned and made us take action, for the noble Turkish nation:
Jamal Pasha, one of the excessive chiefs of the Unionist society, hangs or shoots to death whomever he wishes in Damascus. He has founded a night-club in Damascus, and the daughters of the notable families of the city have been used as servants in this scandal-house of prostitution and drink during the orgies he arranged with the officers he ordered to accompany him. Speeches insulting our national and religious feelings have been yelled out. Is not this vile behavior of his a trampling on the chastity and dignity of Turkish Muslim women as well as a disregard for the commands in Surat an-Nur of the Qur'an al-karim? Does not this behavior of Jamal Pasha show that the Unionists do not at all respect the religion of Islam or Turkish and Arabic customs?
I have mentioned some of the grievous, destructive behavior of the Unionist partisans, who lead the people and the Empire to ruination. I write all these in order to awaken my Muslim brothers living on Ottoman lands and in Muslim countries, thus to serve my milla [Muslim world] and country. I want to communicate to my fellow-countrymen that the Unionists are acting out of caprice without thinking of the safety of the Empire and the nation. Let alone believing and respecting the Divine Orders and Prohibitions, they are even striving to change and spoil these sacred rules. Therefore, I ask my Muslim brothers not to support this destructive, discordant, stupid and vile course of theirs. It is not proper to obey those who disobey Allahu ta'ala and who oppress men! He who has the power to reverse their actions should try to do so with his hand, tongue and heart! If there are those who cannot see the harm of the Unionists and who approve of their actions, I am ready to hear them out. Our salam be upon those who are on the right path and who do useful work!
11 Dhu'l-Qada, year 1334 
Amir of al-Makkat al-Mukarrama
Sharif Husain ibn 'Ali
These two declarations reveal Sharif Husain Pasha's sincere intention and whole faith, as well as his wrong ideas and harmful conclusions. His greatest mistake was that he could not understand the aggressiveness of the British against Islam throughout history. [It was certainly wrong to fight against the British who would dominate the seas and had big power of army and arms. But, to cooperate with this fierce enemy of Islam is a bigger mistake.] It is seen that he had not heard about the raid made by the British forces upon Istanbul to annihilate the Ottomans during the time of Sultan Salim Khan the Third. The British even barbarously attacked Muslim countries in Asia and Africa and colonized and exploited them during that same period. They annihilated the Muslim 'ulama', Islamic books, Islamic culture and morals in those countries. The British deceived the Ottoman Sultan 'Abd al-Majid Khan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) and placed freemasons in important posts of the State and started spoiling the faith and morals of Muslims through them. These freemasons brought up those who acted as spies for the British during the First World War. They annihilated the Great Empire demolishing it both from within and from without. In his book Inhitat-i Islam, Grand Vizier Said Halim Pasha wrote in detail how the State was annihilated. Sharif Husain Pasha supposed that the most perilous enemy of Islam would help Islam, very probably because he had not studied the historical evidences.
An influential person like Sharif Husain Pasha, who understood the evilness of the Unionists, could have done away with Jamal Pasha and the degenerates hired by the British in Damascus and could have prevented the treachery committed on the Palestinian front by those who fought to win better posts. He could have done this easily. If he had done so, the Ottomans would not have suffered defeat, and a great Hashimi Muslim state would have been founded on the Arabian Peninsula, and the blessed cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem would have remained in his hands.
42 - After Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, the Governor of Egypt, cleared the district of the Hijaz by order of the Caliph of the Muslims, Sultan Mahmud 'Adli Khan the Second (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), the tombs of the Sahabat al-kiram, the wives of Rasulullah and martyrs (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anhum) were built up again, and Masjid as-Saada and the Hujrat an-Nabawi were restored. Sultan 'Abd al-Majid Khan spent hundreds of thousands of gold coins for their construction, ornamentation and maintenance. His endeavors in this respect were amazingly grand. [See article 15.] Sultan 'Abd al-'Aziz Khan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) restored the walls around Medina in 1285 A.H. Also a big arsenal, a government office, a jail and two store-houses, one for arms and one for ammunition, were built through his efforts. Sultan 'Abd al-Hamid Khan the Second (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) constructed the railway from Damascus to Medina. The first train to Medina arrived at the blessed city on August 19th, 1326 (1908). The sixteenth division was in Mecca at the time.
