"The Jewish people as a whole will be its own Messiah. It will attain world domination by the dissolution of other races...and by the establishment of a world republic in which everywhere the Jews will exercise the privilege of citizenship. In this New World Order the Children of Israel...will furnish all the leaders without encountering opposition..." (Karl Marx in a letter to Baruch Levy, quoted in Review de Paris, June 1, 1928, p. 574)

Sunday, 12 October 2008

The Pilgrims Society

A study of the Anglo-American Establishment

Part 3: Anti-Eastern Establishment propaganda

Near the beginning of this article we cited a column written in 1962 which very articulately described the political, business and educational network of the Eastern Establishment. It appeared in a good number of newspapers. To refresh everyone's memory, here is the excerpt again:

"There is an establishment in the United States. The word "establishment" is a general term for the power elite in international finance, business, the professions largely from the Northeast, who wield most of the power regardless of who is in the White House.

"Most people are unaware of the existence of this "legitimate Mafia." Yet the power of the establishment makes itself felt from the professor who seeks a foundation grant, to the candidate for a cabinet post or State Department job. It affects the nation's policies in almost every area.

"For example, the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City, subsidized by Rockefeller interests since 1927 boasts a membership of at least 90 per cent establishment figures." [122]

This column was written by Edith Kermit Roosevelt. You are forgiven if you assumed this Edith was a relative of former President Franklin Roosevelt, who has been described in the previous paragraphs as the biggest opponent of the Eastern Establishment. Edith was a granddaughter of another former U.S. president: Theodore Roosevelt, and this Theodore Roosevelt is not be to be confused with his distant cousin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Theodore and his son, Jr., were allied with the bankers and industrialist that promoted American fascism. Reading the rest of Edith's column it immediately becomes clear that she had followed in her family's footsteps:

"What is the establishment's viewpoint? Through the Roosevelt, Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations its ideology is constant: That the best way to fight communism is by a One World socialist state governed by "experts" like themselves. The result has been policies which favor the growth of the superstate, gradual surrender of U.S. sovereignty to the United Nations and a steady retreat in the face of Communist aggression."

The year Edith wrote this column she had written a brief history of the Illuminati. An excerpt:

"Before the adoption of our Constitution socialist conspirators sought to establish a "classless society" in this country and throughout the world. They were members of the Order of Illuminati...

"Today our country is infiltrated by socialist conspirators, a modern-day Order of Illuminati, who believe they are entitled "to set aside the ordinary maxims of society" in order to bring about a "universal republic." Again, vigilant citizens are needed to destroy these plans for "ruling society." This is Your responsibility!" [123]

As you may have guessed by now, Edith was a rabid anti-communist who did not care one bit about the ordinary working man. One of the telling examples is that even in the late 1960s and early 1970s she organized pro-Vietnam War rallies in Washington, alongside Rev. Carl McIntyre, who at the time was considered a pillar of Presbyterian fundamentalism. [124] Looking at Edith's family something else becomes very clear: she not only worked for the CIA; her family was the CIA. A history:

Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., Edith's uncle, has been named earlier in this article. This person was one of the founders of the American Legion in 1919, an organization which specialized in the violent suppression of labor unions under the rationale that these laborers were part of a communist plot to take over the United States. Theodore, Jr. was also among those mentioned as having been approached by the fascist cabal of bankers and industrialists who wanted to take away the presidency from FDR. Theodore ridiculed the plot after it had been exposed. [125]

Archibald Roosevelt, one of Theodore, Jr.'s brothers and the father of Edith, was an executive of the Sinclair Oil Company, which is known for having discussed cartel agreements with Mussolini. [126] The son of Theodore, Jr., Theodore III, worked for the Du Pont company from 1936 to 1941, which was another notorious cartel negotiator, in this case with German industrialists, the Japanese Zaibatsu and the pro-fascist Imperial Chemical Industries in Great Britain.

After World War II, Archibald, who had passionate dislike of black people, became a member of the John Birch Society and a founder of the controversial Veritas Foundation, both of them extreme right wing organizations which tried to root out communist and socialist elements in society. Archibald was a close friend of the Dulles family and their children knew each other well. Both the Roosevelt and Dulles families also were closely associated with the (openly fascist) Lindbergh family. [127]

Besides his own children and those of the Dulleses, Archibald also looked after his nephew Kermit Roosevelt II (whose father was an alcoholic and committed suicide). This was the same Kermit who in 1953, as a high level CIA officer, was involved in overthrowing the ruler of Iran in favor of the Shah. Several years before Kermit had supported Gamal Abdel Nasser's coup in Egypt. After Nasser had come to power Allen Dulles and Kermit recruited General Reinhard Gehlen to build up Nasser's security apparatus. Gehlen sent the famous SS general Otto Skorzeny to Egypt and by 1956 there was a small colony of several hundred former Nazi officers and scientists working in Egypt. Pressure from the Israelis eventually made these former Nazis leave [128] and it seems in later years the CIA found Israel to be a much more reliable ally than Nasser or any of the other Arab countries.

Archibald's son (Edith's brother), Archibald, Jr., was a CIA station chief in Beirut (1947-1949), Istanbul (1951-1953), Madrid (1958), and London (1962-1966). In between he worked as the chief of the Near East section of the CIA's Voice of America (1949-1950), and at the State Department (1953-1958 and 1966-1974). He officially resigned from the CIA in 1974. But what did Archibald, Jr. do then? Of all the things he could have done, he became a vice president of Chase Manhattan Bank and a director of international relations at the bank's Washington office. In these functions he served as an advisor to David Rockefeller and accompanied him on trips to the Middle East. [129]

Theo Roosevelt family

There are more peculiarities about the Roosevelt family. In 1948 Edith, age 20, married the 49-year-old Alexander G. Barmine. [130] This Barmine used to be a Soviet diplomat and general who defected to the United States in 1937. He wrote anti-Stalin articles which were published in the New York Times, Reader's Digest and the Saturday Evening Post. At some point in the 1940s or 1950s Barmine was appointed head of the Russian branch of the CIA's Voice of America. He held this post until 1964. [131] However, well before his career at the Voice of America came to end Edith had divorced him on charges of "cruelty and nonsupport". [132]

When discussing Edith and her writings, two things come to mind:

  1. It is not all unreasonable to assume that Edith worked for the CIA, for the simple reason that half of her family were top-level CIA officers. The fascist credentials of her family are equally impeccable.
  2. Could it be that all these people on the internet talking about a New World Order and a United Nations-led world government are actually repeating CIA disinformation?

Edith was not an exception in terms of her writings. Since World War II there have been many extreme right and and anti-semitic conspiracy authors who focused on exposing the Anglo-American Establishment. The common characteristics of these authors include rabid anti-communism and anti-socialism, an anti-United Nations attitude, in favor of extreme isolationism, and an excessive focus on Jewish bankers and Zionism. Not all of these authors were anti-semitic, but they certainly focused almost exclusively on the more liberal Anglo-American Establishment and its alleged link to communism at the expense of the extreme right, anti-communist factions which have been equally conspiratorial--if not more so. This historical trend shouldn't come as a total surprise, as the works of these conspiracy authors were regularly funded by extreme right-wing businessmen not part of the Anglo-American Establishment.

One of the first widely-known conspiracy authors was Nesta Webster. She is credited with having inspired many later conspiracy authors and is even said to have influenced Winston Churchill's thoughts on the French Revolution. However, it shouldn't be forgotten that Webster was a member of the British Union of Fascists and the equally fascist Link group. In the 1920 and 1930s she wrote about the evils of "Jewish Communism" and how this was related to the 18th century Illuminati plot. Another example is Ezra Pound, mentor to the well known conspiracy author Eustace Mullins. Pound was a prominent Italian fascist who was angry with the bankers of the Anglo-American Establishment for having allied the United States and Great Britain against the fascist nations. It's not a surprise then that Mullins took over some of these ideas and incorporated them in his books 'Secrets of the Federal Reserve' and 'The World Order'. Although the books paint an interesting picture of history it is not particularly convincing in many cases. Mullins equates Roosevelt's New Deal and "Truman's Socialism" with communism, promotes the narrow-minded isolationist view, and seems to think every right-wing or fascist movement that has ever existed is just another communist or "New World Order" deception--how convenient for the fascists running the conspiracy movement.

The extreme right conspiracy movement really took off in the 1950s, around the time of Senator McCarthy's anti-communist crusade. The well-known John Birch Society was founded in 1958. It was organized and headed by influential right wing, anti-communist reactionaries and appears to have been nothing more than an extreme right big business/intelligence front. [133] The fascist Willis Carto organized his Liberty Lobby in 1955. Carto later became a leading light in the Institute for Historical Review (which denies the holocaust) and such conspiracy magazine's as The Spotlight and American Free Press, both of which heavily focus on radical Zionism. Mullins's first book was published in 1953. The House investigation of tax-exempt foundations, headed by Carroll Reece, made headlines in 1954. The committee's chief investigator, Norman Dodd, would later speak about the pro-communist policies of such establishment foundations as Carnegie, Rockefeller and Ford. At the same time it's worth noting that Reece was a isolationist during World War II. In 1955 William Guy Carr's 'Pawns in the Game' was published, another anti-communist conspiracy classic, even though it stands stiff from the reactionary Catholic bias, not to mention that it is highly anti-semitic. [134]

By the 1970s a number of other authors and activists had become involved in the crusade against the Eastern Establishment and its supposed pro-communist bias. Among them was Cleon Skousen. Skousen published the well known book 'The Naked Capitalist' in 1970, which was a review of Carroll Quigley's writings about the Round Table. The book gives a detailed account of the Eastern Establishment, but at the same time tries to link it to a communist world conspiracy. This is not surprising since Skousen was a long time John Bircher and a supporter of cult leader Sun Myung Moon. [135] In the 1980s he was a member of the ultraconservative Council for National Policy. Skousen's spin on the John F. Kennedy assassination should immediately have given him away as a right-wing propagandist:

"In 1963 the Left-wing forces induced President Kennedy to recommend the passage of a whole series of hard-core socialist proposals and these were soon dumped into the hoppers of Congress. However, there were sufficient Americans awake at the grass-roots level to protest against these measures and demand that Congress reject them. That is what happened. Even under Presidential pressure the Democratic-nominated Congress refused to pass these bills. The frustrated Establishment press turned the heat on Congress but to no avail. By September the prestige of President Kennedy had taken a serious drop in Establishment circles and there was some question as to what might happen if JFK decided to seek a second term. Then suddenly, on November 22, President Kennedy was assassinated by a Marxist revolutionary, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was connected with Castro's main Communist front-organization here in the United States...

"Establishment spokesmen such as Earl Warren immediately blamed the President's murder on the "Radical Right," but when the arrest of Oswald revealed that it had been done by the Radical Left, the Left-wing machinery went into high gear to assure the American people that Oswald could not, by any stretch of the imagination, be part of an international Communist plot. He must be accepted as merely an isolated psychopathic individual who acted on his own initiative. To prevent any independent investigation by anti-Communist Democrats and Republicans, the Communist Daily Worker suggested that President Johnson appoint a special commission to do the investigation with Earl Warren as chairman. Four days later that was precisely what President Johnson did. The real story of the Kennedy assassination was soon buried beneath an Establishment-supervised white-wash designed to pacify the American people.

"When Congress convened in 1964, President Johnson obliged the Left-wing elements of his party by exploiting the emotional climate resulting from the President's death and demanded that the Congress pass the Kennedy bills which they had rejected the previous spring." [136]

What Skousen did here was to take the accusations of a cover up - which in reality had a lot to do with anti-Castro businessmen and CIA officials working with the mafia - and blame the Eastern-Establishment and their so-called communist allies as those responsible for it. Quite a dirty little trick.

One of the more prominent authors from the 1970s writing about the Eastern Establishment was Gary Allen. Allen's best known book is 'None Dare Call It Conspiracy', published in 1971. As expected, the book is anti-communist, anti-socialist and anti- Eastern Establishment. Interestingly, a review of Congressman John G. Schmitz appeared on the back of the book. Schmitz, a John Bircher whose hero was Senator McCarthy, was a dangerous anti-communist and anti-socialist fascist. The back cover also shows that Dan Smoot, who used to be an assistant to J. Edgar Hoover at the FBI, supported this book. Smoot was an activist devoted to countering socialist and communist influences in American society and had written the anti-Eastern Establishment book 'The Invisible Government' in 1962. Like Smoot, Allen was associated with the notorious Hunt family. [137] The earlier-mentioned Norman Dodd also embraced Allen's book.

There are many more examples of hard-right, anti-communist and anti-Eastern Establishment propaganda which many people think are honest and largely complete exposes of the forces shaping the planet.

In 1990 William T. Still published his book 'New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies', another run-of-the-mill anti-communist conspiracy book aimed at the Christian Conservative movement. On the back cover of Still's book we find the following review:

"Regardless of your views about the coming of a world government, Bill Still's new book will make you reassess the odds. He traces the historic role of secret societies and their influence on the 'Great Plan' to erase nationalism in preparation for global dictatorship. He allows the facts to speak for themselves as he sounds an ominous warning for the 21st Century."

This review was written by Dr. D. James Kennedy. Dr. Kennedy was the founder and senior pastor of the Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church, who mobilized people against abortion, gay people, and the theory of evolution. What's more relevant in this case is that Kennedy has been on the advisory board of the low-profile Maldon Institute, an extreme-right, US-based, anti-communist think tank funded by Richard Mellon Scaife, the Anti-Defamation League and the B'nai B'rith. [138] It's fair to say that Scaife has worked in cooperation with the CIA [139] while the ADL and B'nai B'rith work together with Israel's Foreign Office and the Mossad. [140] Other officers of the Maldon Institute have included Jack Abramoff, a shady, anti-communist hardliner once involved in Iran-Contra; John H. Rees, an author and activist who infiltrated left-wing organizations and later acted as spy for the Western Goals Foundation; W. Raymond Wannall, a former president of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (directors of the national organization have included George H.W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Frank Carlucci, Bobby Ray Inman, William H. Webster, and James Woolsey) who as assistant director of the FBI led a surveillance program against leftist elements in American society; and Robert Moss, an MI6 agent and leading Pinay Cercle member who published large amounts of anti-communist and anti-liberal propaganda. An EIR author has also claimed that Richard G. Stilwell, another hard-right Cercle visitor with numerous intelligence connections, was an officer of the Maldon Institute at some point. [141]

One year after William Still's 'New World Order', Pat Robertson published his similarly-titled book 'The New World Order'. In the book Robertson spells out the story of the Eastern Establishment in great detail, but of course not without the anti-communist and anti-socialist slant similar to Edith Kermit Roosevelt and other authors.

"Keep in mind, when speaking of the CFR, the Washington Post, the New York Times, or Harvard University, that these are not left-wing, pinko organizations. They are instead Establishment organizations that desire a one-world government. Many among them feel that supporting world socialism in one of its forms will facilitate their own long-range goals... They run huge banks, multinational corporations, the nation's financial system, the State Department, the Treasury Department, and the better part of the entire world... The CIA during most of the years since its creation has been under CFR control, starting with Allen Dulles...

"During the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, more than sixty CFR members held top-policy positions... Under Richard Nixon the number of CFR members in major policy positions leapt to a hundred, and the story of their selection is mind-boggling [states that Nelson Rockefeller and William Rogers were key in the selection process]... Perhaps the most blatant exercise of the power of the Establishment occurred in the selection of their 1976 presidential candidate [Carter, who was sponsored by the Trilateral Commission]...

"Of course, the present United Nations organization is actually the creation of the CFR and is housed on land in Manhattan donated to it by the family of current CFR chairman David Rockefeller... For better or worse, the United Nations as we now have it, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Bretton Woods monetary agreement were not the work of the United States government, per se, but that of the members of the Council on Foreign Relations carrying out the stated (and perhaps unstated) goals of that organization...

"In 1970 a young Polish intellectual named Zbigniew Brezinski [sic] foresaw the rising economic power of Japan and postwar Europe. Brezinski idealized the theories of Karl Marx. In his book, Between Two Ages, as in subsequent writings, he argued that balance-of-power politics was out and world-order politics was in. The initial world order was to be trilateral economic linkage between Japan, Europe, and the United States. David Rockefeller funded Brezinski and called together an organization, named the Trilateral Commission, with Brezinski as its first executive secretary and director." [142]

In his book Robertson:

  • equates FDR's New Deal with communism.
  • equates the modern "liberal" press with communism.
  • voices skepticism over the Pearl Harbor attack which dragged the United States into World War II.
  • is critical of U.S. war strategies in North Korea and Vietnam, which limited the scope of the war and made a victory over communism impossible.
  • states his belief that the KGB was behind the 1981 assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II.
  • supports the testimony of Soviet defector Anatoliy Golitsyn, who still claims that the Soviet Union's split with China and its demise in 1990 are a carefully crafted ploy to deceive the West.
  • claims Iraq was a "Soviet client state", without mentioning U.S. weapons sales to the same country.
  • states the United States purposely allowed Saddam to invade Kuwait in 1990.
  • states that the United Nations, an Establishment organ, is out to destroy Israel by pressuring it to relinquish the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

These days almost everyone knows Pat Robertson is a world-class religious fundamentalist. His comments on radio and television have stirred up controversy on numerous occasions. In 2005 he called for the assassination of Hugo Chavez, the leader of Venezuela, supposedly because Chavez opened up southern America to communist and Arab terrorist influence. In 2006 Robertson claimed that Sharon's stroke may have been retribution from God for the prime minister's recent drive to cede more land to the Palestinians. He also claimed God may have been responsible for Rabin's death for similar reasons. These are just two of many examples showing Robertson's extremist views. Robertson has also become notorious for his predictions - supposedly conferred to him by God himself - on coming natural disasters and terrorist attacks, all of which failed to manifest.

Robertson was a founder of Moral Majority (today the Christian Coalition) with the earlier-mentioned Dr. D. James Kennedy and the equally notorious Rev. Jerry Falwell. In the
Honest exposes?
Honest exposés or extreme-right propaganda?

1990s, Falwell was a major funder and distributor of 'The Clinton Chronicles', a video in which allegations were made that Clinton protected a ring of drug smugglers during his time as Arkansas governor. Several days after 9/11, Falwell and Robertson had the nerve to claim that the "liberal civil liberties groups, feminists, homosexuals and abortion rights supporters" were largely to blame for the terrorist attack. Interestingly, Falwell owed a million dollars to the owner of a flight school which trained the most important hijackers (just as interesting, the hijackers would take down the biggest symbol of the might of the Eastern Establishment while the Neocons - supported by Falwell and Robertson - should have been among the major suspects behind the attack). [143]

In 1994 G. Edward Griffin published his well
known book 'The Creature from Jekyll Island' about the founding of the Federal Reserve System, a popular topic among the authors discussed in this section. He had earlier produced the Capitalist Conspiracy video (1971) and interviewed Norman Dodd (1982). Griffin was a long time member of the John Birch Society and at least one of his works was supported by the Western Goals Foundation [144], a privately funded intelligence group allied with the World Anti-Communist League and the John Birch Society. Western Goals was headed by such notorious reactionaries as Roy Cohn, General John Singlaub, Edward Teller and Admiral Thomas Moorer. [145] Its gatherings were attended by hundreds of hard-right, anti-communist generals and a number of allied Congressmen and think tank executives. [146]

The anti-communist, anti-socialist, anti-liberal, and anti-Eastern Establishment crusade continues to this day. Over the decades it has shifted from a largely anti-semitic stance to one usually in support of radical Zionism, and since 9/11 has included a strong anti-Arab bias. These crusaders include many persons surrounding online newspapers as WorldNetDaily and Newsmax. Think in this case of Christopher W. Ruddy, Joseph Farah, Jonathan Falwell (son of), Jeffrey R. Nyquist, Jerome R. Corsi, Charles R. Smith, and others. Not all of the authors and newspaper owners are entirely on the same page. Many distance themselves from New World Order conspiracies, especially the more prominent ones. Among these is Ann Coulter (who is admired by the WorldNetDaily and Newsmax staff).