There were six mosques with minarets, sixty-seven small mosques without minarets, six madrasas, two public libraries, one secondary and forty-three primary schools, two covered bazars, nine inns, nineteen tekkes, two public baths, twenty-five large stores, three thousand shops, one hospital and forty fountains in Mecca when 'Abd al-Hamid Khan the Second was the Sultan. Large and comfortable guesthouses were built for the pilgrims as well. A water-supply had been constructed from a distance of three days' way to 'Arafat in Harun ar-Rashid's time; Mihr-u Mah Sultan, the daughter of Sultan Sulaiman Khan, extended this water-supply to Mecca. The population of Mecca was about eighty thousand at that time.
Medina is surrounded with a wall which is thirty meters high and has forty turrets and four gates. The length and width of the Haram ash-Sharif are 165 and 130 paces, respectively. There is the gate Bab as-Salam ornamented with marble and gold writings on the south west corner of the Haram ash-Sharif. The Hujrat an-nabawi is in the southeast corner of the Haram ash-Sharif. Bab as-Salam is on the right and the Hujrat as-Saada is on the left when one stands in front of the qibla wall facing the qibla. The Hujrat an-Nabawi is designed with very precious ornaments all over it. Most of the houses in Medina are built of stone and four -or five- storied like those in Mecca. Sultan Sulaiman Khan (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih) constructed the water-supply from Quba to Medina. The Mount Uhud is to the north of the city at a distance of two hours' way. There were ten mosques, seventeen madrasas, one secondary and eleven primary schools, twelve public libraries, eight tekkes, nine hundred and thirty-two shops and stores, four inns, two public baths, one hundred and eight guesthouses in the city. The population was twenty thousand. [According to the atlas titled Mamlakat al-Arabiyyat as-Su'udiyya, which was published in England in 1398 A.H. (1978), the distance through recently-constructed roads from Medina to Riyadh is 1011, to Taif is 535, to Jidda is 424, to Mecca is 442 and to Tebuk is 686 kilometers; from Mecca, it is 989 kilometers to Riyadh, 88 to Taif, 72 to Jidda, 1133 to Tebuk, 898 to Nejran and 1879 to Kuwait. The road from Mecca to Taif runs through Mina, Muzdalifa and Arafat squares.]
The Wahhabis have been demolishing and annihilating the invaluable historical and artistic works in the cities of Mecca and Medina.
As written in the book Mirat al-Madina, the Masjid ash-Sharif in Medina was built by Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and as-Sahabat al-kiram in the first year of the Hegira. When it was commanded that the qibla should be changed from Quds (Jerusalem) to the Kaba in the month of Rajab in the next year, the gate of the masjid on the Meccan side was closed and a new gate on the opposite, that is, the Damascene side, was opened. This gate is called 'Bab at-tawassul' now. In Medina, salat was performed towards Quds for about 16 months. In Mecca, salat had been performed formerly towards the Kaba, and it had been commanded to perform it towards Quds a little before the Hegira. While the qibla of the masjid was changed, the direction of the qibla was determined by Rasulullah's seeing the Kaba with his blessed eyes. The place where Rasulullah performed salat is between the minbar and the Hujrat as-Saada, and it is closer to the former. The copy of the Qur'an al-karim sent in a big wooden box by Hajjaj to al-Madinat al-Munawwara was placed with this box on the right side of the pillar which is in front of this place. The first mihrab was placed here by 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz. After the second fire, Masjid as-Saada was repaired and the present marble mihrab was constructed in the year 888 A.H. But this marble mihrab was placed somewhat closer to the Hujrat as-Saada. Formerly, there was not a minbar in Masjid an-Nabi, and Rasulullah delivered the khutba standing, where a branch of a date tree was erected later. And still later a minbar of four stairs was made, and Rasulullah stood on the third stair. A curtain was hung at the door of the minbar during the time of Hadrat Muawiya. During the time of the Prophet, there were eight pillars in Masjid an-Nabi. At the times when the religious necessity for the enlargement of the masjid was concluded, the number of pillars added up to 327. At the Rawdat al-mutahhara, there are three lines of pillars and in each line there are four pillars. Some of these pillars are in the walls. The number of pillars in sight is 229. The southern wall of the masjid faces the qibla. The bower where the Ashab as-suffa used to reside is outside the northern wall. In order not to lose this blessed place by time, its base was raised half a meter from the level, and a wooden fence of half a meter high was put around it.