Among the small time radical right authors who are mainly known in the conspiracy community (and have not been mentioned a few lines back) are Dr. Stanley Monteith, J. Orlin Grabbe, and Joel Skousen. Skousen, as a nephew of the earlier-discussed Cleon Skousen, is particularly interesting. Not only is Joel Skousen warning that the Soviet Union is still preparing to invade the West, he can also be found on the board of "Pilots for 9/11 Truth", an outfit which spreads the disinformation that no-757 could have hit the Pentagon. The conspiracy community has continually been infiltrated by spooks, and regularly they are anti-communist propagandists. General Albert Stubblebine and William Lewis who got involved with the 9/11 Truth movement in 2006 are two other examples. General Benton K. Partin, the explosives expert who spoke about the Oklahoma bombing and the TWA-800 crash, is another. Partin exposed the Oklahoma bombing as part of the effort to discredit Clinton. After talking about the inconsistencies in the TWA-800 crash, Partin implied a Russian submarine took it out. He then continued along the lines of Anatoliy Golitsyn with his story that both the Sino-Soviet split and the demise of the USSR were carefully crafted deceptions of the KGB. In 2006, the John Birch Society used Partin's explosives expertise in an effort to discredit the 9/11 Truth community.

There's much more that can be discussed about infiltrations into the conspiracy community, but the purpose of this segment is to make people understand that the conspiracies involving a United Nations-led world government, the Eastern Establishment, the Illuminati and the New World Order have been talked about for decades by hard-right propagandists. Some of it is true; some of it isn't. You can actually learn a lot by reading the works of these propagandists, but without some outside perspective you'll only aid one or more political agendas which may well be worse than the one of the Anglo-American Establishment. As PEHI's articles on Le Cercle and the Dutroux Affair make clear, it is exactly this hard-right, rabidly anti-communist group which has been involved some of the deepest and darkest conspiracies imaginable.

Pilgrims anomalies
Executive Intelligence Review, Lyndon Larouche's major political organization, has stated on numerous occasions their belief that British aristocrats have been manipulating both the traditional Eastern Establishment as well as the pro-Zionist Neoconservatives. It must be said that EIR has the tendency to bring up very interesting information, but often discredits itself by not giving enough sources for sensational claims. Saying they have a membership list of the 1001 Club or government documents on the Synarchy, but not publishing photocopies are just two major examples (after a long search I did find one partial photocopy of a government file in an Australian EIR publication, but this is not near enough).

All in all, the authors of EIR have provided little evidence for their theory that British aristocrats are in control of both the Eastern Establishment and Neoconservatives. However, a few anomalies in the Pilgrims Society membership suggest there might just be some truth in this claim after all.

In recent years EIR published a report on New York banker John Train. [147] EIR related how in 1983 a group of journalists and money men had organized a number of meetings at the home of John Train in Manhattan. Among the attendants were John Rees, mentioned earlier as a person involved in Western Goals; Sol Sanders, a writer for Business Week; NBC-TV producer Pat Lynch; Wall Street Journal reporter Ellen Hume; Reader's Digest editor Eugene Methvin, who also sat on the advisory board of American Family Foundation from 1982 to 1995; Peter Spiro of The New Republic; Chip Berlet, a onetime Washington bureau chief of High Times magazine; Dennis King, an investigative journalist who focuses on sects; Roy M. Cohn, on the advisory board of Western Goals and a rabid anti-communist with ties to the fascist underground; and Russ Bellant, apparently a propagandist along the lines of John Loftus.

During these meetings a strategy was devised to discredit Larouche by promoting the idea he was communist sympathizer. Train was described as a close associate of James Jesus Angleton and an agent of the Anglo-American aristocracy.

The claims made in this article by EIR about the anti-communist smear campaigns are very recognizable, and we have already discussed Rees's anti-communist propaganda activities on behalf of the Western Goals Foundation. EIR went on to detail some of Train's connections to Britain and a number of aristocratic spooks. What EIR apparently didn't know was that John Train has been a member of the Pilgrims of the United States since at least the early 1980s, and that as a newly-appointed executive member in 1996 he was highly influential in the 1996-1997 period in reorganizing the U.S. Pilgrims, assuring the society's continued existence after Hugh Bullock had been heading it for 43 years. [148] What EIR apparently also didn't know, but which additionally confirms his intelligence connections, is that Train was a financial advisor to John Hay Whitney during the 1960s and 1970s. [149] Whitney, a vice president of the Pilgrims Society, was one of the businessmen the CIA turned to when they wanted an institute to be financed by private funds. [150] Whitney was a friend of the British royal family, a close associate of the Rockefellers and a trustee of the Carnegie Foundation. In other words, Train's credentials as "a proud member of the Anglophile oligarchy", as EIR put it, are quite well-established.

The reason Train is important enough to be mentioned separately. in this article is not only his intelligence connections, but the fact that his Train Foundation has counted the involvement of leading Neoconservatives.

Train has not been the only prominent Pilgrim in the Train Foundation. Chairman of the Train Foundation since 2004 is the Pilgrims executive Edward J. Streator, a long time U.S. representative to various NATO bodies, a governor of the Ditchley Foundation, and a long time executive member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS) in London. Pilgrim Anne B. Sloane is president of the Train Foundation. She was executive vice president of the International Development Foundation and a director of the Inter American Foundation. Additionally, Pilgrims executive John R. Drexel IV used to be director of sales and marketing at Train, Smith Counsel from 1991 to 1993.

As for the Neoconservative ties, founding treasurer of the Northcote Parkinson Fund, as the Train Foundation used to be called, was the prominent Neoconservative Midge Decter. [151] In 1981 Decter was one of the organizers of the Committee for the Free World, which was funded by the Scaife Foundations, John M. Olin Foundation (named after a Pilgrim)), and the Smith Richardson Foundation. She shared responsibility with Donald Rumsfeld, about whom she wrote a biography. Decter is a trustee of the Heritage Foundation and one of the signatories to Statement of Principles for the PNAC. She is married to Norman Podhoretz (served in the United States Army (1953-1955) as an enlistee with the U.S. Army Security Agency; editor in chief of the Neoconservative Commentary magazine 1960-1995 and often referred to as one of the "Godfathers of Neoconservatism"; one of the original signatories of PNAC; senior foreign policy advisor to Rudy Giuliani in his presidential campaign). John Podhoretz and Rachel Decter are among her children. John served as speechwriter to former U.S. President Ronald Reagan as well as former President George H.W. Bush. He also served in the capacity of special assistant to White House [anti-] Drug Czar William Bennett. Rachel Decter married Elliott Abrams, another ultra right wing PNAC supporter, in 1980.

Midge Decter's involvement in such a dominant Pilgrims institute is rather strange, as the Pilgrims in general are not great supporters of the state of Israel. Let's take a look at some of these other anomalies.

Probably the most notorious British Pilgrim is Lord Alun Chalfont. Since the mid 1960s he has been coming to Pilgrims meetings, and sat on the executive board since 1979. Chalfont
Excerpts of a 1991 officers list of the Pilgrims of Great Britain. Lord Chalfont is listed.

is different from most Pilgrims. Instead of being primarily a banker, he has been making a name for himself as an hard-right, anti-communist crusader who on the side sat on the board of Lazards (and IBM UK). Among his credits he has listed "various... intelligence appointments", but this is not a particularly satisfying description of his career. We already met Chalfont in PEHI's Cercle article where he was described as close associate of the Cercle leadership. A partial recap of his bio:

"Minister in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1964-1970; Privy Council since 1964; Pilgrims Society executive since 1979; Conservative Monday Club; pro-apartheid; director pro-junta British-Chilean Council; council member of FARI with Cercle members/presidents Brian Crozier, Julian Amery, and Robert Moss, just
as the aristocrat Sir Frederic M. Bennett; chair Institute for the Study of Terrorism, a clone of Crozier's anti-communist Institute for the Study of Conflict; member Committee for a Free Britain, which spent more than Pounds 200,000 on press advertisements attacking Labour during the 1987 election; member Committee for a Free World, an American neo-conservative group; member Media Monitoring Unit, which attempted to "expose" left-wing bias in television news and current affairs programmes... deputy chairman of the Independent Broadcasting Authority.."

Chalfont used to chair Zeus Security Consultants in the early 1980s with Major Peter Hamilton, a former Military Intelligence officer, as managing director. Both used to run anti-communist operations in Malaya and Cyprus. At Zeus they received assignments from British Intelligence which they in turn delegated to subcontractors. One of these subcontractors was Sapphire Investigation Bureau Ltd., headed by Barrie Peachman. Peachman was recruited by Hamilton in January 1983 to ascertain the identities of protestors against the Sizewell atomic power station. In turn, Peachman recruited Victor Norris, alias Adrian Hampson, for this job. In the following weeks and months Norris infiltrated the nuclear protestors by setting up dummy action groups which pretended to be friendly to the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the protestors at the Sizewell nuclear powerplant. At one point Norris wrote to Sapphire he "could put a stop on CND if required." The infiltrations of Norris were part of a broader operation of Britain's hard-right against nuclear protestors. Some of these protesters died, like Hilda Murrell and William McRae; others were severely beaten up. After the Sizewell operation was threatened with exposure, Peachman's behavior became increasingly erratic. He finally committed suicide with a shotgun after repeatedly stating "he'd got his back to wall" and that "people were out to get him". Another interesting fact is that Norris had been convicted in 1973 for pimping out his daughter to pedophile friends. Norris also was head of the Anglican Satanic Church, and founder of the Nazi Phoenix Society and the 5000 Group. In 1986 Chalfont and several other directors of Zeus set up Securipol, another security firm with largely the same purpose as Zeus. Securipol shared offices with Ensec Limited, a company specialized in the undersea dumping of nuclear waste. If this isn't enough, Peter Hamilton has been named as a close associate of Stephen Kock, the MI6 and SAS officer who is said to have headed a top secret government assassination team, Group 13 (the son of Pilgrims Society member the 1st Viscount Monckton once acted as Kock's patron). [152]

Add to all this Chalfont's association with the Cercle leadership, his directorship in the Committee for a Free World (alongside Decter), him chairing the second Jonathan Institute, and his reported friendship with John F. Lehman (Neocon; Secretary of the Navy; 9/11 Commission), and it becomes clear that Chalfont's reputation as a darkly figure is quite justified.

Among Chalfont's associates is Sir Frederick Bennett, who is known to have visited a luncheon of the Pilgrims of Great Britain on February 23, 1982. Bennett was among the directors of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute (FARI), together with Chalfont, Brian Crozier, Julian Amery and Robert Moss. CIA and DIA officers and associates like Richard Mellon Scaife, William Casey, Ed Feulner, Ray Cline and General Daniel O. Graham came to the conferences of FARI. Like Chalfont, Bennett was a first rate aristocrat: his mother was a Kleinwort; director Kleinwort Benson Europe; Lloyds underwriter; honorary director of the BCCI in Hong Kong; Privy Council; Bilderberg; owned a Rolls-Royce and four homes, one of them in the Cayman Islands; etc. Bennet's hard-right and anti-communist convictions are likely to have stemmed from his father, who has already been discussed in this article: Sir Ernest Bennett, once a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship and the secretive pro-Nazi group, the Right Club. All of a sudden, Bennett's support for Pinochet sounds not that strange at all.

Another rather darkly figure who has been invited to the Pilgrims in recent years is Lord William Rees-Mogg. As editor-in-chief of the Times of London from 1967 to 1981 he would be an obvious choice, even though he is Catholic. Rees-Mogg is a strange person. Senator John DeCamp, who once investigated the Franklin child abuse affair, had among his friends former CIA director and Cercle member William Colby. At one point Colby explained a few things about Rees-Mogg to DeCamp:

"At the time of his death, Bill [Colby] was working with Britain's Lord William Rees-Mogg... [Rees-Mogg] used to write that in the coming age of society, an elite of 5% of the total population would rule over the other 95% as virtual slaves. But Rees-Mogg is not just nasty-- he represents great power... On several occasions, when I saw Bill or spoke with him during the last year of his life, I'd ask him whether I should subscribe to his newsletter [Strategic Investment], or, whether he'd just give me a few copies to look over. He always told me not to waste my money. "Ask me about any situation your interested in, and I'll give you as thorough a briefing as I possibly can. But don't believe a word you read in that newsletter I'm writing for." Strange... Maybe his involvement with Rees-Mogg was more complicated than I ever speculated... And I recall another incident... Together with Rees-Mogg, the most savage press hound attacking Clinton was one Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, a Briton... [he] once called me, urgently demanding a meeting. I had never heard of him before, and so I asked Bill if he had ever heard of this fellow... Bill answered, rather ominously, as I now look back, "His name is Ambrose Evans-Pritchard. And," he said, "be very careful."" [153]

Rees-Mogg, as a member of the exclusive Other Club since 1973, is a close associate of the leading aristocratic families in Britain, including the Duke of Devonshire (Cavendish), Lord Carrington (Pilgrims president), Lord Rothschild and Prince Charles. Here they dine together with such individuals as Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, Sir Edward Heath, and Sir Denis Thatcher (husband of). Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne (J. Henry Schroder; Bank of England; Morgan Stanley; BIS; Chemical Bank; Chase Manhattan; Rolls Royce; Ditchley; Group of Thirty; presided over G-10 meetings; Privy Council; Order of the Garter; Pilgrims Society) and Winston Spencer-Churchill (grandson of the famous PM; son of Pamela Harriman; had an extra-marital affair with the former wife of famous arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi; MP; involved in some projects with Cercle members) are other members of the Other Club, just as Cercle participants Baron Kelvedon, Lord Julian Amery and the 7th Marquess of Salisbury. [154] The Rothschilds, Cecils, Drummonds, Dukes of Norfolk, Dukes of Devonshire, together with Harry Oppenheimer and Paul Mellon, could also be found in the same room with Rees-Mogg when the even more exclusive Roxburghe Club met. [155]

There's also one slight anomaly sitting on the board of the Pilgrims of the United States since 1983: Alexander M. Haig, Jr. Haig has always been a militant anti-communist crusader with many intelligence connections, but at the same time, as Kissinger's aide, he supported détente and was accepted as a member of the Trilateral Commission. He seems to be of the same breed of Zbigniew Brzezinski, Samuel P. Huntington and Admiral Thomas Moorer, all of them staunch anti-communists who believed détente was possible, but at the same time were convinced that the communist nations would not cooperate if not faced with considerable political and military pressure (the carrot and stick method). But where Brzezinski, Huntington and Moorer have always been fierce critics of Israel and its lobby in the United States, Haig in more recent years has joined the advisory board of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, became a member of Benador Associates and served on the board of Newsmax--all of them pro-Zionist.

The right-wing intelligence connections of people like Train, Chalfont, Bennett, Rees-Mogg and Haig is what obviously stands out here among many of the other Pilgrims. There are a few other right-wing Pilgrims who fit in this category, among them Lord Guthrie, an SAS veteran and Chief of the Defence Staff who joined N.M. Rothschild & Sons; and John M. Olin, founder of the right-wing, intelligence-connected Olin Foundation. While the Pilgrims Society clearly proves the existence of a liberal Anglo-American Establishment, this small number of leading Pilgrims with connections to intelligence and the Neoconservatives raises questions as to what else might be going in the "high places"; at this point we just don't know. There are only a handful of people who have been talking about the connection between establishment and intelligence. The story of the "Georgetown Set" of Allen Dulles and Frank Wisner as a Washington-based social group with many ties to the banking establishment in New York is somewhat known. It is also known that it was opposed by elements in the Army and Navy, like General George V. Strong, Admiral Leahy and General Walter Bedell Smith, who regarded it as an unwelcome and incompetent arm of Wall Street in foreign affairs and military conflicts. In London, during World War II, the connection between Hambros and the founding of the Special Operations Executive (SOE) is quite obvious. The person in question, Sir Charles Hambro (a Pilgrim), also was a director of the Bank of England and a close friend of both the Wallenbergs in Sweden and the Morgan family in New York. Other connections between intelligence and banking have been discussed in PEHI/ISGP's article on Le Cercle, which also discusses The 61 and the Shield committee (the latter gave intelligence briefings to Margaret Thatcher before she was elected).

In more recent years it was Gerald James who exposed the connection between British intelligence and the leading banking houses of London. James's high-level banking and business background has already been discussed in the media section of this article, in which James's writings were quoted about infiltration of the media by British intelligence. As for the "intelligence-banking" cabal, James wrote:

"Powerful and secretive, the group which dictated the whole covert policy [arms to Iraq affair] drew its membership less from among elected politicians, than civil servants, particularly the Cabinet Office, and from Intelligence circles, industry and the City, the very forces which brought Mrs. Thatcher to power. Some elected are nonetheless allied to the group, where political position or some area of mutual interest - the City, the Middle East - suggest it would prove beneficial. Jonathan Aitken [once head of Le Cercle] was someone who fitted into the latter category, not a member of the inner sanctum exactly, though he very much wanted to be [James had done business with Aitken]...

"Whether Margaret Thatcher was herself at the real centre of power as the leader of this inner group cannot be said for certain. However, she was more concerned for the group's freedom to act than any other prime minister in history...

"The cabal needs the City to finance its deals and launder its funds... The passage of officers from British Intelligence to the City is a common enough occurrence and, as we have seen in the case of Sir John Cuckney (ex-MI5) and the crash of the Liverpool Docks, where there are political overtones involved, such men are especially welcome... Once in a City position, these men maintain their Intelligence connections. That is the purpose. Ideally, like Cuckney again, they build up political connections. It is this mixture of City, Intelligence and politics that constituted the profile of the cabal.

"Firms like Kleinwort Benson, where George Kennedy Young worked after retiring as deputy head of MI6, and Morgan Grenfell have had their Intelligence associations for years, as have Hambros, Schroeders, Rothschilds and Barings... Peter Middleton, chief executive of Lloyds of London, came out of the Foreign Office and MI6, and has worked for the International Division of Midland Bank [played a central role in the Iraq arms trade]...

"If you are in the senior echelons of the civil service, the City and Intelligence, you are above the law, you are all powerful..." [156]

Investigative journalists working for the Independent and the Observer on James's story received death threats; one of them was was knocked to the ground by a car while walking on the pavement; another, a contact of one of the journalists, died under suspicious circumstances. [157] James himself received a number of threats from Stephen Kock, the alleged former head of Group 13, including that he would be "put down". [158] His home was broken into on a number of occasions.

This all goes to show that there's much about the world of intelligence we still don't know. How many people would have guessed, for example, that left-wing organizations as the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the National Council for Civil Liberties, Greenpeace, and Friends of the Earth all were thoroughly penetrated by British intelligence; or more alarmingly, that people connected to intelligence and the SAS have been harassing, intimidating and even assassinating leftist activists and whistleblowers? [159] A small number of Pilgrims have been close to this circle of right-wing intelligence people, but how this group interacts with the overall more liberal (and more anti-Zionist) Anglo-American Establishment remains a bit of a mystery.

The propaganda is true?
In the past paragraphs we have discussed how hard-right propaganda has largely been responsible for all the fuss about the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission and the United Nations. The most interesting aspect of this propaganda may actually be that it is largely true. The Morgans and their henchmen really were a dominant influence in American economic and political circles in the early part of the 20th century. The Morgans, Mellons, Rockefellers, Vanderbilts and Andrew Carnegie really were great Anglophiles, this in contrast to the general population which still remembered the wars of independence. These same families really were great supporters of the United Nations and continue to be so until this very day. This analysis of the Pilgrims Society has shown all these things. Leading Pilgrims have been among the founders and leaders of the Royal Institute for International Affairs, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Atlantic Councils, Bilderberg, the Trilateral Commission, the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs, the International Institute of Strategic Studies, the Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundations, the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Trade and Economic Council, the U.S.-China Business Council, the America-China Society, the Americas Society, the OECD, the Institute for International Economics, Ditchley, Brookings, the British Invisibles, LOTIS, etc., etc. The absolute core of the globalist movement largely consists of Pilgrims. Examples are the membership of Lord Roll, Lord Carrington, Arthur Dean, Gabriel Hauge, Henry Heinz, Richard Holbrooke, Henry Kissinger, John J. McCloy, Lord Kerr, David Rockefeller, Robert V. Roosa, Cyrus Vance, Paul Volcker, and John Whitehead. Charles Savoie additionally listed Sir Peter Sutherland and George Ball as Pilgrims, both also important globalists.

Even the work of Carroll Quigley can be verified to some extent, although this author is of the opinion that Quigley's work on the Round Table groups could have been much better documented. Quigley wrote:

"At the risk of some repetition, the story will be summarized here, because the American branch of this oganization (sometimes called the "Eastern Establishment") has played a very significant role in the history of the United States in the last generation.

"The Round Table Groups were semi-secret discussion and lobbying groups... The original purpose of these groups was to seek to federate the English-speaking world along lines laid down by Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and William T. Stead, (1840-1912), and the money for the organizational work came originally from the Rhodes Trust...

"Since 1925 there have been substantial contributions from wealthy individuals and from foundations and firms associated with the international banking fraternity, especially the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and other organizations associated with J.P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney families, and the associates of Lazard Brothers and of Morgan, Grenfell, and Company.

"The chief backbone of this organization grew up along the already existing financial cooperation running from the Morgan Bank in New York to a group of international financiers in London led by Lazard Brothers."

"This group wielded great influence because it controlled the Rhodes Trust, the Beit Trust, The Times of London, The Observer, the influential and highly anonymous quarterly review known as The Round Table (founded in 1910 with money supplied by Sir Abe Bailey and the Rhodes Trust, and with Lothian as editor), and it dominated the Royal Institute of International Affairs, called "Chatham House" (of which Sir Abe Bailey and the Astors were the chief financial supporters, while Lionel Curtis was the actual founder), the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and All Souls College, Oxford."...

"[The aim of these international bankers was] nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences." [160]

This analysis of the Pilgrims Society has confirmed the existence of a network as described by Quigley. The Rockefellers, Carnegie, Astor, Whitney, Lazard and Morgan interests have all been very influential within the Pilgrims. Even in the 1970s, on the executive board of the Pilgrims of Great Britain were the 2nd Viscount Harcourt, a great-grandson of Junius S. Morgan who headed the British branch of J. P. Morgan & Co., Morgan Grenfell; and the 2nd Lord Kindersley, who had taken over the Lazard bank from his father and Lord Brand in 1953. Although virtually all of the Round Table members described by Quigley have at least visited the Pilgrims on one or more occasions, not all have been confirmed members. However, some of the alleged organizers and leaders of the Round Table certainly were members. They include Lord Lothian (d. 1940), Lord Brand of Lazard (d. 1963) and Adam D. Marris of Lazard (d. 1983). Among the Pilgrims can further be found a good number of All Souls fellows and Rhodes Scholars. A number of officers of the Rhodes Trust have appeared in PEHI/ISGP's membership list of the Pilgrims Society, while in other cases close relatives were on the board of the Rhodes Trust (including chairmen). In other words, without going into the specifics of his Round Table network, Quigley's Anglo-American Establishment certainly did exist and at least to some extent still exists today. It's actually quite surprising that Quigley never mentioned the Pilgrims Society in his works.

The founding of the Federal Reserve system in the United States in 1913, which is often portrayed as a banker's conspiracy, can also be traced to members of the Pilgrims. The conspiracy centered on a meeting at Jekyll Island in November 1910 in which leading bankers worked out the details of setting up a privately-owned central bank in the United States. Those that attended were Senator Nelson Aldrich, whose daughter married John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in 1901 and who was the person to introduce the banker's plan to Congress; Frank Vanderlip, president of the Rockefellers' National City Bank; Henry Davison, a partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. and a representative of the Astor interests; Charles Norton, president of the Morgan-dominated First National Bank of New York; Benjamin Strong, Jr. vice president of the Banker's Trust of New York, also controlled by the Morgans; and Paul Warburg, a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Pilgrims researcher Charles Savoie has labeled virtually all of the Jekyll Island visitors as Pilgrims. This author has not seen the original sources in this case, but it is clear that many descendents, family members and business partners of the Jekyll Island conspirators have appeared in the Pilgrims. Among the descendants and families have been Benjamin Strong, Frank Vanderlip, Jr., the Warburg family and many Aldriches. The financial advisor to Senator Nelson Aldrich, Alfred L. Aiken, was a Pilgrim, and so was Aldrich's associate in Congress, Edward B. Vreeland. Paul Warburg's partners at Kuhn, Loeb, Jacob Schiff and Otto Kahn, were both Pilgrims, just as members of the Rockefeller, Morgan and Astor families. Since then Pilgrims have dominated the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and also had considerable presence on the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the main body of the Federal Reserve that decides on monetary policy. In other words, the Pilgrims are very relevant to the history of the Federal Reserve and the financial history of the United States.

Globalist theory
It is sometimes amazing to see how America's anti-globalist conspiracy community can twist words, turning them into quotes which have been taken completely out of context. One of the biggest of such manipulations is a widely-circulated quote from H. G. Wells from his 1940 pamphlet 'The New World Order'. You may have seen come across it:

"Countless people ... will hate the new world order ... and will die protesting against it."

The full text of Wells's pamphlet is readily available on the internet, so let's take a look at the full text. We read:

"Countless people, from maharajas to millionaires and from pukkha sahibs to pretty ladies, will hate the new world order, be rendered unhappy by frustration of their passions and ambitions through its advent and will die protesting against it." [161]

Quite a difference, don't you think? The "shortened" version of the quote will make people believe Wells is talking about suppressing the common men. The full quote, on the other hand, shows that Wells was actually talking about the elites of this world. It's impossible to look inside Wells's head to see his real motivations, but his pamphlets 'The Open Conspiracy and Other Writings' (1934) and 'The New World Order' (1940) come down to the following points:

  1. All governments and their policies are temporary. They frequently abuse their power. This should be countered. They are not to interfere with the establishing of a "world economic system".
  2. All private, local and national ownership of such things as credit, transport, and staple production should be transferred to a "responsible world directorate" serving the common ends of the human race.
  3. The world directorate controls a world armed force, tries to eradicate disease and looks after population control.
  4. There should be a "minimum standard of individual freedom and welfare in the world."
  5. The personal career should be subordinate to the creation of the world directorate and the general advancement of human knowledge.
  6. People should be educated that immortality does not lie in our individual selves, but in our race as a whole.

Wells was somewhat of an establishment figure and is even known to have visited a dinner of the Pilgrims of Great Britain in November 1913. In the years before, he was a member of the Coefficients, a 14-member pro-Empire dining club consisting of rather notable figures. Among the members were Sidney and Beatrice Webb, leading Fabian socialists; Sir Edward Grey, of Quigley's Rhodes Secret Society and the Milner Group; Viscount Alfred Milner, of Quigley's Milner Group; Leopold James Maxse, brother of Violet Cecil, who was married to Lord Edward Cecil, the son of the 3rd Marquess, and from 1921 to Lord Milner; and Lord Leopold Amery, another member of Quigley's Round Table. The members of this group do not appear to have been particularly involved in the Pilgrims. The Webbs were prominent Fabian socialists, a group which has had considerable influence on the principles of the British Labour Party, including New Labour. Lord Amery and the Cecils were early supporters of Zionism, largely in contrast to the Pilgrims establishment and the more right-wing (read: fascist) Duke of Windsor-Chamberlain clique. Wells knew these men through the Webbs, but at some point severed his ties again with the Webbs because he came to consider them Machiavellian manipulators. Wells did remain prominent in Labour politics over the years and in 1932 - alongside Aldous Huxley, Julian Huxley and Bertrand Russell - became one of the founding vice presidents of the Federation of Progressive Society and Individuals (FPSI), a lobby and pressure group to boost overall support of Labour, which had suffered a crushing defeat in the elections of 1931 after a years-long economic depression. In their magazine 'Plan' the FPSI actually claimed the recent economic depression had been engineered by the large bankers. Alongside allied groups as the Council for Civil Liberties and the Socialist League, the FPSI also crusaded against what they saw was the increased "fascisation" of Britain, sponsored by the big banks, the Rothermere Press and the British Union of Fascists. [162] Among the material they wrote was the following text, which was published in 1934 and by now should contain some highly recognizable accusations:

"Then came 1931, and there was an operation planned to bring Germany into the dictatorship-world empire scheme. The British monarchy was behind it; others were behind it; people in New York were behind it. Initially, the understanding of the Anglo-American supporters of this fascist project - which was largely based in France, actually, around firms like Lazard Freres and so forth. But the intent of the project was to have the Germans re-arm, and destroy the Soviet Union. While Germany was embedded in Russia, in the process of trying to […] the Soviet Union, then, the allies - France and Britain - intended to jump on Germany's rear, and crush Germany, and be rid of the Soviet Union at the same time, and set up world dictatorship." [163]

Wells was a promoter of his own version of "world social democracy" through his writings
and through his H. G. Wells Society (Cosmopolis), which merged with the FPSI in 1936. Wells's idea of world social democracy is today largely continued by organizations as the Socialist International, which, although seemingly not part of the big globalist think tanks sponsored by banks and multinationals, do not really seem to have any particularly original or independent ideas on how to organize the world.

World War II was the major turning point in history which prompted a rush towards globalization. Weapons and means of transport had become so advanced that a new war among Western powers would have to be prevented at all costs. Great Britain had to review its centuries-old Balance of Power policy, the Americans realized isolationism wasn't going to be in their best interest anymore, and on the continent a solution had to be found to the continuous strife between France and Germany over the minerals in the Ruhr area. At the same time the communists still had to be kept at bay in Europe. Members of the Anglo-American Establishment came up with a number of solutions. One of their main assets was the Frenchman Jean Monnet, who today is known as the "founder of Europe".

Since the 1920s Monnet had been close to the Lazard Bank of the Lords Kindersley, Lord Brand, Tommy Brand, and Adam Marris (all Pilgrims, except Tommy Brand). Monnet's firm Monnet, Murnane & Co., which he ran with George Murnane, was briefly under investigation in 1938 for allegedly having laundered Nazi money. This is interesting, because most of Monnet's associates, included those at the Lazard bank, were closely cooperating with the fascist regimes during this period. After World War II Monnet was among those who advocated European integration. He received the full support of former fascist collaborators as the Lazard bankers, C. Douglas Dillon, the Dulles brothers and John J. McCloy (all Pilgrims). Monnet's behind-the-scenes efforts were largely responsible for the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, centered around the mineral wealth of the Ruhr area and the basis for the later European Union; the 1957 Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community; and the founding of the powerful globalist institution, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Monnet's framework for the

The Road to Serfdom
Friedrich Hayek's classic work 'The Road to Serfdom', first published in 1944. Besides promoting a return to a free- market economy, of which many people had become skeptical after the continuous economic depression of the 1930s, the book also tried to dispel the popular (and correct) notion that fascism was a capitalist reaction against socialism and that any form of planning or regulation in the post-war economy would only make it more liable to a new dictatorship. According to Hayek, it actually were communist and socialist theories which led to the rise of fascism. Although most intellectuals preferred Hayek's free- market theories over communism and severe socialism, 'The Road to Serfdom' was a book that served the big interests in the post-WWII world which less than a decade before had been sponsoring fascist politicians to suppress increasingly influential labor unions. Of course, not a word of these practices appeared in Hayek's book, which is undoubtedly why it was promoted by Reader's Digest and General Motors, two pre-WWII supporters of American fascism. "Reagonomics" en "Thatcherism" were inspired by Hayek. David Rockefeller used to be tutored by Hayek and really liked his ideas ('Memoirs', pp. 75-76). Hayek also inspired the Pilgrim Sir Anthony Fisher, who went on to "litter the world with free-market think-tanks." Together they visited meetings of the hugely influential Mont Pelerin Society, which Hayek organized in 1947.
European Union had actually been inspired by his old friend Lord Arthur Salter, a prominent fascist appeaser and a long-time member of the Pilgrims Society. [164]

Monnet's credentials as an "agent" (if we can use this term) of the Anglo-American Establishment are impeccable. Next to his friendship to the earlier-mentioned fascist appeasers, his efforts to integrate Europe also received the full support of President Eisenhower (a Pilgrims executive), David K.E. Bruce (a Pilgrims vice president), George Ball (said to have been a Pilgrim), John Tuthill (became head of the Atlantic Institute in the 1960s, which was mainly founded by Pilgrims), the U.S. State Department under John Foster Dulles, and the CIA under Allen Dulles. He also worked closely with the Dutch globalist Max Kohnstamm (private secretary to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands; frequent Bilderberg visitor; initial 1973 European chairman of the Trilateral Commission; today on the advisory council of the European Policy Centre, together with Pilgrims executive Lord Kerr of Kinlochard and alleged Pilgrim Peter Sutherland, not to mention alleged child abuser Karel van Miert). In 1963, Monnet was among the founding board members of the Per Jacobsson Foundation, named after a director the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) during World War II and a managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Among the directors of the Per Jacobsson Foundation in the 1960s to early 1970s have been Viscount Harcourt (Pilgrims executive; IMF; World Bank; chair Morgan Grenfell & Co.), Gabriel Hauge (Pilgrims; chair Manufacturers Hanover Trust; treasurer CFR; Bilderberg steering committee), Herman J. Abs (chair Deutsche Bank), Marinus W. Holtrop (chair BIS and the Nederlandse Bank); Lord Salter (Pilgrim; supposed Round Table member; associated with Oxford and All Souls; Privy Council; League of Nations; inspired Monnet's structure for the European Union), Lord Cobbeld (Pilgrim; Privy Council; Bank of England), David Rockefeller (chair Chase Manhattan Bank; Pilgrims), Allen Sproul (Pilgrims; New York Fed), Maurice Frère (BIS; Sofina; Banque Nationale de Belgique; family today owns Frère-Bourgeois Group), Albert E. Janssen (chair Société Belge de Banque), Samuel Schweizer (chair Swiss Bank Corporation), and others. Eugene R. Black (alleged Pilgrim; Chase; World Bank; Fed; Brookings; Bilderberg) and Marcus Wallenberg were among the chairmen of the foundation. Looking at all these names it's hard to doubt Monnet's loyalties.

Some time after a network had been created which involved the United Nations, the World Bank, the IMF, the OECD, NATO, the European Economic Community, Bilderberg, the Atlantic Institute, and other institutions, a scholar named Zbigniew Brzezinski wrote a book titled 'Between to Ages', which was published in 1970. This book advocated a close political and economic cooperation between the most economically vital regions on the planet: North America, Western Europe and Japan. David Rockefeller read the book and invited Brzezinski to organize a private discussion forum to implement these ideas. This led to the creation of the Trilateral Commission in 1973. In his book Brzezinski gave a good description of the new, emerging globalist elite:

"Today we are again witnessing the emergence of transnational elites, but now they are composed of international businessmen, scholars, professional men, and public officials. The ties of these new elites cut across national boundaries, their perspectives are not confined by national traditions, and their interests are more functional than national. These global communities are gaining in strength and as was true in the Middle Ages, it is likely that before long the social elites of most of the more advanced countries will be highly internationalist or globalist in spirit and outlook. The creation of the global information grid, facilitating almost continuous intellectual interaction and the pooling of knowledge, will further enhance the present trend toward international professional elites and toward the emergence of a common scientific language (in effect, the functional equivalent of Latin). This, however, could create a dangerous gap between them and the politically activated masses, whose "nativism"— exploited by more nationalist political leaders—could work against the "cosmopolitan" elites." [165]

Brzezinski appears not to have been a member of the Pilgrims Society, which would not be surprising considering his Polish descent and rather militant anti-communism. Through the Trilateral Commission, Brzezinski's foreign policy regarding the Soviet Union initially was focused on a shift from Containment to Détente. But at the time of Jimmy Carter's election, who ran on a campaign set out by the Trilaterals, a hard-right, intelligence-connected group of politicians and military officials stepped forward to oppose the policies of both Containment and Détente, and instead proposed an all-out economic and guerrilla war against international communism. This right-wing group, also known as "Team B", was organized around the Committee on the Present Danger and included both traditional anti-communist hardliners as Paul Nitze and Richard Stilwell, as well as the upcoming pro-Zionist Neoconservatives around Senator Henry Jackson (see PEHI's Cercle article for more information). Without the support of Pilgrim Cyrus Vance, Secretary of State under Carter who had come from the Rockefeller Foundation, Brzezinski compromised with Team B and next to his Trilateral "interdependence" approach, Brzezinski also followed a hardline anti-communist policy in the Middle East, supporting the Shah in Iran and luring the Soviet Union into Afghanistan. [166] It were Brzezinski's establishment associates, David Rockefeller, Henry Kissinger and John J. McCloy, who pushed a reluctant Carter in 1979 to allow the Shah asylum in the United States, a decision which led to the Iranian hostage crisis, an embarrassing rescue mission, and the October Surprise accusations. As a result Carter was out in 1980, but Brzezinski would continue as one of the most important anti-communist crusaders for decades to come. [167]

Brzezinski has always walked a fine line between the Eastern Establishment and the right-wing, anti-communist radicals in Le Cercle. Brzezinski's role as organizer of the Trilateral Commission and a fierce critic of radical Zionism, put him closer to the former group. In his book 'Between Two Ages' Brzezinski also gave an important warning that liberal democracy might some day be threatened by an elite abusing high technology.

"Another threat, less overt but no less basic, confronts liberal democracy. More directly linked to the impact of technology, it involves the gradual appearance of a more controlled and directed society. Such a society would be dominated by an elite whose claim to political power would rest on allegedly superior scientific knowhow. Unhindered by the restraints of traditional liberal values, this elite would not hesitate to achieve its political ends by using the latest modern techniques for influencing public behavior and keeping society under close surveillance and control." [168]

A honest warning it seems, but also a bit chilling considering Brzezinski's obsession with student protests and the emerging of "Violent Left" at the time he wrote this book, not to mention his more recent observation that "democracy is inimical to imperial mobilization" [169]. Brzezinski's close associate Samuel Huntington wrote something similar for the Trilateral Commission in 1975:

"A government which lacks authority will have little ability short of cataclysmic crisis to impose on its people the sacrifices which may be necessary... We have come to recognize that there are potential desirable limits to economic growth. There are also potentially desirable limits to the indefinite extension of political democracy." [170]

Whether the views of Brzezinski and Huntington entirely represent the ideas of the major globalists in the Pilgrims Society, especially David Rockefeller, is hard to say. They were not part of the Eastern Establishment by birth, but managed to reach some of the highest offices in the United States with the support of this establishment. Both Brzezinski and Huntington are globalists [171], but at the same time they are more outspokenly right-wing, anti-communist and anti-Zionist than the average globalist. Looking at Brzezinski's past CIA-involvement [172] he somewhat reminds us of the CIA officers of the Georgetown Set - their main purpose being to fight communism and securing America's foreign policy interests, but at the same time politically allied to the Pilgrims and CFR establishment.

A family which comes to light in this context are the Roosevelts. We discussed how these descendants of Theodore Roosevelt went from supporting fascism before World War II, to supporting the fascist underground after the war as senior officers in the CIA. While at least two members of this Roosevelt family publicly attacked the "pro-communist" Eastern Establishment, including the Rockefellers, a third, a senior CIA officer, would later become David Rockefeller's Middle-East advisor at Chase Manhattan Bank. What has not been discussed yet is that another member of this family, Theodore Roosevelt IV, a prominent New York banker at Lehman Brothers, is heading today's human-induced global warming scam alongside the more prominent Al Gore. Theodore IV is a director of the Alliance for Climate Protection, which is chaired by Al Gore. He is also chairman of the Pew Center for Global Climate Change, and on the board of both the World Resources Institute (again with Al Gore; also with Godrey family of the 1001 Club) and the Wilderness Society.

Both the World Resources Institute and the Wilderness Society sound a lot like the World Wilderness conferences of the late 1980s which worked in conjunction with the Pilgrims-dominated United Nations Association and were prominently attended by Maurice Strong, David Rockefeller, Edmund de Rothschild and James Baker (the latter three Pilgrims; the first a 1001 Club member). If the audio recordings and papers produced about these meetings are genuine, it is clear that Brzezinski's and Huntington's views on limiting freedom of expression in the West are shared with those of the most important globalists. In short, at these conferences the CO2 agenda is put on the map, and it is discussed how the United Nations should take possession of the world and severely decrease its population, "by military force, when required". These conferences have been discussed in detail in PEHI's 2006 introduction article.

The main point here is that the globalization process is run by the Anglo-American Establishment - the Pilgrims if you will - and many allied liberal-oriented businessmen in North America and Europe. What has not yet been understood, however, is the relationship between intelligence and the global establishment.

There's a lot more that can be written about globalization and European integration, and this is something that has been done in some of PEHI/ISGP's other articles.