While Masjid ash-Sharif was being constructed, a room for each of the two pure wives of the Prophet was constructed (next to the masjid). The number of rooms became nine later on. Their ceiling was one and a half meters high. They were on the east, north or south of the masjid. Every room, including those of some Sahabis, had two doors, one opening to the masjid and the other to the street. Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'Alaihi wa sallam) stayed mostly at 'Aisha's (radi-Allahu 'anha) room, whose door to the masjid was made of teak. During the time of the Four Caliphs, as-Sahabat al-kiram competed with one another for a place in one of the eight rooms for the Juma salat. Hadrat Fatima's (radi-Allahu 'anha) room was next to and on the north of Hadrat 'Aisha's room. This room was later included in the Shabakat as-Saada. Except the one belonging to Abu Bakr, all the doors opening to the masjid were closed on the order of Rasulullah five days before he passed away.
Abu Bakr, the first Caliph (radi-Allahu 'anh), endeavored against the murtads on the Arabian Peninsula as his first job, and could not find time to enlarge Masjid as-Saada.
In the seventeenth year of he Hegira, Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anh) gathered as-Sahabat al-kiram and reported to them the hadith ash-Sharif, "Masjid ash-Sharif should be enlarged." As-Sahabat al-kiram unanimously accepted it and, demolishing the Damascene and west walls of the masjid, enlarged it by fifteen meters. Many houses were bought and their plots were added to the masjid. In the year 35, Hadrat 'Uthman (radi-Allahu 'anh), consulting with the Ashab ash-shura and getting the unanimity of as-Sahabat al-kiram demolished the southern, northern and western walls and enlarged the masjid ten meters in width and twenty meters in length. Meanwhile, the rooms of Hadrat Hafsa, Talha ibn 'Abdullah and 'Abbas were added to the masjid. On the written order of Caliph Walid to his cousin 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz, the Governor of Medina, the houses of the pure wives of the Prophet and that of Fatima az-Zahra, which were on the north, were demolished and their plots were added to the masjid in the year 87. Thus, Rasulullah's (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) blessed tomb was included in the masjid. As-Sahabat al-kiram, the four aimmat al-madhahib and the Muslim 'ulama' of fourteen centuries did not say anything against this. It is written in the Shaban 1397 A.H. (1977) copy of the weekly periodical Ad-da'wa, which was prepared by a madrasa named Jamiat al-Islamiyya in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, "In the coming enlargement of Masjid an-Nabi, only the west side should be widened and the great bidat should be ended. The great bidat is the inclusion of the three graves in the masjid. The eastern wall should be brought back to its former place, and the graves should be left outside the masjid." This assertion of the periodical is a disrespect against ijma' al-Umma and dissention from the Muslim community. That this is disbelief has been unanimously reported by the 'ulama' of the four madhhabs (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala).