The initial purpose of this article was to show whether or not there really existed an Anglo-American Establishment that has been influential on domestic and international politics. Although this is something that has already been established to a large extent by a number of authors, there never was one single society to identify "its members" and link them all together in an easy and convenient way. The advantages of this article over previous writings about the Anglo-American aristocracy include:

  • The Pilgrims Society predates the founding of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute of International Affairs - two closely-linked think tanks - with almost 20 years, and therefore easily connects J. P. Morgan, Sr. (d. 1913), Andrew Carnegie (d. 1919), and Jacob Schiff (d. 1920) to the same Anglo-American network. Daniel Coit Gilman (d. 1908), who incorporated Skull & Bones into the Russell Trust and founded the Carnegie Institution of Washington with Andrew Carnegie in 1902, is another interesting example.
  • This discussion of the Pilgrims Society confirms statements that have been heard since at least the early part of the 20th century that the international bankers in New York have been "in league" with the British aristocracy. The connections between members of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute of International Affairs have been there, just as the connections between some of the leading New York families and the British royal family, but the Pilgrims makes the whole picture much easier to see. In other words, it will convince more people in a shorter amount of time that there has been such a thing as an Anglo-American aristocracy.
  • An analysis of the Pilgrims Society makes it possible to better describe the elitist Anglo-American social network, consisting of the Episcopal and Presbyterian Churches, Templar and Masonic organizations, and a whole range of recreational groups. The Council on Foreign Relations and the Royal Institute of International Affairs (which is changing its elitist image) have only drawn in persons that are influential in foreign policy or benefit in some other way from attending meetings. The majority of U.S. Pilgrims have not been members of the CFR, but their biographies still tell an interesting story. Among the important Pilgrims who have not been CFR members are Hulbert S. Aldrich, the Drexels, Cornelius Vanderbilt III, William Vanderbilt Cecil, William S. Farish III, Walter Cronkite, Donald Elliman (Time), and Thomas A. Murphy (General Electric).
  • Even today there are no historical membership lists of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in the public domain. This Pilgrims Society article has circumvented this problem and still makes it possible to identify and link together many historical members of the British establishment.

What might be good to know is that the Anglo-American Establishment is not all powerful. Within the United States they have had some rivalry from the military and intelligence establishments, just as industrialists and businessmen from other parts of the country. Other opposing forces have been the Vatican-Paneuropa network in Europe and Zionism, especially the radical revisionist branch. Unfortunately, the leading figures in all these opposing groups appear to be more reactionary than those of the liberal Anglo-American Establishment. This doesn't mean that the globalists of the Anglo-American Establishment are necessarily decent, upstanding citizens; it just means that they speak more articulately and plan things better. Just remember how Morgan banker Thomas Lamont tried to educate a reactionary fascist murderer named Benito Mussolini on how to appeal to the Anglo-American public. [173]

Now that we know that there is an Anglo-American Establishment, should we all oppose globalization and withdraw behind our own borders? This might be tempting, but at the same time this would merely be an unintellectual reactionary response to big business taking charge of the globalization process. With all the advanced and affordable means of transport (ignoring the coming oil crisis), the 24-hour news reports from around the world, and the internet, it will not be possible to stop globalization, nor would it be wise. The known history of the human race goes back almost 10,000 years and since this time has largely been characterized by only two things: abuse of power and war. Every historian at one point will realize that all he or she is reading about is the shifting of borders and the destruction of cultures as a result of abusive rulers looking for more territory and more riches. The only difference between all these wars is that they have become increasingly destructive as the centuries went by. At this point they will be so destructive that a war among the major nations of the earth will have to be avoided at all costs. The globalist group understands this, which in this case is good for everyone. What people in the conspiracy community may actually want to do is to stop fighting the concept of globalization, as apparently America's ultra-right wants them to do, and instead focus on educating themselves and other people about the corruption in national governments and the globalist group. We need to get to a point in which enough people are so informed about conspiracy affairs that it will be impossible for governments to manipulate them into giving up their rights or supporting economic or military policies which will ruin the country, or maybe even Western democratic civilization as a whole. For a number of reasons, some more obvious than others, this is a daunting task, but one things is for sure: a more systematic and intellectual approach to conspiracy affairs, combined with a "different-globalist"* stance, will draw in many more educated and influential persons than the unfocused evangelist attitude of isolationism that is still dominant in conspiracy circles today.

* translation from the increasingly popular Dutch word "Andersglobalist", a term used to describe people who are skeptical of the present globalization process which is characterized by deregulation and privatization, but who do not want to be labeled "anti-globalist", as they are not against the concept of globalization itself.


[1] January 3, 1962, Amarillo Globe-Times, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 'Finds Power Elite Has... Funnel Into Capital'
[2] 2002, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of Great Britain - A Centennial History', p. 13
[3] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of the United States - A Centennial History', p. 6
[4] 1991 version, (1979 original) Deborah Davis, 'Katherine the Great', pp. 175-176
[5] There's little information available on the Georgetown Set. A few exceptions:
*) http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKgeorgetown.htm: "After the Second World War a small group of people began meeting on a regular basis. The group. living in Washington, became known as the Georgetown Set or the Wisner Gang. At the first the key members of the group were former members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS). This included Frank Wisner, Philip Graham, David Bruce, Tom Braden, Stewart Alsop and Walt Rostow. Over the next few years others like George Kennan, Dean Acheson, Richard Bissell, Joseph Alsop, Eugene Rostow, Chip Bohlen, Desmond FitzGerald, Tracy Barnes, Cord Meyer, James Angleton, William Averill Harriman, John McCloy, Felix Frankfurter, John Sherman Cooper, James Reston, Allen W. Dulles and Paul Nitze joined their regular parties. Some like Bruce, Braden, Bohlen, McCloy, Meyer and Harriman spent a lot of their time working in other countries. However, they would always attend these parties when in Georgetown... The men shared similar political views. They tended to hold liberal views on domestic issues. These attitudes were developed while they were students in the 1930s. They were also passionate anti-communists. This was the result of the men's experiences during the was and the events in Europe that followed the collapse of Nazi Germany in 1945. The vast majority were members of the Democratic Party but John Sherman Cooper and Desmond FitzGerald were both left-wing Republicans. As Sally Reston pointed out: "We were liberal anti-Communist, intellectuals, precisely the class and breed that Joe McCarthy hated and whose careers he wanted to ruin. It was the same old battle: the Republican right versus the Democratic left.""
*) 1992, Burton Hersh, 'The Old Boys - The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA', p. 301: "[Walter Bedell] Smith made his opinion of Wisner and his cronies plain within a month or so of assuming office, when he dispatched an underling to tour the Washington party circuit, where he was well aware a number of operations people Frank lured to town were accustomed to congregate off-hours. Many had, after all, the senior management posts around the OPC because, as Polly Fritchey doesn't mind pointing our, "They had enough money of their own to be able to come down." By Smith's lights, this made them "dubious security risks and dilettantes." "I don't care whether they were blabbing secrets or not," Smith allegedly declared. "Just give me the names of the people at Georgetown cocktail parties." Approximately fifty left, probably the most inclusive slaughter of the operators until Admiral Stansfield Turner struck."
[6] October 20, 1977, Carl Bernstein for Rolling Stone, 'The CIA and the Media'
[7] Ibid.
[8] 1991 version, (1979 original) Deborah Davis, 'Katharine the Great', p. 134: "[Richard] Helms's grandfather, Gates White McGarrah, an international financier, was a member of the board of directors of the Astor Foundation, which owned Newsweek...""
[9] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of the United States - A Centennial History', pp. 12-13: "Meanwhile, the founding of the English-Speaking Union (E.S.U.) in London in 1918 by Evelyn Wrench, with the intention of opening branches all round the world, with large club houses in London and New York, stimulated the Pilgrims to consider establishing chapters of the Society in different parts of the United States. At the end of 1918 a specially convened sub-committee suggested they should start with Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, and San Francisco... Nicholas Murray Butler, a future president of the Pilgrims, worried that to establish other branches would be to change the character of the Pilgrims and would involve great loss of prestige and dignity..."
[10] December 20, 1991, memorandum of the Task Force of Greater CIA openness to the Director of Central Intelligence. Document quoted in: April 23, 1992, Washington Post, 'CIA Report On Openness Classified Secret'
[11] 1995, Gerald James, 'In the Public Interest', p. 137
[12] Ibid., pp. 137-138
[13] America at a Glance:
122 East 58th Street Daughters of the Cincinnati New York, NY 10022 212-319-6915
122 East 58th Street Huguenot Society-America Libr New York, NY 10022 212-755-0592
122 East 58th Street Military Order of Foreign Wars New York, NY 10022 212-751-5168
122 East 58th Street Pilgrims of the US New York, NY 10022 212-753-7178
122 East 58th Street # 2 New England Society in NY New York, NY 10022 212-752-1938
122 East 58th Street # 2 St Nicholas Society New York, NY 10022 212-753-7175
122 East 58th Street # 204 Holland Society of NY New York, NY 10022 212-758-1675
122 East 58th Street # 3 NY Genealogical Society New York, NY 10022 212-755-8532
122 East 58th Street # 3 Society of Colonial Wars New York, NY 10022 212-755-7082
122 East 58th Street # 4 New York Gnlgcl & Biolgcl Libr New York, NY 10022 212-755-8532
122 East 58th Street # Mezz Society of Mayflower Dscndnts New York, NY 10022 212-759-1620

[14] Weidenfeld interviewed in the 2005 BBC documentary 'The Plot Against Harold Wilson'
[15] 1959, Cornelius "Neil" Vanderbilt, Jr., 'Man of the World', p. 10
[16] Ibid., p. 218
[17] Ibid., p. 160: "Myron Taylor was a great friend of my parents'. Father had sat on many boards with him, and Mother and Mrs. Taylor were great social and personal friends. Although my parents were not in favor of my newspaper work, they thought it a great honor when the Myron Taylors asked me to dinner with Cardinal Pacelli and many other of his friends in New York, including the John D. Rockefeller, Jrs., Mr. Henry Frick, Mrs. Carnegie, the widow of Andrew Carnegie, the George F. Baker, Jrs., the Ogden Millses and others. After dinner I was singled out by Mrs. Taylor to talk with Cardinal Pacelli. She told him that I was very close to Mr. Roosevelt, and that Mr. Roosevelt probably felt more at home with me than with any other member of the White House staff..."
[18] Ibid., pp. 159-160:
[19] Martin Luther's seal was a cross inside an open rose.
[20] The Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 'Masonry Beyond the Third Degree' (Produced by the Supreme Council, 33°)
[21] Among the more prominent officials that have been invited into Druid groves are Winston Churchill (Prime Minister), David Lloyd George (Prime Minister), Queen Elizabeth II, George Noakes (Archbishop of Wales), Rowan Williams (Archbishop of Canterbury), and Daniel Mullins (Roman Catholic bishop of Menevia). See:
July 19, 2002, The Times, 'Why The Archbishop Is Embracing Pagan'
August 6, 2002, The Scotsman, 'Archbishop hits back in row over druid honour'
[22] http://www.arthuriansocietyofknights.org/members.html: Field Marshal Sir William Birdwood, Admiral of the Fleet, The Rt. Honourable the Earl of Jellicoe of Scapa Flow, The Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King, Sir Henry Irving, David Garrick, Charles Dickens, Carl Rosa, The Marquis of Anglesey, The Lord Sempill, Major General the Earl of Athlone, KG. Sir Jack Scamp, The Lord Baden Powell of Gilwell, Sir Thomas Sopwith, The Earl of Dalhousie, The Viscount Tonypandy –one time Speaker of The House of Commons, Colonel David Stirling, Lt.. Commander Ian Fraser VC, Rear Admiral Anthony Miers VC, Admiral Sir Archibald Douglas, Commander Sir Hugh Trevor Dawson, The Lord Glenravel, The Lord Tennyson, The Lord Queenborough, The Viscount Finlay of Nairn, The Honourable Mr. Justice Lloyd Jacob, Colonel Sir Arthur Noble, Major General Sir Douglas Kendrew –one time Captain of England Rugby Football and Governor General New South Wales, Sir Percy Rugg, The Honourable Mr. Justice David Hunter, Vice Admiral Sir Norman Denning, Lt. General Sir Reginald Denning, The Lord Denning, The Lord Marshal of Leeds, Lt. Colonel Sir Colin Cole - Garter King at Arms, Colonel Sir Stuart Mallinson, Vice Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman, Major General Michael Walsh – Chief Scout, The Lord Wetherill –former Speaker of The House of Commons, The Earl of Limerick, and most recently Air Chief Marshal Sir Jock Stirrup – Chief of Defence Staff.
(London) Times articles from the 1960s and 1970s show how the group regularly organized meetings at the Army & Navy Club.
[23] 1990, Ron Chernow, 'The House of Morgan', pp. 441-442: "The [Morgan] bank also contended with an anti-Wall Street faction in Washington [FDR], which was determined to block any Morgan role... the government did not "intend to let Morgan and DuPont men run the war."... These anti-Morgan maneuvers, coming from several directions, prevented the bank from resuming its World War I role, as did earlier U.S. entry into the war. In the Second World War, Washington would take charge of industrial mobilization through the War Productions Board and other agencies. The federal government was vastly more powerful now than it had been in Woodrow Wilson's day, and it didn't hesitate to intervene in the economy for political ends. In fact, government resources now eclipsed those of private banking houses. By World War II, banks were no longer large enough to bankroll wars, as Barings, Rothschilds, and Morgans had done in their heydays."
[24] 1959, Cornelius "Neil" Vanderbilt, Jr., 'Man of the World', p. 259
[25] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, The Pilgrims of the United States - A centennial history', p. 37, quoting from a letter of former chairman Cunliffe-Owen to John Wilson Taylor, February 8, 1924.
[26] A brief history of the Rockefeller-Exxon connection:
*) October 22, 1968, Sheboygan Journal (amongst others), Drew Pearson, 'Washington Merry-go-round, Pueblo Crew Release Foreseen': "Onassis himself has long been an Argentine resident and as such escaped paying personal taxes either in Greece or New York. Furthermore, dollars owed under the Panamanian flag are almost 100 per cent tax free and can be sent anywhere in the Allied world. In contrast, dollars earned by American flagships are subject to a 38 per cent corporation tax payable in the years earned. Of course Onassis is not alone in taking advantage of the Panamanian tax dodge. The worst offender in using foreign flagships is Standard Oil of New Jersey, a Rockefeller corporation which operates approximately 118 tankers under foreign flags. This is done through 17 foreign subsidiaries wholly owned or controlled by Standard Oil of New Jersey."
*) May 27, 1976, The Oakland Tribune, 'The Oil Giants': "The government over many years has spent millions investigating the oil giants' billions, beginning with Exxon, the $45 billion giant of the giants. Exxon began life as Standard Oil of New Jersey, the keystone of John D. Rockefeller's oil trust. The government in 1911 busted Rockefeller's American oil monopoly and the government files show that 17 years later Exxon was conspiring secretly with British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell to create a worldwide monopoly. The American oil trust became the international oil cartel and the government since 1911 never has laid a hand on the power and glory of the Rockefeller empire."
*) Governor Jay Rockefeller was a nephew of Nelson, David and the other Rockefeller brothers. In the late 1970s, Jay was in the possession of a significant amount of shares in Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Exxon). October 12, 1977, Charleston Daily Mail, 'Grandfather's Trust Fund': "These stocks are included as part of the trust fund established Feb. 1, 1952 for Gov. [Jay] Rockefeller by his grandfather, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Standard Oil of New Jersey, the largest holding, and Standard Oil of California were started by John D. Rockefeller Sr. The New Jersey company was renamed Exxon. [---] No. of Shares Company Common Stock... 2,300 Standard Oil Company of California; 25,000 Standard Oil Company of New Jersey."
*) December 10, 1979, Atchison Daily Globe, Jack Anderson's Washington Merry-Go-Round, 'Kissinger Image Goodbye?': "Kissinger is now back as the foreign policy adviser to the Rockefeller financial empire, which owes the shah far more than a moral debt. In fact, the shah is still a client worth billions; my sources say he relies heavily on the investment counsel of David Rockefeller and Kissinger. Rockefeller is chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank which, together with the Rockefeller trust funds and private family holdings, controls EXXON. The president of EXXON, H.C. Kauffmann, also is a director of Chase Manhattan. There are other interlocking ties between the banking conglomerate and the oil colossus. Both have been under Rockefeller domination for decades... The dominant company in this new American-Iranian oil consortium was EXXON. The shah also made Chase Manhattan his favorite bank. He personally ordered subordinates to channel oil purchases and other transactions through the Rockefeller bank. And he shunted other lucrative deals to the Rockefeller crowd. This raises ugly questions about Kissinger's failure to stop the shah from quadrupling oil prices."
*) December 11, 1986, Syracuse Herald Journal, 'Japan group buys Exxon building for $610 million': "The 54-story Exxon Building, part of Rockefeller Center, has been sold to a subsidiary of the giant Japanese conglomerate Mitsui & Co. for $610 million, the owners of the 13-year-old skyscraper announced Wednesday. The Exxon Corp. and Rockefeller Group Inc. said the deal with Mitsui Fudosam (NY) Inc. would be completed before the end of this month to take advantage of current favorable tax 'rules on capital gains and depreciation."
*) October 27, 1989, Chronicle Telegram, 'Manhattan is too expensive - Exxon Corp. is moving headquarters to Dallas': "Exxon Corp is moving its world headquarters from midtown Manhattan to suburban Dallas, a dramatic sign that New York's high costs are driving business away from what had been the undisputed corporate capital of America... Exxon exemplifies Big Oil and Establishment New York. It has been based in Manhattan since John D. Rockefeller founded his Standard Oil Trust in 1882."
*) The influence of the Rockefellers on ExxonMobile is not likely to be very significant anymore, as in recent years this company has been funding global warming skeptics in direct opposition to the Rockefeller family. April 23, 2007, CNN Money, 'Exxon = oil, g*dammit!': "Senators Jay Rockefeller (D-West Virginia) and Olympia Snowe (R-Maine) sent Tillerson a long letter berating the company for funding groups dubious of global warming. (The irony of a Rockefeller attacking Exxon ensured extra attention for the story: Exxon is a descendant of Standard Oil, source of the Rockefeller family fortune.)"
[27] See PEHI's Cercle and Beyond Dutroux articles for details on CIA and DIA covert action.
[28] November 17, 2004, Patrick Martin for World Socialist Web Site, 'Behind State Department, CIA shake-up: Bush-Cheney regime prepares a second term of all-out militarism'
[29] June 15, 2008, Associated Press, 'Rice criticizes Israel on West Bank settlements'
[30] June 26, 1977, Washington Post, 'Behind-Scenes Power Over Arms Policy'
[31] *) 1997 (1988 original Hebrew), Haggi Eshed, 'Reuven Shiloah - The Man Behind the Mossad', pp. 188-189: "One of the personal contacts Reuven Shiloah made when he took up his post as Minister in Washington was an old friend of Israel - Assistant Secretary of State Walter Bedell-Smith. He had been head of the CIA when the agreement for cooperation between the CIA and the Mossad, headed by Shiloah, was worked out... The friendship between these two men was well known among the Washington elite, and was to play a crucial role in healing the rift between President Eisenhower and Prime Minister Ben-Gurion at the height of the Sinai Campaign, when the administration forced Israel to pull its troops out of Sinai under conditions that were very unfavorable - if not humiliating - to Israel... [Bedell-Smith] accompanied Eisenhower in his meeting with the Chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive, Ben-Gurion, during a visit to Displaced Persons camps after the war, and shared his chief's support for the refugees' suffering and their desire to emigrate to Palestine to put an end to their anguish. Bedell-Smith also met with Ben-Gurion in May 1951, when the agreement for intelligence cooperation was signed between the two countries... Shiloah would meet Bedell-Smith in the afternoons, usually at his home, and occasionally at the home of a mutual friend, Abe Wexler, who had an enormous farm in upstate New York... Bedell-Smith met with Reuven Shiloah whenever he was asked to do so, even at short notice. Shiloah's widow recalls long trips through the night for marathon meetings with Bedell-Smith. Wexler remembers one occasion when Shiloah kissed Bedell-Smith on both cheeks 'in appreciation for what he had done for the State of Israel.'... Bedell-Smith was certain, Wexler says, that the Arabs would not stand with the US against the Soviets, either militarily or diplomatically, and that should the day come, the US would be able to count only on Israel. The only problem was that this analysis of the Middle East question was not very popular among officials in Washington at the time."
*) 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', p. 41: "[May 1951:] In a meeting with CIA Director Walter Bedell Smith and his deputy, Allen Dulles, the prime minister [Ben-Gurion] made a straightforward offer: the intelligence organizations of Israel would be enlisted in the service of the CIA. The arrangement was to be kept entirely secret. The two top CIA men expressed their appreciation and accepted the offer with alacrity."
[32] These people favored Arab oil and some of them supported the underground fascist movements and had worked with the fascist regimes before and during WWII.
[33] James Baker was Secretary of State from 1989 to 1992.
*) March 2, 1992, William Safire for the New York Times, 'Essay; Humiliating Israel': "The depth of James Baker's anti-Israel animus was displayed last week when he complained to Congress, "Nobody else is asking us for $10 billion in addition to the $3 billion to $4 billion we give every year with no strings attached.""
*) March 20, 1992, Leslie H. Gelb for New York Times, 'Foreign Affairs; The Anti-Israeli Leaks': "Are George Bush and James Baker scheming to undercut Israel in America? The answer turns largely on the story behind three recent, nasty news leaks, and the Bush-Baker reactions. Leak 1: An Ed Koch column in The New York Post on March 6. Somebody told the former New York Mayor about a meeting where Mr. Baker was told that his get-tough policy on Israel would hurt Mr. Bush among Jewish voters. The Secretary supposedly responded, " [ Expletive ] the Jews, they don't vote for us anyway.""
*) 1994, John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews', p. 4: "Although there is some dispute about the exact wording [of Baker's "Fuck the Jews"], the secretary of state's vulgarism has been confirmed by two reporters from different sources who were present when he said it. Nor was it the first such outburst. When Baker was being sworn in, one of the White House aides commented humorously that every American secretary of state had left office hating the Israelis. Baker is supposed to have joked: "What if one started that way.""
[34] 2006, Michael Karpin, 'The Bomb in the Basement', pp. 20-21, 84: "At the beginning of World War II, the Zionist leadership had no doubt that the British government headed by Winston Churchill, Zionism's greatest friend in Britain, would give the Jews their national home in Palestine. There were thousands of Jews in the British forces. The Palestinian Arabs supported Hitler... Reality proved entirely different. In April 1945, Churchill's foreign secretary, Athony Eden, persuaded him that the partition of Palestine between Jews and Arabs would harm British interests. First of all, the supply of oil from the Middle East would be gravely threatened. Second, the Jews would encourage the entry of the Soviet Union into the Middle East arena. A month earlier, in March, Eden had assisted in the establishment of the Arab League. The British, in order to demonstrate that they were not about to give up on the mandate, closed the shores of Palestine to boats carrying Jewish refugees from Europe. Then in July, the British electorate voted out Churchill's Conservative government. Again Zionist leaders rejoiced; after all, the Labor Party has always taken a clearly pro-Zionist stance and at its annual conference one year earlier, in 1944, had adopted a resolution in favor of a Jewish state in all of western Palestine, with the Arab population transferred to the neighboring Arab countries... But again, they [the Zionist leadership] reaped disappointment. In November, it became clear that Labor would not implement the 1944 resolution. The restrictions on Jewish immigration remained in force... Ever since Clement Atlee's Labour Party had reneged on its commitment to a Jewish state in Palestine after it trounced Winston Churchill's Tories in the 1945 elections, Ben-Gurion had developed an obsessive resentment against Britain. His mistrust of Anthony Eden was so profound that he raised the suspicion that even as Britain was cooperating with Israel on the Suez front, it would come to the assistance of its Jordanian allies and launch military operations against Israel on its eastern border."
*) 2006, Michael Karpin, The Bomb in the Basement', p. 24: "Truman's predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, had put Ben-Gurion off, because Roosevelt spoke one language to the Jewish leaders and another to the Arabs."
*) 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', pp. 23-24, 26: "The Americans did not become involved in the area until the 1930s, when the sterile sands of Saudi Arabia were discovered to conceal vast pools of oil. In 1945 President Franklin Roosevelt had met on an American warship with King Ibn Saud, who turned up with a medieval entourage of food tasters, wives, and bodyguards. The two got on well together, and Roosevelt presented the king with his spare wheelchair as a present. Thereafter, control of the Saudi oil fields became a vital interest that the American national security establishment was loath to endanger. Saudi Arabia, one American official said in 1948, was "probably the richest economic prize in history." Both the State Department and the military were united in decrying any official support for the Zionist... because it might upset valuable allies such as the Saudi monarch. President Harry Truman later recalled that Defense Secretary James Forrestal "spoke to me repeatedly about the danger that hostile Arabs might deny us access to the petroleum treasures of their country... Despite personal sympathy for the suffering of the Jews in Europe, Truman was not overly enthusiastic about supporting a Jewish state in Palestine. He felt that such a state would become a racist, theocratic entity and had no desire to overrule the policy of his own State Department [but was soon pressured by the Zionist lobby]."
*) 1994, John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews', p. 99: Talks about Truman being "misled" by his State and Defense Department advisors in following a pro-Arab policy. Talks about Truman not really going along with this agenda.
[35] Examples of anti-Israel stance of Pilgrims:
*) The State Department, dominated by Pilgrims, has never been known for its pro-Israel bias. The Morgans and Vanderbilts were known for their anti-semitism, while other important Americans as the Rockefellers, as their friends in the British royalist circles, sold out the Jews before and during World War II by supporting the Nazis.
*) The earlier-discussed Pilgrim James Baker had an extreme distaste of Zionism.
*) Pilgrim Elmer Bobst, a Knights of Malta who sat on the board of the Pope John Paul II Center for Prayer and Study for Peace together with Kurt Waldheim (Secretary General of the United Nations, ex-nazi war criminal, friend of Arnold Schwarzenegger), Cyrus Vance (Secretary of State; Pilgrim) and J. Peter Grace (Pilgrim; head of the Knights of Malta in the United States) was a notorious anti-semite.
*) Pilgrim Lord Chelwood: February 20, 1985, Lord Chelwood's letter in The Times, ''Selling' ideas to Israel' : "How can you dismiss so lightly the question of self-determination for more than four million Palestinians, over half of them refugees? The Palestinians' right to statehood is indisputably based on the UN Charter and numerous resolutions. President Sadat recognized this when he bravely told the Knesset that they "should have their own state". King Hoessein calls it "their basic right" . The Saudi-inspired Fez plan insists on it. So does the European Community's Venice Declaration. The Soviet Union has always done so. America has funked and fudged the issue by talking of "autonomy" and "homelands" (Camp David), or "self-government in association with Jordan" (Reagan Plan). Sadly Israel, a courageous minority apart, rejects out of hand the concept of occupied territory for peace. You suggest that the American government do not believe that they can "sell" the idea to Israel. Why not? Let them try."
*) Patron of the Pilgrims, Queen Elizabeth II: March 29, 1984, The Times, 'Israel's expansion depresses Queen': "During a lengthy briefing on a Jordan valley farm from Crown Prince Hassan, King Husain's [a Cercle member and long-time beneficiary of CIA funds] younger brother, the Queen described as depressing a map detailing Israel's ambitious plans for expanding Jewish settlements in the occupied West bank, conquered from Jordan during the 1967 war... the Queen spoke forthrightly about what she described as "the tragedy of the Palestinians" which she said had afflicted Jordan more than any other country... The Oxford-educated Crown Prince, who is Jordan's expert on the settlement issue, explained in detail Israeli intentions to increase the number of Jews living on the territory won from Jordan to 1.4m by the year 2010, by which time the number of West Bank Arabs is expected to be only slightly more than 1.6m... The British monarch's growing identification with the Palestinian cause during her Jordanian tour is thought certain to have serious repercussions for Britain's already strained diplomatic relations with Israel."
*) Reported Pilgrims George Ball and Richard Boucher have been great critics of Israel.
*) November 4, 2004, Daily Telegraph, 'Obituary of Sir David Gore-Booth' [son of Pilgrims executive Lord Paul Gore-Booth]: "David was sent to Eton, whence he went up to Christ Church, Oxford. He joined the Foreign Office in 1964 and enrolled at the Middle East Centre for Arab Studies in the mountains above Beirut - an institution frequently attacked on the ground that it imbues its students with a hostility towards Zionism. During his career, which also included stints in Baghdad, Tripoli and Jedda, Gore-Booth did nothing to dispel this notion with what he had to say about Israel's treatment of the Palestinians. In 1991 some MPs called for his resignation over remarks he made at a private meeting at the House of Commons. "Israel," he said, "is little or no better than any other Middle Eastern state in terms of its militarism, standard of democracy and denial of human rights." Much of the instability in the region, he added, was "due to a failure to establish Israel's borders and Israel's refusal to allow the Palestinians to have the same rights as those they claim for themselves"."
[36] *) May 24, 1939, The Times, 'House of Commons': "The White Paper would drive the two peoples further apart. The House was being asked to set up a religious cauldron in Palestine... He wanted fair play in Palestine for Jew, Arab, and Christian. He liked Mr. [James] Rothschild's idea of Palestine as a British colony where all inhabitants, irrespective of race, would have British justice."
*) November 3, 1955, The Times, '"If the worst should happen" - Israel Ambassador's warning': "Mr. J. de Rothschild, former Liberal M.P. for the Isle of Ely, and Joint Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Supply, 1945, said that the interests of the Middle East would now best be served by a closer link between Britain and Israel. "I firmly believe that Israel has now made the grade, and shown herself fit to become a member of the Commonwealth," he added. "I believe that if the Commonwealth would admit Israel, this would ensure such certainty of peace that the hot-heads in Cairo would cool, as they would in Beirut and Damascus.""
[37] *) June 28, 1933, The Times, 'Jews in Germany': "The Archbishop of Canterbury spoke at a meeting at Queen's Hall last night, when a resolution was passed protesting against the discrimination being exercised against the Jews in Germany. Lord Buckmaster presided, and among those present were Lord Cecil of Chelwood, president of the League of Nations Union... The Chairman read letters expressing sympathy with the objects of the meeting from Lord Salisbury and Lord Grey of Fallodon."The Cecils continued to protest against the appeasement policy throughout the 1930s.
*) 1978, Simon Schama, 'Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel', p. 191: "In any event, the contribution made by members of the French and English families towards extracting official expressions of approval for the establishment of a Jewish 'homeland' in Palestine, went well beyond lip-service or mere standing in as token figure-heads for the 'real' Zionists. In many cases they were the real Zionists... men such as Leo Amery, Theo Russell and Robert Cecil."
*) 1978, Simon Schama, 'Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel', pp. 265, 293-294: "The signs of progress in Palestine, however, were overshadowed by the darkness gathering around the Jews of Germany... [He, Edmond de Rothschild]] urged those who could to leave Germany - and for that matter Austria and Poland too - while it was still possible to depart with at least some of their assets intact [preferably to Palestine, if possible]... 'The White Paper [massively limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine],' James [de Rothschild] stated in the House, 'proposes in so many words that Great Britain shall wash its hands of its obligations... For the majority of Jews who go to Palestine it is a question of migration or of physical extinction; for the Arabs it is a question of addition to their present vast territories.'"
[38] The efficiency of the Haganah intelligence organization has been discussed in many books, including those that appear in these notes.
[39] *) 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', pp. 26-27: "Harry Truman's public image of bluff and plucky independence belied his true political instincts, which as often as not were flexible to the point of timidity. His initial response to the dilemma of the partition vote was that the U.S. should itself vote in favor, but would not order other countries under U.S. influence to follow suit. Thus, he would appear to have fulfilled his obligations to his Zionist donors while appeasing the State and Defense departments."
[40] Also see previous note.
*) 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', pp. 26-27: "At the last minute, however, the Zionists caught on to the stratagem and successfully pressured Truman to issue orders that quasi-colonies such as the Philippines, Haiti, and Liberia should switch their votes, which they did. The French were threatened with a total cutoff in U.S. aid, and capitulated. Most of the Latin American republics were equally willing to do as they were told (though some of their officials held out for hefty bribes), and the crucial resolution was passed. Truman's reward [for supporting the partitioning in Palestine, having led to the creation of the State of Israel] came in the 1948 election. At the campaigning commenced he told his advisors: "Boys, if I can't have the money to see the people, I'm going to win this election. If I had the money, I would put my own money in first. Now, you all go... and see what you can do about it." His faith was not misplaced. Abe Feinberg, an ardent Zionist who had built up his fortune during World War II, coordinated a fund-raising drive that pulled in $100,000 (big political money in those days) within two days of the president's appeal. This support from Feinberg and others, such as jewelry store magnate Ed Kaufman, continued throughout the campaign."
*) 2006, Michael Karpin, The Bomb in the Basement', p. 135. Gives a detailed summary of Feinberg's Haganah past and gives the exact same story about Feinberg's fundraising for Truman. Also quoted Feinberg himself: "The trip was a triumphant trip from his [Truman's] point of view as a politician,' said Feinberg. "He often said, 'If not for my friend Abe, I couldn't have made the trip and I wouldn't have been elected.' This is not true. The trip would have been made one way or another. But I think it was helpful to him to know early that the problem of making the trip was behind him." P. 129: "Whenever there was a need to raise funds from American Jews for a Zionist cause, Ben-Gurion would say: 'Call Abe." The same thing happened on the American side. When the Democratic presidents, Truman, Kennedy, or Johnson, needed to convey a message to the Israeli leadership, or when they wanted to persuade Israel to make a sensitive political move, they would also tell their aides, "Call Abe.""
[41] 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', p. 27.
[42] Some may have thought that Loftus extremely pro-Israel and anti-Arab bias is a bit suspect. They are right. Loftus has been an organizer and president of "the Intelligence Summit", a club filled with hard-right intelligence, special forces, and psychological warfare veterans from the United States, Britain and Israel.
http://www.intelligencesummit.org/speakers/JohnLoftus.php: "John J. Loftus President, The Intelligence Summit" .
This is an extremely weird bunch of people. Among the members of the executive and advisory board are:
* Lt. General Tom McInerney - retired high U.S. Air Force officer. Senior military analyst for Fox News. In 2004 wrote 'Endgame: The Blueprint for Victory in the War on Terror' with co-Intelligence Summit officer Paul Vallely and an introduction from Oliver North.
* Dame Pauline Neville-Jones - former chair Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), a coordinating body for MI5, MI6 and the GCHQ [British NSA], and a controversial BBC governor.
* Major General Paul Vallely - veteran in special operations, psychological and civil-military operations. Co-authored a 1980 paper with then PSYOP analyst Michael Aquino (a Satanist accused of massive child abuse) entitled From PSYOP to MindWar: The Psychology of Victory.
* Richard Marcinko - Former Navy Seal turned author.
* Lt.Col. Gordon Cucullu - special forces veteran who sits on the board of the neoconservative Benador Associates.
* Lt. Col. Bill Cown - special forces veteran with "extensive experience with the CIA"
* Clare Lopez - former Field Operations Officer for the CIA.
* Wayne Simmons - special forces veteran recruited by the CIA in 1973. Terrorism Analyst for the Fox News Channel since 2002. Part of the Pentagon Outreach Program for Military and Intelligence Analysts under Rumsfeld. One of the first outside Intelligence officers to visit Guantanamo Bay.
* Yoram Hessel - former Senior Mossad Officer, now in the high technology business.
* Robert Spencer - director Jihad Watch.
[43] Information about pressuring Truman and he turn pressuring Latin America: 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship' (note 39-40).
1994, John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews', pp. 164, 167: "At this point, the Jews had little faith in Truman's ability to control his own delegation in the UN [to push for a pro-partition policy], let alone anyone else's. The Zionists needed to pick up at least four votes in three days to ensure their own two-thirds majority. Only one man had that kind of influence in Latin America. Ben-Gurion decided it was time someone paid a visit to Nelson Rockefeller and showed him the file the Zionists had compiled... Ben-Gurion had already accumulated more than enough ammunition against Rockefeller and had decided that he could not take any chances with an indirect approach. There was no time for a British-style media campaign. The Latin American votes were needed in three days. Our American sources insist that the Jews simply laid their cards on the table for Nelson to read and "blackmailed the hell out of him.""
[44] 1994, John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews', pp. 169-170: "In return for the votes of the Latin American bloc, he wanted guarantees that the Jews would keep their mouths shut about the flow of Nazi money and fugitives to South America. There would be no Zionist Nazi-hunting unit, no testimony at Nuremberg about the bankers or anyone else, not a single leak to the press about where the Nazis were living in South America or which Nazis were working for Dulles. The subject of Nazis was closed. Period. Forever. The choice was simple, Rockefeller explained. "You can have vengeance, or you can have a country, but you cannot have both."... The men who murdered the Jews of Europe were effectively given amnesty, except for the unlucky few who had already been punished. But the promise was conditional on Rockefeller delivering the votes. "Don't worry," he assured them, "every country in Latin America will either vote in favor of Israel or abstain." Rockefeller said he would deliver, and he did. In three days he called every dictator, caudillo, and businessman he had in his hip pocket and told them the facts of life. As Western intelligence officers confirmed, the results were immediate and dramatic.... To the amazement of the Arab world, on November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution recommending the partition of Palestine by thirty-three votes to thirteen against, with ten abstentions, a majority of almost 72 percent. Clearly, there was a significant turn-around in the voting blocs."
Relevant pages transcribed in Nelson Rockefeller's Pilgrims biography.
Vote, Nov. 25
Vote, Nov. 29