We wish that the Saudi Arabian government should not get involved in such an ugly act and should not break the hearts of Muslims all over the world. Disrespect to the Hujrat as-Saada has been witnessed many times, but those who committed it have been punished by Allahu ta'ala even in this world, the examples of which are very many. It is written at the end of Mirat al-Madina, "When the Governor of the Hijaz, Halat Pasha, visited Medina in 1296 A.H. (1879), the head of the servants at the Hujrat as-Saada, Tahsin Agha, with a view of winning the favor of the Pasha, said, 'Let's have the women of your house visit the Hujrat as-saada. This chance would not be met at other times.' The Pasha, though refrained from it at first, took the women of close and distant relations of his house into the Shabakat as-Saada at midnight upon the urging of the Agha. Since there were unclean women without an ablution among them and because of this disrespect towards Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam), a violent earthquake occurred three times in Medina the next morning. People ran to and fro in panic. When its cause was understood, the Pasha was disgraced and was let out of Medina. A little later, he died and his family melted away. Similarly, all those who have committed acts of disrespect to Rasulullah's tomb have been doomed and troubled."
During the time of Shams ad-din Effendi, the head of the servants at the Hujrat as-Saada and several vagabonds from Aleppo entered Masjid an-Nabi one night with the view of taking away the blessed corpses of Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat 'Umar (radi-Allahu 'anhuma). But all of them sank into the earth and vanished. This event is written in detail at the end of Mirat al-Madina and in Riyad an-nadara.
The brigand named Artat, who was the ruler of the Karak castle and the villages on the outskirts of Nabulus town near Damascus, wanted to take the Prophet's corpse and had small ships be constructed for the transportation in 578 A.H. (1183). He had the ships come together in the Red Sea and sent them to Yanbu', the seaport of Medina, with 350 bandits. The Sharifs of Medina heard of this and reported it to Salah ad-din al-Ayyubi (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), who was in Harran. Salah ad-din was grieved much by this news, and he sent an order to the Governor of Egypt, Husam ad-din Saif ad-dawla (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala). Husam ad-din sent soldiers under the command of Lulu', who killed some of the bandits near Medina and captured others, who were taken to Egypt. This event is written in detail in Rawdat al-abrar. Those who have attempted to commit impudence towards Rasulullah during his life or after his death have been severely punished by Allahu ta'ala. And, one day, if the Saudis, following their heretical beliefs and evil thoughts, dare to stage such a vile attempt, they should know it well that that day will be the end of both their State and madhhab, and that they will be remembered with damnation until the Last Day.
TRANSLATION OF A LETTER
Muhammad Mathum as-Sirhindi (rahmat-Allahi 'alaih), one of the great Islamic scholars of India, wrote in the 182nd letter of the first volume of his work Maktubat:
"Holding fast to causes is not inconsistent with tawakkul since the power of affecting, too, is given to causes by Allahu ta'ala. While holding fast to causes, one should know that the affectivity of causes originates from Allahu ta'ala and should confide in Him. Holding fast to those causes whose affectivity has been experienced is a form of performing tawakkul. It is not conformable to tawakkul if one holds fast to those causes whose affectivity is not established or is not even hoped for. It is necessary, even a duty, to hold fast to the causes whose affectivity is absolute. Fire has the effect of burning; Allahu ta'ala is the One who gives the property of burning to fire. When we are hungry, we will eat food; we are to believe that Allahu ta'ala has given to food the effect of satiating. If we do not use such causes with absolute effects and are harmed, we will have disobeyed and opposed Allahu ta'ala. Causes are of three categories: those whose effects have not been seen or heard of, so not permitted to use; those that have been experienced and seen to be effective, so it is necassary (wajib) to use and is sinful to ignore; and those with doubtful affectivity, so using them is not necessary but permitted (jaiz). Allahu ta'ala orders us to consult with experienced, learned persons before doing our important affairs, to do them after consulting and, while doing, to have tawakkul towards Allahu ta'ala and to expect the outcome from Him. Consulting, too, is a way of holding fast to causes. This order explains that holding fast to causes is wajib and that it is necessary to expect their effect from Allahu ta'ala. Tawakkul is not employed in affairs pertaining to the next worldly, that is, in 'ibadas and ta'as. We have been ordered to perform 'ibadas, to endeavor to carry on 'ibadas. In affairs pertaining to the next world, we have to fear and hope instead of having tawakkul. It is necessary to perform these orders and to have confidence in Allahu ta'ala's Mercy and Benevolence for His accepting and rewarding them. It is a human duty to carry out [His] orders and to abstain from [His] prohibitions.