El Salvador







New Zealand

[45] Ibid., p. 169: "During the mid-1980s he flew to the United States to meet one of the authors. After several hours' discussion about Nazi war criminals, the conversation was steered to the topic of Zionist blackmail of Nelson Rockefeller. The Israeli was surprised but eventually admitted that he had been personally acquainted with Reuven Shiloah, Ben-Gurion's intelligence chief, who had masterminded the operation."
[46] *) 1997 (1988 original Hebrew), Haggi Eshed, 'Reuven Shiloah - The Man Behind the Mossad', p. 250: "... Shimson Arad, another future ambassador, whom Reuven instructed in his first steps as a young diplomat in Washington. Arad remembers Shiloah as a good teacher and a creative diplomat who knew how to weave a network of close personal relationships throughout the United States, and not only in administration circles... This is how Israel's 'Triangle of Influence' in the United States was created: contacts with the heads of the Administration in the White House and the State Department, with the heads of the parties in both houses of Congress and with the heads of the large Jewish organizations. Among the leaders of Jewish organizations of that time, the most prominent of them all was Philip Klutznik, President of B'nai Brith, and chairman of the 'Presidents' Club' [who was in close contact with Shiloah and was advised by him]... The truth is that the Jewish leaders might actually have done less than they did were it not for the encouraging support of very influential non-Jews who stood by Israel throughout the [Sinai] campaign - among them former CIA chief Walter Bedell-Smith..."
*) Ibid., pp. 94-98 (just after WWII): "Reuven Zaslany [Shiloah] arrived in San Francisco for the opening of the United Nations on 26 April 1945, together with Eliyahu Eilat and Gershon Agron - all three of them observers. Their duties involved aiding and advising the representatives of the Jewish Agency in the United States during the conference. Zaslany lobbied media representatives and writers intensively during the event to try to gain support for two main objectives... During the conference, Zaslany sent letters to Teddy Kollek [important Haganah intelligence officer; along with Shiloah responsible for the CIA-Mossad alliance in 1951] and Ze'ev Sherf in which he outlined proposals for organizational changes in the Zionist institutions in the United States."
*) Ibid., pp. 241-242 (during the 1956 Suez crisis): "'The first impression in American public opinion was that Israel had launched a rolling war that might spread to other areas', Eban relates in his report. 'The official explanation that this was merely a limited defensive action, arrived only hours later, but in the meantime Israel came under heavy criticism for supposedly playing with fire.' The Jewish community in America was as confused as everyone else. The 'Presidents' Club' [later CPMAJO, the Zionist lobby group which focuses on the executive branch of the U.S. government] met the day after the war broke out, on 30 October, and spoke to Shiloah, who stood in for Eban who was attending the Security Council at that time. What surfaced in this meeting was a reticence about supporting Israel's action, particularly in open opposition to United States' policies... The Jewish community was to become one of Israel's most important arenas in its diplomatic efforts in the United States. President Eisenhower and Secretary of State Dulles were at considerable pains to split the Jewish community on this issue, to side-step the 'Presidents' Club' and to ensure Jewish support for the American administration's stand as opposed to that expressed by the government of Israel throughout the protracted negotiations on conditions for an Israeli withdrawal Israel won the first round in this confrontation. Abba Eban, who was not known for the largesse of his praise of others, writes: 'Reuven Shiloah's enormous PR efforts in the Jewish community, with the help of Philip Klutznik, President of B'nai Brith [and the Council of Presidents]... finally produced a joint announcement: calling on the United States government to restore security to Israel and peace to the Middle East'."
[47] June 4, 1945, Maryville Daily Forum, 'Drew Pearson on the Washington Merry-go-round'
[48] See the investigations of the [Governor Philip Fox] La Follette Civil Liberties Committee of 1937. It described the extremely violent union busting tactics of such companies as Ford, General Motors and Du Pont.
[49] 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 123
[50] Ibid., pp. 34-47 ('Big Business Bossed Mussolini')
[51] 1990, Ron Chernow, 'The House of Morgan', pp. 279-281: "After the war [WWI], J. P. Morgan and Company sparred with Dillon, Read for business with the Italian government. Lamont wanted an exclusive relationship, as understood by the Gentleman Banker's Code. In 1923, six months after taking power, Mussolini first met with Lamont to discuss how to restore Italian credit. Initially Wall Street viewed il Duce benignly, as the man who had saved strike-torn Italy from Bolshevik hands. The Blackshirt terror that killed a hundred people in the 1921 elections was conveniently overlooked. Traveling through Italy, Jack Morgan reported to a friend, "We had the great satisfaction of seeing Mr. Mussolini's Revolution... Afterward, Lamont wrote this paean: "The Italy through which I traveled seemed to be industrious and prosperous. The newspaper headlines in New York and even London papers seemed to me exaggerated. Everybody, both in and out of the Government, laughed at these stories of street fights, unrest upsetting the Government etc." Back at 23 Wall, lamont received an autographed photograph from Mussolini, which was now featured as prominently on his wall as the earlier picture of Woodrow Wilson had been... As the big $100 million loan hung in the balance, Lamont made his most startling shift with Mussolini, one that went far beyond basic banking requirements. This former champion of the League of Nations began to coach the Italian dictator on how to appeal to Anglo-American opinion. He fed him sugared phrases, language that would make reprehensible policies palatable abroad. A modern man, Lamont knew that any product, if attractively packaged, could be marketed to the public. After Mussolini suspended town councils and bullied Parliament into passing 2,364 decrees at once, Lamont sent fresh publicity angles to Fummi for il Duce's consideration... As with the Dawes Loan to Germany, the Morgan loan to Italy proved a catalyst for further American investment. The bank itself went on to provide loans to Rome and to two industrial clients, Fiat and Pirelli. In December 1927, J. P. Morgan again joined with Ben Strong and established a credit for Banca d'Italia that permitted a return to the gold standard. On a Wall Street disturbed by European radicalism and worshipful of economic progress, Lamont wasn't the only Mussolini supporter. Jack Morgan and George Whitney both hailed him as a great patriot. Otto Kahn of Kuhn, Loeb likened his iron rule to that of a tough receiver straightening out a bankrupt company. With a poetic flourish, Willis Booth of Guaranty Trust said Mussolini lifted Italy "out of the slough of despair into the bright realm of promise." Judge Elbert Gary of U.S. Steel and publicist Ivy Lee joined the fan club."
[52] ** I.G. Farben: December 11, 1945, Council Bluffs Nonpareil (Iowa), 'Farben tested poison gas on camp inmates': "Its cartel agreements numbered over 2,000 and included agreements with such major industrial concerns as Standard Oil of New Jersey, the Aluminum company of America, E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Ethyl Export corporation, Imperial Chemical Industries of Great Britain, the Dow Chemical company, Rohn and Haas, Establishments, Kuhlmann of France and the Mitsui interests of Japan."
** Henry Ford: Ford's devotion to Nazism and Hitler personally is well known these days.
** Watsons: 2001, Edwin Black, 'IBM and the Holocaust', online excerpt: "Hitler and his hatred of the Jews was the ironic driving force behind this intellectual turning point. But his quest was greatly enhanced and energized by the ingenuity and craving for profit of a single American company and its legendary, autocratic chairman. That company was International Business Machines, and its chairman was Thomas J. Watson... How much did IBM know? Some of it IBM knew on a daily basis throughout the 12-year Reich. The worst of it IBM preferred not to know--"don't ask, don't tell" was the order of the day. Yet IBM NY officials, and frequently Watson's personal representatives, Harrison Chauncey and Werner Lier, were almost constantly in Berlin or Geneva, monitoring activities, ensuring that the parent company in New York was not cut out of any of the profits or business opportunities Nazism presented. When U.S. law made such direct contact illegal, IBM's Swiss office became the nexus, providing the New York office continuous information and credible deniability."
** Dillons: Changed the name of W.A. Read & Company into Dillon, Read & Company in 1920. James Forrestal joined Dillon, Read & Company in 1923. General William H. Draper Jr. joined the firm in 1926 and described Forrestal already as the #2 man, right below Dillon. In January 1926, Dillon Read created the German Credit and Investment Corporation in Newark, New Jersey and Berlin, Germany. That same year, Dillon Read created the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (German Steel Trust), incorporating the Thyssen family interests under the direction of New York and London finance. Thyssen, together with banker Hjalmar Schacht, were the first major sponsors of Hitler.
*) April 23, 1948, Ogden Standard-Examiner - Drew Pearson, 'Nazi Arms Plants Spared Under New U.S. Policy': "For in 1932, it was the Krupps, the Thyssens, and the Ruhr industrialists who gave Hitler the money to take over Germany. Incidentally, it was also the Wall Street firm of Dillon, Read and company, of which James V. Forrestal was head, that loaned a lot of money to these same munitions makers. Today, Forrestal is secretary of national defense, William H. Draper, former vice president of Dillon, Read, is undersecretary of the army, while Paul Nitze, another vice president of Dillon, Read, holds a key economic job in the state department."
** Dulles brothers:
*) September 28, 1944, Drew Pearson editorial in The Anniston Star (article appeared in many newspapers from late September to early October), pp. 4 and 9: "Even up until 1930, [John] Dulles continued optimistic about American investments in Germany. [John] Dulles made the statement in March 1939, that "these dynamic peoples (Germans, Italians and Japanese) determined to mould their states into a form which would permit them to take their destiny into their own hands and to attain that enlarged status which, under a liberal and peaceful form of government, had been denied them." Dulles went on to explain and condone the effort of the dictator nations to "enlarge their status," adding that "only hysteria entertains the idea that Germany, Italy or Japan contemplates war upon us." This, no doubt, was the Dulles speaking who instinctively adopted the banker attitude of the Chamberlains and the Clivedon Set that some way must be found to safeguard investments in Germany. Undoubtedly this also was the attitude of one important client of Dulles' law firm, the J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. Dulles' brother and law partner, Allen Dulles, is a director of both J. Henry Schroder and the Schroder Trust Company, and the affairs of this international banking house are intimately tied up with the Dulles law firm. Whether the Dulles brothers knew it or not, it was a member of this banking house, Baron von Schroder, who financed Hitler. This was on January 4, 1933, when Hitler had made desperate efforts to get into power but had not succeeded. It looked as if he might not succeed at all. Then, suddenly, through Franz von Papen, now retired as Nazi ambassador to Turkey, Hitler met banker Baron von Schroder. Almost every recent historian agrees on this incident. As told by Rudolf Olden in "Hitler:" "There was no improvement in the financial situation of the party. Symptoms of decline were multiplying and party ties were loosening. Goebbels in his diary speaks of rats abandoning the sinking ship... Once again he (Hitler) had got to the suicide stage. Then came salvation: money suddenly reappeared. It was von Papen who opened it to Hitler again. With the greatest secrecy, Hitler and Papen met at Cologne at the house of Herr von Schroder, a banker who enjoyed the confidence of the steel and coal magnates. Goebbels' diary records triumphantly, 'If this coup succeeds, then power is not so very remote'." During the hectic months of 1933, Dulles was shuttling back and forth between New York and Berlin, trying to save something out of the financial wreck of Germany. He may have known nothing about the activities of his banker client. Or if he did, he may not have realized their significance. But certainly, during the succeeding years and right up until the outbreak of the war in 1939, John Dulles took the attitude that Germany was a misunderstood nation which had shown great investment promise and now should be treated with sympathy and understanding until she got back on her feet."
* Harrimans: John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews' (1994), pp. 360-361: "The firm originally was known as W. A. Harriman & Company. The link between Harriman & Company's American investors and Thyssen started in the 1920s, through Union Banking Corporation, which began trading in 1924. In just one three-year period, the Harriman firm sold more than $50 million of German bonds to American investors. "Bert" Walker was Union Banking's president, and the firm was located in the offices of Averill Harriman's company at 39 Broadway in New York... In 1926... Walker made Prescott vice president of W. A. Harriman. The problem was that Walker's specialty was companies that traded with Germany. As Thyssen and the other German industrialists consolidated Hitler's political power in the 1930s, an American financial connection was needed. According to our sources, Union Banking became an out-and-out Nazi money-laundering machine. As we shall see, there is substantial evidence to support this charge. While the United States languished in the Depression, Walker made millions for his clients by investing in Germany's economic revival. He decided to quit W. A. Harriman in 1931, to concentrate on his own firm, G. H. Walker, while his son-in-law stayed behind to run the show for Harriman. Some say that Walker left George Bush's father holding the bag. Others say that Bush specialized in British investors in Nazi Germany, while Walker handled the Americans. In that same year Harriman & Company merged with a British-American investment company to become Brown Brothers, Harriman. Prescott Bush became one of the senior partners of the new company, which relocated to 59 Broadway, while Union Banking remained at 39 Broadway. But in 1934 Walker arranged to put his son-in-law on the board of directors of Union Banking. Walker also set up a deal to take over the North American operations of the Hamburg-Amerika Line, a cover for I. G. Farben's Nazi espionage unit in the United States. The shipping line smuggled in German agents, propaganda, and money for bribing American politicians to see things Hitler's way. The holding company was Walker's American Shipping & Commerce, which shared the offices at 39 Broadway with Union Banking. In an elaborate paper trail, Harriman's stock in American Shipping & Commerce was controlled by yet another holding company, the Harriman Fifteen Corporation, run out of Walker's office. The directors of this company were Averill Harriman, Bert Walker, and Prescott Bush. In order to understand the character of the firm, it should be recalled that Brown Brothers, Harriman had a bad reputation, even among international bankers, as hard-nosed capitalists who exploited every opportunity for profit in a harsh and ruthless manner... A 1934 congressional investigation alleged that Walker's "Hamburg-Amerika Line subsidized a wide range of pro-Nazi propaganda efforts both in Germany and the United States." Walker did not know it, but one of his American employers, Dan Harkins, had blown the whistle on the spy apparatus to Congress. Harkins, one of our best sources, became Roosevelt's first double agent... It was Allen Dulles [whom Harriman and Bush hired as lawyer]. According to Dulles's client list at Sullivan & Cromwell, his first relationship with Brown Brothers, Harriman was on June 18, 1936. In January 1937 Dulles listed his work for the firm as "Disposal of Stan [Standard Oil] Investing stock.""
* Rockefellers #1 (Banking and partnership with the Schroders):
*) 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', p. 22: "As war approached, the links between the Rockefellers and the Nazi government became more and more firm. In 1936 the J. Henry Schroder Bank of New York had entered into a partnership with the Rockefellers. Schroder, Rockefeller and Company, Investment Bankers, was formed as part of an overall company that Time magazine disclosed as being "the economic booster of the Rome-Berlin Axis." The partners in Schroder, Rockefeller and Company included Avery Rockefeller, Nephew of John D., Baron Bruno von Schroder in London, and Kurt von Schroder of the BIS and the Gestapo in Cologne. Avery Rockefeller owned 42 percent of Schroder, Rockefeller and Baron Bruno and his Nazi cousin 47 percent. Their lawyers were John Foster Dulles and Allen Dulles of Sullivan and Cromwell. Allen Dulles (later of the Office of Strategic Services) was on the board of Schroder. Further connections linked the Paris branch of Chase to Schroder as well as the pro-Nazi Worms Bank and Standard Oil of New Jersey in France. Standard Oil's Paris representatives were directors of the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas, which had intricate connections to the Nazis and Chase."
*) July 20, 1936, Time Magazine, 'Schroder Rockefeller': "Along with two other executives, Avery Rockefeller resigned from Manhattan's J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. to set up a new investment house called Schroder Rockefeller & Co. which will handle the underwriting and general securities business given up by the U. S. branch of the famed old London firm under the Banking Act of 1933. J. Henry Schroder & Co. is one of the "Big Three" of British private banking, sharing the title with Baring Bros, and N. M. Rothschild & Sons. Founded in 1804, Schroder always has Schroders as partners, now boasts the third and fourth generations of the family in Baron Bruno Schroder and his son Helmut William Bruno Schroder. Formed shortly after the War to handle U. S. interests, J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. will continue to operate as a commercial bank."
*) July 10, 1939, Time Magazine, 'Potash Politics': "So did their London bankers and sales agents—J. Henry Schroder & Co.—a firm which is an economic booster of the Rome-Berlin Axis."
*) BBC Timewatch series, 'Banking with Hitler': described how Chase Paris completely cooperated with the Nazis, including the persecution of the Jews. (also described in 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', p. 25)
* Rockefellers #2 (Standard Oil):
*) 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', pp. 46-47: "On March 26, Arnold appeared before Truman in an exceptionally buoyant mood in order to lay in front of the committee his specific charges against the oil company. He had dug up a great deal of dirt. He produced documents showing that Standard and Farben in Germany had literally carved up the world markets, with oil and chemical monopolies established all over the map. He flourished papers showing that Farish had refused to send vital patent information to Canada because Germany and Canada were at war. He showed how farish had flagrantly disregarded Lend-Lease and good neighbor policies in his connivance with Hitler. He zeroed in on the subject of synthetic rubber, pointing out that it had been denied to the U.S. Navy, and that Farish and Howard had deliberately sidetracked a Navy representative from seeing the process. He charged that cables showed Standard's arrangements with Japan that were to continue throughout any conflict or break in trade... Roosevelt was very unhappy with the hearings. Publicly exposing Teagle and farish was not helping him use them for America's purposes. He had enough of Arnold as the hearings concluded... Ickes wrote in his diary on April 5 that Arnold had been more or less gagged. The War and Navy departments insured that Roosevelt suspended any further antitrust actions against the corporations for the duration. They couldn't (as the Rockefeller Plaza meeting had made clear) run an Army and Navy without Standard."
1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', pp. 59-62: "The [oil] shipments to Spain [coming in part from Standard Oil subsidiaries] indirectly assisted the Axis through Spanish transferences to Hamburg. At the same time, there were desperate shortages in the United States, long lines at the gas stations, and even petroleum rationing. While American civilians and the armed services suffered alike from restrictions, more gasoline went to Spain than it did to domestic customers... Asked by The New York Times how this could be explained, a spokesman for Cordell Hull declared blandly that the oil came from the Caribbean and not from the United States and was hauled by Spanish tankers. The evasiveness of the response was typical. The spokesman also neglected to mention that shipments were going to Vichy and to French Indian possessions under collaborative influence. Hayes revealed that the gasoline and petroleum products equaled the full capacity of the Spanish tanker fleet. He neglected to add that much of that fleet proceeded regularly to Germany and helped to fuel Nazis, including their embassies and consulates and military installations, tanks, armored cars as well as Spanish troop transports on the Russian front, fighting against the Soviet Union, which was America's ally. In addition to oil, 25,000 tons of sulphate of ammonia were shipped to Spain in 1943 along with 10,000 tons of cotton, despite American shortages in both commodities... Ickes had accumulated a dossier from his special staff of investigators. The dossier showed that in fact oil was going to Germany, that German agents were operating freely on Spanish territory, and that Franco had just released 400 million pesetas of credit to Germany. This would insure the Germans a flow of all the oil it needed, plus unlimited supplies of wolfram, the ore from which tungsten, a hard substance capable of penetrating steel, was made... For a brief period the truth emerged about Spain. Spanish ships were searched at sea, showing that oil, platinum, industrial diamonds, and liver extracts, from which the Germans made a tonic for fliers, submarine crews, and even shock troops, were coming from Argentina and the Caribbean on Spanish vessels, admitted through the British blockade by American licenses. On january 28, 1944, the British government cut off oil, gasoline, and other petroleum products to Spain. Franco protested violently. Dean Acheson remained sensibly silent. It was a brief period of sanity. On May 2, 1944, after only three and a half months of suspension, the oil lobby won a fight to restore shipments and to allow limited wolfram exports to Germany as well... 48,000 tons a month of American oil and 1,100 tons of wolfram began to flow back to the Nazis... On September 22, 1947, Judge Charles Clark delivered the final word on the subject. He said, "Standard Oil can be considered an enemy national in view of its relationships with I.G. Farben after the United States and Germany had become active enemies." The appeal was denied."
*) November 6, 1947, Oakland Tribune, 'Farben-U.S. Oil Firm Pacts That Hit War Effort Bared at Trial': "More than a year after the war began in Europe the United States suddenly awoke to the fact that it had no supplies of rubber which the Japanese couldn't cut off in a moment—as they later did... The way in which the biggest industrial nation in the world was crutched into this ridiculous and helpless position is one of the charges against 24 leading officials of I.G. Farben... Standard Oil, six of its subsidiaries, and three of its top executives already have paid fines of $5000 each in U.S. courts for their part in this unhappy picture. They didn't admit their guilt, but they didn't contest the action... Not only rubber is involved, but a host of other chemical developments... Farben and Standard Oil entered a solemn compact in 1929, dividing the world between them. Farben would be supreme in chemicals; Standard in petroleum. Where these two broad spheres rubbed shoulders, as they did inevitably, there would be further talks in the same spirit of "goodwill" which was recorded at the time... The Americans never received technical co-operation on rubber production, it said. Even with the "Jasco" deal, they received nothing of any importance, it went on... Farben in its turn, it said, had received from the Americans "over and beyond the agreement many very valuable contributions for the synthesis and improvement of motor fuels and lubrication oils, which just now during the war are most useful to us, and we also received other advantages from them.""
*) 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 259: "Standard Oil's Farish never denied he shipped oil to a Japanese navy which made possible the attack on Pearl Harbor and Japan's ability to resist the Anglo-American Navies today. He excused himself by saying that Standard Oil was "an international concern." Standard Oil supplied Franco-Spain after 1939, National Maritime Union men giving testimony that oil went to Germany and Italy, for use against France and Britain. Technically, Standard Oil was not committing treason then because the United States was not at war."
*) 1994, John Loftus and Mark Aarons, 'The Secret war against the Jews', pp. 164-166: "Rockefeller had discussed the position of Latin American spy chief with Harry Hopkins, one of President Roosevelt's top aides. It was hardly the kind of sales pitch that should have endeared Rockefeller to the Roosevelt administration. Rockefeller proposed that while Hitler and Churchill fought each other to death, the United States should be ready to pick up the pieces by seizing the opportunity to increase the economic influence of American businessmen. In effect, Rockefeller had proposed to Hopkins that regardless of which side won the war, the Nazis or the Allies, the country's international position had to be safeguarded by the use of "economic measures that are competitively effective against totalitarian techniques." By "totalitarian" Rockefeller meant the Soviets, not the Germans. As outlined earlier, the Rockefellers just happened to own the largest stock in Standard of New Jersey and were then in partnership with the Nazi-controlled I. G. Farben, which held the second largest share of the Rockefeller-controlled oil company, to develop synthetic gas and rubber. The sources among the former intelligence officers whom we interviewed on the Rockefellers say that the family was in complete agreement with the Dulles brothers and Forrestal on the question of preserving U.S. profits, no matter who won the war. After he accepted the job as head of the Office of Inter-American Affairs, Rockefeller told his staff, in essence, that their job was to use the war to take over Latin American markets. While Britain and France fought a bloody struggle against the Third Reich, Rockefeller's primary concern was to monopolize Latin America's raw materials and exclude the Europeans. Rockefeller's definition of Europe was very interesting: He meant the British, not the Nazis. As discussed earlier in this chapter, his friend Forrestal had authorized the Rockefeller oil company, Standard of New Jersey, to ship oil to the Nazis in 1941. That was before the United States entered the war, but Pearl Harbor made no difference to Rockefeller. All through the war, at least while Rockefeller was in charge, everything the Germans wanted in South America they got, from refueling stations to espionage bases. The British, on the other hand, had to pay in cash. Behind Rockefeller's rhetoric of taking measures in Latin America for the national defense stood a naked grab for profits. Under the cloak of his official position, Rockefeller and his cronies would take over Britain's most valuable Latin American properties. If the British resisted, he would effectively block raw materials and food supplies desperately needed for Britain's fight against Hitler. It was Rockefeller's own variant of Allen Dulles's oil blackmail. Naturally, Rockefeller's cronies were members of the Dulles-Forrestal clique. To implement his economic program to drive the British out of the lucrative Latin American markets, in each country Rockefeller set up coordinating committees composed of reactionary executives from Standard Oil, General Electric, and United Fruit, which promptly bled South America dry. It was just the sort of thing that endeared Rockefeller to the State Department. In November 1944 he was asked to serve as assistant secretary of state for Latin American affairs. Rockefeller did not exactly make South America safe for democracy. He was too busy shoring up profits to be bothered with minor details such as convincing the Latin American governments to declare war on the Axis let alone send troops. By February 1945 one-third of the nations on the continent had not even entered the war, while Dulles's friend, President Juan Peron of Argentina, led a bloc of decidedly pro-Fascist countries that were eager to help the architects of the Third Reich escape with their assets intact. In the end, these countries had to be ordered to declare war on Germany and Japan, under threat of exclusion from the United Nations... It was all a farce, of course. Argentina did not declare war until late April, two weeks before the German surrender... Rockefeller's political and corporate strategy was to use his bloc of Fascist nations to "buy" the majority vote at the UN to favor U.S.-sponsored resolutions."
[53] *) John Hargrave, 'Montagu Norman' (1942), p. 217: "Early in 1934 a select group of City financiers gathered in Norman's room behind the windowless walls. Those present included Sir Alan Anderson, partner in Anderson, Green & Co.; Lord (then Sir Josiah) Stamp, Bank of England Director, and Chairman of the L. M. S. Railway; the Hon. Alexander Shaw, Chairman of P. & O. Steamship Lines; Sir Robert Kindersley, a partner in Lazard Brothers, Charles Hambro, banker; and F.C. Tiarks, head of J. Henry Schroder & Co. Governor Norman spoke of the political situation in Europe. A new power had established itself, a great "stabilizing force", namely, Nazi Germany. Norman advised his co-workers to include Hitler in their plans for financing Europe. There was no opposition... Although it may be said that Montagu Norman is not a Fascist, yet, in view of his activities during the rise of Hitlerism, it might be true to label him a crypto-fascist?" Bought book to verify quote, which has been mentioned by Eustace Mullins.
*) 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', p. 645: "The Entente governments were aware of these German problems, but, instead of seeking to increase them, they sought to alleviate them. When economic and political duress was put by Germany on the countries of southeastern Europe in October and November 1938, Chamberlain defended Germany's right to do so in the House of Commons. No economic support was granted to these countries to help them to resist, except for a loan to Turkey. On the contrary, the British government, through the Federation of British Industries, began to negotiate with Germany to create a complete system of industrial cooperation, with cartels dividing the world's markets and fixing prices for over fifty industrial groups. A coal agreement was signed, at Britain's request, at the end of January 1939, and a general agreement was signed between the Federation of British Industries and the Reichsgruppe Industrie on March 16, 1939."
[54] 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', pp. 57-58, 63-64.
[55] *) 1940, H. G. Wells, 'The New World Order': "Such "good Christians" can be almost as bitterly critical as I am of the continual pressure upon the faithful by that inner group of Italians in Rome, subsidized by the Fascist government, who pull the strings of Church policy throughout the world, so as to do this or that tortuous or uncivilised thing, to cripple education, to persecute unorthodox ways of living. It is to the influence of the Church that we must ascribe the foolish support by the British Foreign Office of Franco, that murderous little "Christian gentleman", in his overthrow of the staggering liberal renascence of Spain. It is the Roman Catholic influence the British and French have to thank, for the fantastic blundering that involved them in the defence of the impossible Polish state and its unrighteous acquisitions; it affected British policy in respect to Austria and Czechoslovakia profoundly, and now it is doing its utmost to maintain and develop a political estrangement between Russia and the Western world by its prejudiced exacerbation of the idea that Russia is "anti-God" while we Westerners are little children of the light, gallantly fighting on the side of the Cross."
*) 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 58: "When Claude Bowers, American ambassador to Spain, suggested to the British Ambassador that if Franco won, Britain would have Hitler at Gibraltar and perhaps lose control of the Mediterranean, "the lifeline of empire," the British Ambassador answered that "private interests at home are stronger than national interests." He meant that Rio Tinto and other Spanish mine, electricity railroad and other stockholders in Britain preferred Fascism and even Hitler in Spain to the safety of Britain itself."
*) 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', pp. 602-603: "Although the evidence for Axis intervention in Spain was overwhelming and was admitted by the Powers themselves early in 1937, the British refused to admit it and refused to modify the nonintervention policy, although France did relax its restrictions on its frontier sometimes, notably in April-June 1938. Britain's attitude was so devious that it can hardly be untangled, although the results are clear enough. The chief result was that in Spain a Left government friendly to France was replaced by a Right government unfriendly to France and deeply obligated to Italy and Germany. The evidence is clear that the real sympathies of the London government favored the [Franco] rebels, although it had to conceal the fact from public opinion in Britain (since this opinion favored the Loyalists over Franco by 57 percent to 7 percent, according to a public-opinion poll of March 1938)... On December 18, 1936, Eden admitted that the government had exaggerated the danger of war four months earlier to get the nonintervention agreement accepted... The nonintervention agreement, as practiced, was neither an aid to peace nor an example of neutrality, but was clearly enforced in such a way as to give aid to [Franco's] rebels and place all possible obstacles in the way of the Loyalist government suppressing the rebellion."
[56] *) 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 58: "The so-called "Asia for the Asiatics" doctrine, which means simply "Asia for Japan," found Baron Hachirumon Mitsui its chief exponent. This is a Monroe Doctrine which marches with banners and is followed by an army of salesmen and exploiters. Hachirumon's fascist imperialism burned even more ardently in his successor, Baron Takakimi Mitsui. "Japan's financial oligarchy," wrote Anthony Jenkinson for the Institute of Pacific Relations, "is composed of great family trusts known as Zaibatsu. Its leading members are the houses of Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Sumitomo and Yashuda. Between them they own the greater part of industry, trade, banking, and shipping. By 1937 they controlled more than one third of the total deposits in private banks, 70% of the deposits in all trust companies, and one third of total foreign trade. By controlling the banks, they controlled the smaller credit institutions throughout the country."... There is almost no middle class [in Japan]... In Japan, the "peak associations" are dominated by the Zaibatsu, or four ruling families, who are comparatively more powerful and richer than the thirteen ruling families of America."
[57] *) April 6, 1942, Capital Times, 'Standard Oil -- Axis Ally': "In September, 1939, Standard cabled to the Japanese monopoly, Mitsui, proposing that together they prepare the way at once for the re-establishment of commercial relations "after any interruptions in our trade," Which Standard feared might come. In other words, American industry believes that either the Axis will triumph or there will be a negotiated peace."
*) December 11, 1945, Council Bluffs Nonpareil (Iowa), 'Farben tested poison gas on camp inmates': "Its [Farben's] cartel agreements numbered over 2,000 and included agreements with such major industrial concerns as Standard Oil of New Jersey... E. I. du Pont de Nemours... Imperial Chemical Industries of Great Britain... and the Mitsui interests of Japan."
*) 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', pp. 49-50: "In addition according to the San Francisco journalist John Pittman, "among the owners of the Japanese business are International General Electric, which operates plants through its subsidiary, Tokyo Shibaura; Westinghouse Electric International, associated with Mitsubishi Electric Manufacturing Co.; Tide Water Associated Oil, handled by Mitsubishi; Libby-Owens-Ford, represented by Nippon Plate Glass Co.; Standard Oil, with a known direct investment of $5,000,000, exclusive of frozen credits and oil in storage; Ford, and General Motors, with approximately $10,000,000 sunk in Japan proper; Eastmen Kodak, and Singer Sewing Machine, with big organizations in the Japanese Empire; United Engineering & Foundry Co., holding a large stake in the Shibaura-United Engineering Co... In Japan one of Mitsui's partly owned corporations is the Nippon Steel Works, but this firm was controlled by Vickers. Their French connection was through the Franco-Japanese Bank, founded with the aid of Schneider Creusot, whose 1933 report stated that "our bank has acquired important participation in various activities of the Mitsui Group, a group destined to have a fine future." Baron Hachirumon Mitsui was reported at the time as controlling 65% of the industry of Japan, with the Japanese royal family owning a large interest in the Mitsui Consortium."
[58] *) 1947, William L. Langer (History professor at Harvard; high ranking OSS official; special assistant to the Secretary of State), 'Our Vichy gamble', pp. 167-168: "His [Darlan's] policy of collaboration with Germany could count on more than enough eager supporters among French industrial and banking interests--in short, those who even before the war had turned to Nazi Germany and had looked to Hitler as the saviour of Europe from Communism... Many important banking groups must be included in this category: the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie (which was Laval's group par excellence), the Banque de l'Indochine (of which Baudoin was the chief), the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas, and others. But peculiarly identified with the Darlan regime was the Banque Worms et Cie, headed by Hippolyte Worms, with Gabriel Leroy-Ladurie and Jacques Bernaud as the dominant figures. To realize the extent to which members of the Banque Worms group had been taken into the government by the autumn of 1941 a brief survey of the council and the Secretaries of State will be most profitable... All of the collaborationist banks had considerable interests in North Africa and the other French colonies, and maintained branches there. The Banque Worms, for example, owned extensive mines, shipping lines, and commercial companies in North Africa. It and others rapidly drained North Africa of such resources as could be made available to the Germans. It has been estimated that during 1941 alone some five million tons of goods were landed at French Mediterranean ports, mostly from North Africa. Included were such strategic materials as cobalt, molybdenum, manganese, and high-grade iron ore, to say nothing of foodstuffs. Probably sixty to eighty per cent of all these imports went to the Germans. Fortunately for them, the great banking and industrial interests, always intent on playing safe, were permitted by the Germans to transfer their huge profits to their North African branches. Calculations have shown that prior to the invasion of North Africa the French banks taken together transferred no less than twenty-five billion francs in this way."
*) 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', p. 689: "There was also considerable pressure behind the scenes from anti-democratic French industrialists in monopolistic lines lines such as chemicals, light metals, synthetic fibers, and electrical utilities. These industrialists, together with politicians like Laval and private or commercial banks, like the Banque Worms, or the Banque de l'Indochine, had been negotiating cartel and other agreements with Germany for ten years, and felt an armitage would offer a splendid opportunity to complete and enforce these agreements."
[59] BBC Timewatch series, 'Banking with Hitler': described how Chase Paris completely cooperated with the Nazis, including the persecution of the Jews. (also described in 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', p. 25)
[60] The first Lord Kindersley kept the French branch alive in the early 1930s through his influence at the Bank of England. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 1st Lord Kindersley (1871–1954): "Kindersley's prominent role in national economic affairs in mid-1931 masked profound crisis and management shortcomings at Lazards. While in July 1931 Kindersley was in Paris seeking vital support from the Bank of France, Lazards was on the brink of collapse, the result of maladministration in the firm's Brussels office, which caused a £6 million loss and obliterated its capital. The need to conceal the precarious position of a leading London house at a moment of national crisis led to the resuscitation of Lazards through Bank of England support; and £3 million was made available, followed by additional support in 1932 when Lazard Frères of Paris ran into difficulties."
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2nd Lord Kindersley (1899–1976): "In 1919, after war service Kindersley joined Lazard Brothers & Co., the leading merchant bank, where his father was chairman and where he received a favoured apprenticeship. He was sent out to work in Lazards' businesses in Paris..."
October 20, 1965, The Times, 'Lord Hampden': "Lord Perth and A. D. Marris write:--Two of us who worked with Lord Hampden (Tommy Brand [4th Viscount, who was a leading figure at Lazards until his death in 1965; had joined in 1931] as he was then known to us all) in peace and war would like to supplement your account of his career by recalling his very close connexion and love of France. When he married and went abroad to learn about continental banking, he and his wife first went to Paris. He spent some nine months as a volunteer in the office of Lazard Freres et Cie where he was warmly welcomed by the then partners. He learnt not only much about banking but, in their society and that of their friends, a new and wider life was opened to him. It was natural, therefore, in 1940 when Jean Monnet, already an old friend [who was indebted to the Lazard Bank],.. asked Tommy to join him as one of his chief assistants in London... Under Lord Salter (then Sir Arthur Salter) [Pilgrims; Milner Group] Tommy carried on for him the work he had been doing for Monnet on war supplies..."
[61] According to EIR: November 1940, Coordinator of Information (COI; predecessor of the OSS), confidential report titled '"Synarchie" and the policy of the Banque Worms group' (only those aspects of which PEHI has seen a photocopy compilation as published by Executive Intelligence Review Australia; important note: the COI was founded in July 1941, eight months after EIR claims this COI report was written): "In recent reports there have been several references to the growing political power of the Banque Worms group in France, which included amongst its members such ardent collaborationists as Pucheu, Benoit-Menchen, Laroy-Ladurie, Bouthillier, and representatives of the big French industrial organizations. 2. After unavoidable delay we have now obtained the following information, dated early November, from a source with good political contacts in Vichy, who has provided reliable information in the past. Similarity of aims of "Synarchie" and Banque Worms. (i) The reactionary movement known as "Synarchie" has been in existence in France for nearly a century. Its aim has always been to carry out a bloodless revolution, inspired by the upper classes, aimed at producing a form of government by "technicians" (the founder of the movement was a "polytechnician"), under which home and foreign policy would be subordinated to international economy. (ii) The aims of the Banque Worms group are the same as those of "Synarchie", and the leaders of the two groups are, in most cases, identical. Policy in regard to Great Britain. (xi) In regard to Great Britain the more particular aims of the group are as follows: (a) to bring about the fall of the Churchill Government by creating the belief in the country that a more energetic government is needed to prosecute the war; it is recognized that an effective means of creating suspicion of the Government's efficiency would be to induce the resignation of Lord Beaverbrook; (b) to bring about the formation of a new Government including Sir Samuel Hoare, Lord Beaverbrook and Mr. Hore-Belisha. (Note. The source has added that in the Worms group it is believed that those circles in Great Britain who are favorably disposed to their plans, are most critical of Mr. Churchill, Lord Halifax and Captain Margesson.) (c) through the medium of Sir Samuel Hoare to bring about an agreement between British industry and the Franco-German "bloc"; (d) to protect Anglo-Saxon interests on the continent;"
August 4, 2006 issue, Jeffrey Steinberg for Executive Intelligence Review (EIR), 'Fact Sheet: The Enemy is Oligarchism' (this report quotes from the above document. Since PEHI has not seen a photocopy of the entire document, the sections quoted in this article which did not appear in the partial photocopy, are quoted here separately.): "The COI report then went on to detail the political agenda of the international Synarchy, as of August 1940: "(a) to check the 'Revolution Nationale' insofar as its development might entail the creation of a new social order; (b) to check any new social schemes which might tend to weaken the power of the international financiers and industrialists; (c) to work for the ultimate complete control of all industry by international finance and industry; (d) to protect Jewish and Anglo-Saxon interests." The document went on to note that there is sympathy for this Synarchist scheme among some key Nazi circle in Germany including "both Goering and Dr. Funk [Walther Funk, who was Nazi Minister of Economics, president of the Reichsbank, and Nazi Germany's representative on the Bank for International Settlements, following Hjalmar Schacht--ed.]... It is alleged that certain industrial circles in Great Britain are also in sympathy with the movement. Some headway is claimed to have been made in securing the adhesion of big U.S. industry to the movement."... The document concluded, "In regard to Germany, it is hoped ultimately to eliminate Hitler, Goebbels, and Himmler with his Gestapo, from the political scene, thus facilitating the formation of an Anglo-Franco-German economic bloc."
[62] Information on France's Synarchy movement:
*) August 23, 1941, Huntingdon (Pa.) Daily News, 'Sabotage, Recruiting For Free France Present Problems To Nazis In Paris': "Reports in the German controlled Paris press of the "uncovering" of a world-wide revolutionary plot, said to have American financial backing, diverted attention today from the use of force by German troops to subdue hostile factions in Paris. Rumors of a "plot," circulating for days, finally were published by the Paris weekly, L'Appel, which added a weird touch by associating the plotters with the mysterious deaths of the engineer, Jean Coutrot and, a few days later, of his secretary, Albert Thealet. L'Appel said Coutrot committed suicide "by order," and said he was the founder of the new revolutionary movement known as "synarchy," which, according to L'Appel, has its roots among graduates of the French Polytechnic School, who comprise most of the technical officers of the French army. The plotters, L'Appel said, have connections in Britain and in the United States, especially with the American DuPont and Ford interests. "Synarchy" leaders, according to the newspaper, have access to the United States embassy in Vichy "so it is not surprising to see Admiral (William D.) Leahy (the American ambassador) mixed excitedly in the affair." "Synarchy" was defined as the opposite of anarchy—seeking a strong concentration of power in contrast to anarchy's dispersal of authority. L'Appel published what it said was Coutrot's plan, calling for the earliest possible peace, the creation of a league of major nations of Europe and Africa under the name "Paneurafrica," and five leagues of minor nations. The major nations would pool their colonial interests to form a world empire."
*) October 30, 1941, Dunkirk Evening Observer, 'Darlan's regime being challenged by new clique': "Admiral Jean Francois Darlan's regime as active head of the Vichy government is being challenged, authentic advices from Europe reported today, by a clique of young French cabinet officers headed by Interior Minister Pierre Pucheu... The Darlan-Pucheu test of strength, it was said, also involves bitter competition between two huge French Banking institutions for the profits growing out of the Franco-German industrial "collaboration" program. So far Marshal Henri Philippe Petain is said to have supported Darlan, preventing the Pucheu group from seizing control. The Pucheu group was said to constitute what is known as the "synarchy" faction, favoring a frank dictatorship in France pledged to work in close political as well as economic collaboration with Germany... Cabinet ministers siding with Puchei were said to include Minister of Finance and Economy Yves Boulhillier; Secretary of State Jacques Benoit-Mechin [managing director Worms Bank] who now handles Franco-German negotiations; communications and transport minister Jean Berthelol; industrial production minister Francois Lehideux; Propaganda Secretary Paul Marion; and Jacques Barnaud [administrator Worms Bank] who handles Franco-German economic negotiations. The group reportedly represents and supports the great Worms banking interests which formerly was dominant in the financing of French trade. The opposing group, lead by Darlan, is regarded as a more conservative military clique. It also is tied in with banking interests, in this case the Banque de Paris et Pays Bas which thus far has provided the chief financing for French-German economic collaboration."