"[You ask,] 'Is there such a high status in our religion so that one who attains to it will have forgotten about himself and about everything?' In response to your question, we say that there is the status called fana' in tasawwuf. One who endeavors on the way of tasawwuf forgets about himself and about everything when he attains to that status. Nevertheless, his batin (heart, soul) is the one who reaches the status of fana' or baqa'. This hal (state) occurs in one's heart and soul. The zahir (body, intellect) of a human being has to supply his own needs. Even if he has advanced much further, he cannot rescue himself from this duty.
"You ask whether discovering others' thoughts, getting information about lost things and the acceptance of the prayers said are the signs of advancing on the way of tasawwuf, of attaining to Allahu ta'ala's love. Dear brother! These are the extraordinary things Allahu ta'ala creates outside His usual custom ('adat). Their occurrence to somebody does not show his advancement and acceptance. They may occur also to the people of istidraj who are devoid of felicity. They may also be observed in disbelievers who polishes their nafses through undergoing riyada. In some, they happen without riyada, too. Since undergoing riyada is not a condition for becoming a wali, that is, for attaining to the degrees of wilaya, so it is not a condition for the people of istidraj to display khariqas and for awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) to display karamas. Undertaking riyada facilitates their frequent occurrence.
"Most awliya' are protected from the sin called 'ujb (self-admiration). 'Ujb and riya' (hypocrisy) are not left in the one who has reached the status of fana'. It is true that he may be mistaken out of being human, because awliya' are not protected against erring. However, they immediately awaken from ghafla (unawareness) and get rid of its harm by asking for Allahu ta'ala's Forgiveness (istighfar) and by doing charitable deeds.
"Eating little and sleeping little are beneficial for advancing on the way of tasawwuf, but one should not be as excessive as to harm the body and intellect. These and riyadat should be done in consistency with the Sunnat. If they are done excessively, it will be ruhbaniyya (monastic life), which does not exist in Islam. The kashfs of awliya' are not imaginative things; they are the things inspired (ilham) to the heart. Imaginative kashfs should not be trusted in. Wahm and imagination (hayal) help in understanding the information coming to the heart. Fifty thousand years' distance between the Creator and the created is passed in a short time with the help of wahm. And the imagination is beneficial to understand ladunni knowledge easily. Both help much on the way of tasawwuf. It has been reported that some prayers are helpful in worldly affairs. Saying Allahu ta'ala's names are much more helpful.
"It is very good not to remember one's own body while performing salat. Things that occur while performing salat are more valuable than those occurring outside salat. The importance of salat should be understood well. We should perform salats in their mustahab times and with attention to their conditions and to tadil al-arkan. [It is condition that one, while beginning a salat, knows that it is the time for that salat.] It is stated in a hadith ash-Sharif that the curtains between the one who performs salat and Allahu ta'ala are removed.
"You write that you see awliya's copies or figures in 'alam al-mithal and talk with them. These are good things, but they are not our aim. Since they do not harm our aim, they are not regrettable things, either.
"You ask whether it is necessary to believe that Khidir ('alaihi 's-salam) is alive. Our 'ulama' have not reported it in unanimity. Though some awliya' have said that they saw and spoke to him, such reports does not show that he is alive; his soul might have been seen in human figure, and his soul might have done things that are done by human beings. If he were alive during that time, this does not mean he is alive now. Many of the things done by Khidir ('alaihi 's-salam) are written in the book Al-isaba fi marifati 's-Sahaba. Most 'ulama' reported that he had passed away. If he had been alive, he would have gone to our master, the Prophet, performed the prayer of Juma together and attended his sohbat and jihads.
"The souls of the awliya' who have died are sometimes seen in their [human figures or] copies in 'alam al-mithal. Because, everything in the world has a copy in 'alam al-mithal. Even more, spiritual, non-material things, too, have copies there. 'Alam al-mithal does not consist of imaginary things. It is an 'alam that exists as this visible, material 'alam does. The souls of awliya' sometimes are seen in the figures of their own bodies and sometimes, without bodies or figures, meet and talk with people's souls.
The teachings about souls and the life in the grave are very subtle. We should not speak on them out of supposition or surmise. We should believe briefly what has been reported openly in the nasses (ayats and hadiths) and should not speak more. It should be believed that there are blessings and tortures in the grave. It has also been reported that the dead talk with one another and because of the tortures, they cry and lament. Except human beings and genies, all creatures hear their cries. Souls cry not only alone but also through their bodies.
"However much a person advances in tasawwuf, reaches perfection or attains to qurb al-ilahi, neither his body nor his soul can escape being creatures. Everything other than Allahu ta'ala is hadith (created), and all creatures had been non-existent before becoming existent. They will become non-existent again. For being a Muslim, believing as such is a must. It is the same for the souls of prophets ('alaihimu 's-salawatu wa 't-taslimat) and awliya'. To escape the tortures of the next world, we have to follow what the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat have reported. Those kashfs and karamat that do not conform to their books are worthless. The aim on the way of tasawwuf consists of seeing the faults and defects of one's own nafs, making the adaptation to the rules of Islam easy and tasteful and escaping from secret polytheism and disbelief.
"You write about the good hals of your students, for which you shall be much thankful to Allahu ta'ala. Try hard for your students to be perfect Muslims and to attain to Allahu ta'ala's Consent! Tell them about the adab in the rules of Islam, the adab of the scholars of Ahl as-Sunnat and the hals and morals of Salaf as-salihin. Do not refrain from preaching and advising them! Allahu ta'ala does not love those without adab. Recite the Qur'an al-karim much! Perform your salat in khushu' (reverence) and in accord with the books of fiqh [written by the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat] and always say the beautiful word la ilaha illa'llah! May Allahu ta'ala show Mercy upon all of us! May He bestow upon all of us the good deeds through which His Consent is attained! I express my salam and say my prayers for you and for those who follow the true path, the footsteps of Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam)! Since much time has past since the time of Rasulullah (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) and the Doomsday is nearing, bidat' are widespread everywhere now. Darkness and the harms of bidat' have disseminated throughout the world; the sunnas have been forgotten. Their lights have been covered. Now the most valuable deed that will make one attain to Allahu ta'ala's Consent is the endeavor to uncover the forgotten sunnas, that is, to disseminate Islamic sciences. Those who want to be near Muhammad ('alaihi 's-salam) on the Day of Judgement should work for this purpose. A hadith ash-Sharif says, 'There is the thawab of a hundred martyrs for the one who uncovers a forsaken sunnat of mine.' [That is, it is very meritorious to uncover, preach and promulgate an Islamic teaching.] The first thing to do for uncovering a sunnat is one's performance of that sunnat personally. Next comes the endeavor to make others perform it.
"You write about the fear of the last breath. There has been nobody who has escaped this fear. The last breath of everyone other than prophets ('alaihimu 's-salawatu wa 't-taslimat) is uncertain. The good news of being rescued in the last breath can be known only through wahi. Though good signs, works and tidings indicate the safety of the last breath, they only make up a strong supposition. However strong the supposition is, it cannot rescue one from this suffering, this fear.
"You say, 'I see that my 'ibadas and ta'as do not deserve being acceptable. Therefore, there sometimes appear some slackness in performing 'ibada.' We are ordered to perform 'ibadas in this world. We have to perform them even if we do not know whether they will be accepted or not. We will not only perform them but also, asking forgiveness of our defects in them, entreat by crying and moaning for their acceptance. Repenting and entreating may cause their acceptance. We are human servants. We are obliged to do our human duties. The Devil, the accursed, tries to deceive us so that we may not undertake our human duties.
"You ask about our tawajjuh and love towards you. Is there any need to express it? Your love towards us is the work, the result, of our love towards you. All the flowers and fruits on the tree stem from the trunk. This rule has always worked as such. Surat al-Ma'ida states, 'I love them. And they love Me,' in the 54th ayat and, 'Allah is pleased with them. And they are pleased with Allah,' in the 109th ayat. Allahu ta'ala expressed His love and consent before those [of His lovers]."
Kadizada Ahmad Effendi (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) wrote in his Turkish work Fara'id al-fawa'id, which is a commentary of Amantu: "When one does a charitable deed and presents its thawab to any dead person, it reaches him. As written in the book Wasat by al-Imam at-Tabarani (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), Anas ibn Malik (radi-Allahu 'anh) reported that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) had said, 'When one gives alms for a dead person of his acquaintance, Jabrail ('alaihi 's-salam) takes the thawab of the alms to him in a dish of lights (nur) and says, "Oh the owner of the grave! This present is sent by your friend, take it!" The dead person rejoices to receive that present. Upon seeing this, those dead people to whom no present is sent feel sorrow.'
"As said by 'Amr ibn Jarir (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala), if a person prays or does a charitable deed for a religious brother of his who has passed to the next world and if he gifts its thawab to him, an angel takes the thawab to that dead person and says, 'Such person among your friends sent this to you.' The hadith ash-Sharif reported by Imam Muslim (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) on the authority of Abu Huraira (radi-Allahu ta'ala 'anh) says: 'When a believer dies, all his deeds end; only three of his deeds do not end, and their thawabs go on being written in this deed-book. These three deeds are his sadaqa al-jariyya (continuing good works), his useful books and his pious children who pray for his blessedness.' The prayers and thawabs presented to all Muslims reach all of them. When one goes to a believer's grave and greets him, the dead one in the grave hears him, replies to his greeting and, if they were acquainted, recognized him. Rasulullah (sall-Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) ordered us to visit graves and to greet those in them. The hadith ash-Sharif related by 'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas (radi-Allahu 'anhuma) says, 'When one visits the grave of a believer of his acquaintance and greets him, the latter recognizes him and responds to the greeting.' Another hadith ash-Sharif says, 'When one visits the grave of a religious brother of his and sits by grave, the dead one rejoices.'
"When a believer recites a salawat Sharifa for our Prophet (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam), angels convey the salawat to our master, who is Fakhr al-'alam (Glory of the world). The Hadith ash-Sharif says, 'Allahu ta'ala has angels that move on the earth. They convey to me the salawat recited by my umma,' and, 'When one recites salat for me, his salat is immediately conveyed to me.' These two hadiths mean 'Angels convey some of them, and I [directly] hear the others.' There are many hadiths that report that he personally will hear and reply to the salat and salam that will be said by the Rawdat al-muqaddasa.
"The blessed bodies of prophets ('allahimu 's-salatu wa 's-salam) do not rot. This is stated in many hadiths, one of which says, 'Prophets are alive in their graves.' Some 'ulama' said that martyrs do not rot, either. Al-Imam al-Qurtubi said that the bodies of believers who were patient during troubles and sufferings and those of the pious who followed Islamic rules did not rot. The body that has not sinned does not rot. The bodies of the 'ulama' who practice their knowledge, those of hafizes and muazzins [who do not commit sins or bidat] and those of awliya' (qaddas-Allahu ta'ala asrarahumu 'l-'aziz) do not rot. Even more, the earth does not affect their shrouds. Others' bodies rot. A hadith ash-Sharif says, 'Earth rots the body of every dead person. Only the bone called coccyx does not rot.'
"Our religion does not openly describe how the soul is. The soul is neither a substance nor an attribute but, unlike substances, it exists without needing any matter. After man dies, his soul does not become non-existent. It exists needing no matter. It possesses perception and comprehension. It is not openly reported where the soul goes. In the commentary to Jawhara, Ibrahim al-Laqani wrote various narrations. Al-Imam as-Suyuti, in his work Sharh as-sudur, and Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya said that the souls of rebels (shaqi), that is, unbelievers and sinners, are in torture while the souls of the happy (Said), that is, believers and the pious, are in blessings and pleasures. The Jews' souls come together with other Jewish souls. [The souls of Christians, the la-madhhabi and unbelievers without a holy book reside with one another's.] The place where the souls are tortured is called Sijjin. The place of blessings and pleasures is called 'Illiyyin. The highest rank at 'Illiyyin is called Mala al-'ala. Our master Rasulullah said as his last statement, 'Oh my Rabb! Forgive me! Show mercy to me! Make me attain to Rafiq al-ala,' which is the place of prophets. Their ranks, too, are different. On the night of Miraj, our Prophet (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) saw 'Adam ('alaihi 's-salam) in the first sky, 'Isa and Yahya ('alaihima 's-salam) in the second sky, Yusuf ('alaihi 's-salam) in the third sky, Idris ('alaihi 's-salam) in the fourth sky, Harun ('alaihi 's-salam) in the fifth sky, Musa ('alaihi 's-salam) in the sixth sky and Ibrahim ('alaihi 's-salam) in the seventh sky. The souls of the 'ulama' of Ahl as-Sunnat are near those of prophets ('alaihimu 's-salawatu wa 't-taslimat). A hadith ash-Sharif says, 'Martyrs' souls are at the 'Arsh al-ilahi. Whenever they want, they go to the places they wish in Paradise, and then they return to their dwellings.' Morning and evening, or day and night, do not exist in the life of the next world. Paradise is nurani (glorious; formed of the Glory of Allahu ta'ala). Some martyrs do not enter Paradise but remain under the green domes along the river called Bariq near Paradise. The blessings of Paradise are brought to them in the morning and evening; here, 'morning and evening' are used as metaphors to liken to the time in this world. According to a narration, all believers' souls are under these domes. Martyrs say, 'If our brothers-in-Islam in the world saw the blessings and happiness we have attained to, they would rush out to perform jihad.' The 170th ayat al-karima of Surat Al 'Imran says, 'Do not say "dead" for those who became martyrs in the way of Allah. They are alive. Nutrition is always given to them. The fear of being tortured does not exist in them. They do not worry about being deprived of blessings, either.' In the world, their bodies decay and putrefy under soil, and animals eat their flesh; those who see this condition of theirs think that they suffer pains and are under torture. They cannot comprehend the blessings and happiness martyrs attain to. While martyrs are alive as such, prophets, too, are certainly alive since every prophet possesses the rank of martyrdom. A hadith ash-Sharif says, 'The one whose death comes while he is learning knowledge is met by Allahu ta'ala in the rank of prophets.' 'Uthman ibn 'Affan (radi-Allahu 'anh) reported that Rasulullah (sall-Allahu ta'ala 'alaihi wa sallam) had said, 'On the Day of Judgement, prophets will intercede firstly and the 'ulama' next.' A hadith ash-Sharif says, 'Those who die of ta'un attain to the rank of martyrs.' Ta'un means any epidemic disease like plague.
"During the life in the grave, one will be in the company of those with whom he will be together with on the Day of Judgement. He will be assembled for Judgement among those whom he loves and lives with in this world. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimah-Allahu ta'ala) said, 'believers' souls are in Paradise. Unbelievers' souls are in Hell.' To some 'ulama', the former are in Jannat al-mawa, the Paradise under the 'Arsh. The souls of those who habitually commit fornication or who dwell on interest or orphans' property are under torture in Hell. The souls of those on whom others have rights do not enter Paradise. Such are the souls of those who commit sins and cruelty. The souls of awliya' (rahimahum-Allahu ta'ala) and pious believers come to their graves and visit their bodies. believers' souls visit one another. They talk with one another especially on Friday nights. When a believer dies and his or her soul ascends to the sky, the souls of [dead] believers come and ask about their acquaintances in this world. The souls of those who die without making a testament are not permitted to talk."