*) April 9, 1945, Tucson Daily Citizen, 'Petain will be tried in absentia': "Marshal Philippe Henri Petain will be tried in absentia soon as a traitor to France by a special high court of justice in one of the most important trials in French history... The justice spokesman said the court will show that before the war, Petain was a member of the Cagoule and the Synarchie, two Fascist secret societies. The prosecution will attempt to show that Petain was in contact secretly with the Germans before the war. For years, enemies of Petain have charged him with being involved in Cagoulard plots, but no direct evidence ever had been produced. Pierre Puchou, Vichy minister of the interior, later condemned to death as a traitor and executed by the DeGaulle government in Algiers, contributed large sums to the Cagoule."
*) November 9, 1946, The Nation, 'The People's Front': "Michael Sordet, in a remarkably documented article, The Secret League of Monopoly Capitalism, published in the scholarly Swiss review, Schweiner Annalen (No. 2, 1946- 47), gives us a full description of the synarchist movement in Europe. He describes the synarchists as "the representatives of international high finance," who not only helped to bring fascism to power in Germany and to provoke the war, from which they reaped enormous profits, but who contributed to the defeat of France and the rise of Petain and his traitorous clique... Le Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire (M. S. E.) was founded in Paris in 1922... Its original promoters numbered seven, three of whom have since been identified as Baron Leo de Nervo, with connections in some fifty financial and heavy-industry enterprises... Maxime Renaudin, a financier known to represent international Catholic interests, and Jean Coutrot, a close friend of Marshal Petain. The M. S. E. is rigidly aristocratic in structure: members are recruited in powerful big-business circles and are expected to enrol new adherents from among their friends... Frenchmen in general learned of the existence of the M. S. E. in the summer of 1941 when Jean Coutrot died under mysterious circumstances which were never cleared up. A collaborationist newspaper, l'Appel, which carded the announcement of his death, revealed at the same time that most of the ministers and generals in the Vichy entourage belonged to this secret society. Coutrot had told an intimate friend that the directing body of the M. S. E. consisted of four people, but he mentioned no names. What are the contents of the "Pacte synarchiste revolutionnaire," so vigilantly controlled? The most important section provides for the division of the world into five great federations imperiales, or societe mineures des nations. Metropolitan Britain and its colonies and dominions make up one. The federation of pan-American nations comprises the United States and the other countries of the Western continent with the exception of Canada. The pan-Eurasian federation consists of the Soviet Union, including all its Asiatic republics but excluding Finland and the Baltic states. The pan-European- African federation takes in Western Europe, including Finland, the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, and the African continent excluding the British colonies. China and Japan head the pan-Asiatic federation."
*) November 16, 1946, The Nation, 'The People's Front': "Despite the highly secret character of the M. S. E., the following men have been identified as members: Paul Baudoin [named as a major Opus Dei player], director of the Banque d'Indo-Chine and a friend of Mussolini, who with the help of the attractive Heltne de Portes became right-hand adviser to Premier Paul Reynaud in the last months before France's capitulation; Jacques Gudrard, a banker who held the post of Ambassador to Lisbon under the Vichy regime; Jacques Barnaud of the Banque Worms, a great favorite with Goring, who was responsible for handling over to the Germans the major French chemical industries headed by the Francolor trust; Jacques Benoit- Mechin, author of a book on the Reichswehr, who was rewarded for his services to the German army by being named a director of the Banque Worms after the 1940 armistice; Pierre Pucheu, Vichy Minister of the Interior and organizer of the Franco-German steel cartel. Today the M. S. E. is attempting to restore those intimate ties between French and German industrialists which it had so painstakingly built up before the war... In his article in the Schweizer Anmalen, Sordet hints that the main base of operations of the Synarchists is shifting from Europe to the United States, and he names Admiral Leahy, Robert Murphy, and du Pont de Nemours not as members but as individuals they hope to use to make contact with influential Catholic and industrial groups here."
*) 1947, William L. Langer (History professor at Harvard; high ranking OSS official; special assistant to the Secretary of State), 'Our Vichy gamble', pp. 167-168: "His [Darlan's] policy of collaboration with Germany could count on more than enough eager supporters among French industrial and banking interests--in short, those who even before the war had turned to Nazi Germany and had looked to Hitler as the saviour of Europe from Communism. These were the elements which had originally backed Petain and Weygand--elements that stuck to the program after both these men had begun to back away from it. These people were as good fascists as any in Europe. They dreaded the Popular Front like the plague and were convinced that they could prosper even under Hitler's iron rod. Many of them had long had extensive and intimate business relations with German interests and were still dreaming of a new system of "synarchy," which meant government of Europe on fascist principles by an international brotherhood of financiers and industrialists. Laval had long been associated with this group. Darlan, though not one of the "boys," was clever enough to take them into camp. If they worshipped Laval, they served Darlan, as they would have served anyone who played the game. "This group," wrote Ambassador Biddle from London early in 1942, "should not be regarded as Frenchmen, any more than their corresponding members in Germany should be regarded as |Germans, for the interests of both groups are so intermingled as to be indistinguishable; their whole interest is focused upon furtherance of their industrial and financial stakes." Many important banking groups must be included in this category: the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie (which was Laval's group par excellence), the Banque de l'Indochine (of which Baudoin was the chief), the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas, and others. But peculiarly identified with the Darlan regime was the Banque Worms et Cie, headed by Hippolyte Worms, with Gabriel Leroy-Ladurie and Jacques Bernaud as the dominant figures. To realize the extent to which members of the Banque Worms group had been taken into the government by the autumn of 1941 a brief survey of the council and the Secretaries of State will be most profitable..."
*) 1969, William L. Shirer, 'The Collapse of the Third Republic', pp. 218-219: "Later Coutrot would be generally credited with being the man behind a technocratic movement called Synarchie, which to this day, despite many studies of it, remains - at least to this writer, who has pondered most of them - somewhat of a mystery... That some Synarchists organized as far back as 1922 a secret society with revolutionary aims has been established. It was called "Le Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire," or MSE, and its secret "Pact," containing "Thirteen Fundamental Points and 598 Propositions" for the Synarchist revolution, was discovered by the Vichy police in 1941 and published after the war... so far as one can make out from reading the lengthy document the movement would set up a sort of super monopoly capitalism, with competition abolished and endless plans drawn up for production and distribution, the whole - as well as the government - to be run by knowledgeable technocrats... That at one time the MSE was linked to the terrorist Cagoule [CSAR] also seems clear... " Here William Shirer confirms the rumors about the Synarchy, except that he believes this group "never got close to staging a revolution." This appears to be somewhat true, as the fascist militants which tried to overthrow the French government before the Nazi invasion failed at their mission.
*) 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', p. 27: "[Otto] Abetz paid 250,000 francs a month to fascist editors and publishers in order to run their vicious anti-Semitic newspapers. He financed the terrorist army known as the Mouvement Synarchique Revolutionnaire, which flushed out anti-Nazi cells in Paris and saw to it they were liquidated."
[63] 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 279 (lists the thirteen wealthiest families in the U.S. of the time, identified by the Temporary National Economic Committee by looking at the stockholdings in the 200 largest non-financial corporations):
[64] Described in great detail in Carroll Quigley's book 'Tragedy and Hope'. One of the more Well known excerpts, pp. 581-583: "The "anti-Bolsheviks," who were also anti-French, were extremely important from 1919 to 1926, but then decreased to little more than a lunatic fringe, rising again in numbers and influence after 1934 to dominate the real policy of the government in 1939. In the earlier period the chief figures in this group were Lord Curzon, Lord D'Abernon, and General Smuts. They did what they could to destroy reparations, permit German rearmament, and tear down what they called "French militarism."... The anti-Bolsheviks, including D'Abernon, Smuts, Sir John Simon, and H. A. L. Fisher (Warden of All Souls College), were willing to go to any extreme to tear down France and build up Germany." Chamberlain was part of this group. Pp. 308-309: "With these American loans Germany [under the Dawes plan] was able to rebuild her industrial system to make it the second best in the world by a wide margin, to keep up her prosperity and her standard of living in spite of the defeat and reparations, and to pay reparations without either a balanced budget or a favorable balance of trade. By these loans Germany's creditors were able to pay their war debts to England and to the United States without sending goods or services. Foreign exchange went to Germany as loans, back to Italy, Belgium, France, and Britain as reparations, and finally back to the United States as payments on war debts. The only things wrong with the system were (a) that it would collapse as soon as the United States ceased to lend, and (b) in the meantime debts were merely being shifted from one account to another and no one was really getting any nearer to solvency."
[65] 1926, Adolf Hitler, 'Mein Kampf', p. 472
[66] John Hargrave, 'Montagu Norman' (1942), p. 217 (see note 53 for excerpt)
[67] 1926, Adolf Hitler, 'Mein Kampf', p. 119
[68] The following quotes have been collected a few years back. They list other occasions on which Hitler spoke favorably about an Anglo-German peace, as he had done in his biography 'Mein Kampf' years earlier. I just copied these quotes from a Word document without looking over all the specific sources again-you'll get the point soon enough. Remember that David Irving, whose book 'Hitler's War' (the 2001 revision) is regularly quoted here, really is a fascist who still thinks that Churchill committed a sin by going to war with Germany. I've seen no evidence, however, that Irving made up Hitler's pro-England statements. It's just his motives that I question.
*) 2000, Ian Kershaw, 'Hitler 1936-1945, Nemesis', p. 295: "Hitler was alleged to have told his entourage a fortnight or so later that 'the army is the backbone of England and the Empire. If we smash the invasion corps, the Empire is doomed. Since we neither want nor can inherit it, we must leave it the chance.'" This is a quote from the book 'Er war mein chef. Aus dem Nachlass der Sekretärin von Adolf Hitler' from Christa Schroeder (1985- 1989, 4th edition), p. 105. The comment was allegedly made by Hitler on June 17, 1940. Schroeder, who died in 1984, was Hitler's secretary from 1933 until his suicide in April 1945.
*) David Irving: "Hitler told Major Quisling on the eighteenth [of August 1940]: 'After making one proposal after another to the British on the reorganisation of Europe, I now find myself forced against my will to fight this war against Britain. I find myself in the same position as Martin Luther, who had just as little desire to fight Rome but was left with no alternative.'"
*) David Irving: Halder wrote on the thirteenth [of July 1940]: "The Führer . . . accepts that he may have to force Britain to make peace; but he is reluctant to do so, because if we do defeat the British in the field, the British Empire will fall apart. Germany will not profit therefrom. We should[n't?] be paying with German blood for something from which only Japan, America, and others would draw benefit.'"
*) David Irving: An adjutant overheard Hitler heatedly shouting into a chancellery telephone: "We have no business to be destroying Britain. We are quite incapable of taking up her legacy… [there will be] devastating consequences [if the empire collapses]."
*) David Irving: A general, present with Rundstedt and other generals at a June 2, 1940 meeting where Hitler spoke, wrote down the following comment about the meeting: "He points out that without a navy the equal of Britain's we could not hold on to her colonies for long. Thus we can easily find a basis for peace agreement with Britain. France on the other hand must be stamped into the ground; she must pay the bill."
*) David Irving: On June 17, Jodl’s principal assistant confirmed to the naval staff that "the Führer has anything but the intention of completely destroying the British Empire, as England’s downfall would be to the detriment of the White race. Hence the possibility of making peace with Britain after France’s defeat and at the latter’s expense, on condition that our colonies are returned and Britain renounces her influence in Europe. With regard to an invasion . . . the Führer has not so far uttered any such intention, as he is fully aware of the extreme difficulties inherent in such an operation. That is also why the High Command has as yet undertaken no studies or preparations. (The Commander in Chief, Luftwaffe, has put certain things in hand, e.g., the activation of a parachute division.)"
*) David Irving: Goebbels on April 21 [1940]: "The Führer’s intention 'is to administer one knockout punch. Even so, he would be ready to make peace today, on condition that Britain stay out of Europe and give us back our colonies. He does not want at all to crush Britain or to destroy her empire.'"
*) David Irving: Hitler in late early May 1940: "'They [the British] could have had peace on the most agreeable of terms. Instead they are fighting a war and shattering their empire to the core.' And he added some days after that, on May 7: 'We are neither able nor willing to take over their empire. There are some people whom you can talk sense into only after you've knocked out their front teeth.'"
*) 1948, Sir Basil Liddell Hart, 'The German Generals Talk', pp. 134-135: "But certain members of Rundstedt's staff regarded the excuses as thin, and believed that Hitler had a deeper motive for his halt order [at Dunkirk]. They connected it with the surprising way he had talked when visiting their headquarters at Charleville on May 24yh, the day after the armoured forces had been halted in their stride. Hitler was accompanied by only one of his staff, and talked in private to Rundstedt and the two key men of his staff-Sodenstern and Blumentritt. Here is what the latter told me--"Hitler was in a very good humor, he admitted that the course of the campaign had been 'a decided miracle,' and gave us his opinion that the war would be finished in six weeks. After that he wished to conclude a reasonable peace with France, and then the way would be free for an agreement with Britain. He then astonished us by speaking with admiration of the British Empire, of the necessity for its existence, and of the civilization that Britain had brought into the world. He remarked, with a shrug of the shoulders, that the creation of its Empire had been achieved by means that were often harsh, but where there is planning, there are shavings flying. He compared the British Empire with the Catholic Church saying they were both essential elements of stability in the world. He said that all he wanted from Britain was that she should acknowledge Germany's position on the Continent. The return of Germany's colonies would be desirable but not essential, and he would even offer to support Britain with troops if she should be involved in difficulties anywhere. He remarked that the colonies were primarily a matter of prestige, since they could not be held in war, and few Germans could settle in the tropics. He concluded by saying that his aim was to make peace with Britain on a basis that she would regard as compatible with her honor to accept. Field-Marshal von Rundstedt, who was always for agreement with France and Britain, expressed his satisfaction, and later, after Hitler's departure, remarked with a sigh of relief-'Well if he wants nothing else, then we shall have peace at last.'" When Hitler continued to keep on the break, Blumentritt's thoughts ran back to this conversation. He felt that the "halt" had been called for more than military reasons, and that it was part of a political scheme to make peace easier to reach. If the British Army had been captured at Dunkirk, the British people might have felt that their honour had suffered a stain which they must wipe out. By letting it escape Hitler hoped to conciliate them. This conviction of Hitler's deeper motive was confirmed by his strangely dilatory attitude over the subsequent plans for the invasion of England. "He showed little interest in the plans," Blumentritt said, "and made no effort to speed up the preparations. That was utterly different to his usual behaviour." Before the invasion of Poland, of france, and later of Russia, he repeatedly spurred them on. But on this occasion he sat back."
*) Von Rundstedt, according to Wikipedia: "von Rundstedt and others subsequently argued that the [Dunkirk] decision was Hitler's and stemmed from his belief that Britain would more readily accept a peace treaty if he magnanimously spared what remained of her expeditionary force."
*) Luftwaffe Gen. Hans Jeschonnek quoted on May 26, 1940 in John Lukacs, Five Days in London, May 1940 (New Haven, 1999), p. 41: "The Army is England's backbone . . . If we destroy it, there goes the British Empire. We would not, could not inherit it . . . My generals did not understand this." P. 42 (Hitler): "Churchill was quite unable to appreciate the sporting spirit of which I have given proof by refraining from creating an irreparable breach between the British and ourselves. We did, however, refrain from annihilating them at Dunkirk."
*) Leon Degrelle, of the Belgian Waffen-SS, who Hitler greatly admired, and occasionally confided in. During one discussion with his Fuhrer, Degrelle stated: "We talked about England. I asked him bluntly: "Why on earth didn't you finish the British off at Dunkirk? Everyone knew you could have wiped them out." He answered: "Yes, I withheld my troops and let the British escape back to England. The humiliation of such a defeat would have made it difficult to try for peace with them afterwards."
Degrelle founded of the pro-Nazi Belgian Rexism movement. He was a business partner of Otto Skorzeny and his daughter married Servando Balaguer, who was for some time the head of Blas Pinar's Fuerza Nueva.
*) 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', p. 688: "By Hitler’s direct order, no intensive ground attack was made on the Allied forces within the Dunkerque perimeter, as Hitler was convinced that Britain would make peace as soon as France was defeated, and wished to save his dwindling armoured forces and munitions for the attack on the rest of France."
*) Ribbentrop's adviser on France, Otto Abenz, remarked caustically of the Dunkirk decision, "If Hitler had not been consumed by a diseased Anglophilia, everything would be different and easier."
*) 19 July 1940, Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag, 'A Last Appeal to Reason': "The leaflet emphasised Hitler's regret that, in spite of all his determined and honest efforts, he had not succeeded in achieving the friendship with England which he believed would have been a blessing for both people… "In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more to reason and common sense, in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider myself in a position to make this appeal since I am not the vanquished begging favours, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this war must go on." (leaflets of this speech were dropped in Britain by German bombers returning from raids).
*) Hitler also write in his Final Testimony: "I never wished a war against Britain or America."
*) Hitler, after refusing Mussolini's demand for the French fleet, turned to the real subject on his mind -- England. In a discussion witnessed by Hitler's official interpreter, Paul Schmidt, Hitler told Mussolini, he was convinced it would not serve any useful purpose to destroy the British Empire. "It is, after all, a force for order in the world." insisted Hitler.
[69] September 24, 1929, The Times, 'Anglo-German Relations': "... to announce the formation of an Anglo-German Association. It has been felt for some time that there was a need for an Anglo-German organization comparable in its composition and aims to the Pilgrims or to the Anglo-French Association."
[70] Ibid.
[71] April 10, 1933, The Times, 'Germans and the Jews - Lord Reading's protest'
[72] September 24, 1929, The Times, 'Anglo-German Relations': "The president of the British branch is Lord Reading and of the German branch Herr Cuno, a former Chancellor, and now chairman of the Hamburg-Amerika Line."
[73] the shipping line which throughout the 1930s worked in cooperation with the Harriman and Walker-Bush families in bringing Nazi propaganda and German agents to the United States. [73]
[74] September 24, 1929, The Times, 'Anglo-German Relations': "I understand that the vice presidents of the British branch include Lord D'Abernon, Mr. Philip Snowden, Sir Robert Horne, General Sir Ian Hamilton, and H. A. L. Fisher."
[75] 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy and Hope' pp. 581-583.
[76] November 13, 1934, The Times, 'Imperial Policy - New Group's plea for strong programme': "The chairman of the executive committee is Mr. W. Nunn, M.P., and the chief organizers are Lord Scone, M.P., Mr. A. R. Wise, M.P., Mr. Kenneth de Courcy, and Mr. Victor Raikes, M.P."
[77] December 24, 1934, The Times, 'Imperial Policy Group' (letter of IPG board members to The Times)
[78] 2000, R. A. C. Parker, 'Churchill and Appeasement - Could Churchill have prevented the Second World War?', p. 251: "One of the backbenchers on whom Chamberlain relied ... [Victor] Raikes was one of the most articulate of twentieth-century party men. He it was who told the House after Munich that Chamberlain 'will go down in history as the greatest European statesman of this or any other time'" http://clublet.com/why?NevilleChamberlain
[79] February 18, 1942, The Times, 'High Court of Justice - King's Bench Division - Mr. Kenneth de Courcy's libel action settled': "Mr. Kenneth de Courcy, secretary of the Imperial Policy Group... the Imperial Policy Group was a body of members of both Houses of Parliament who had associated for the purpose of disseminating information and propaganating opinions in support of the interest of Great Britain and the Empire. From time to time they published reviews on world affairs, and Mr. de Courcy was the author of those reviews."
[80] Issue 41 - 2001, Scott Newton for Lobster Magazine, 'De Courcy, Pilcher and Hess': "I met de Courcy on three occasions while researching my book on appeasement... Before the war de Courcy did possess genuinely high level contacts in the British establishment. His papers, now kept at the Hoover Institution for War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University, show that he really did go on unofficial diplomatic missions in the late 1930s, and that his reports went to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and to Stewart Menzies, Deputy to the Chief of SIS, Hugh Sinclair (until the latter's death in November 1939 when Menzies took over)... De Courcy, it is clear, knew Menzies. He told me that the IPG itself was an 'MI6 front'... The evidence in fact does not prove but tends to support the theory that de Courcy and Pilcher were part of a covert MI6 effort to promote a pro-Imperial and anti-Bolshevik outlook in the British establishment."
[81] February 24 - March 2, 1999, The Weekly Telegraph, No. 396, 'Obituary: Kenneth de Courcy': "In 1934 de Courcy became secretary of the Imperial Policy Group, which favoured appeasement as the best means of preserving the Empire. In this capacity he travelled the Continent in the years before Munich, being received by Mussolini and Eduard Benes, president of Czechoslovakia. Neville Chamberlain regularly asked for de Courcy's reports of these interviews, much to the annoyance of the Foreign Office."
[82] Ibid.: "In the 1930's de Courcy was a confidant of Cabinet ministers and a dining companion of the Duke of Windsor."
[83] February 18, 1942, The Times, 'High Court of Justice - King's Bench Division - Mr. Kenneth de Courcy's libel action settled'
[84] British Israel World Federation, Our Beliefs: "The Federation believes that Christ is our personal Saviour and Redeemer of the nation. We also believe that the descendants of the so-called “Lost Ten Tribes” of the Northern House of Israel are to be found in the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and kindred peoples of today. As the Federation believes in the whole Bible it therefore believes the Covenants made between God and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob-Israel are everlasting and that the British nation plays an important part of God’s great plan for world order. "
[85] August 22, 1997, Scott Thompson for Executive Intelligence Review, 'Hugh de Courcy vs. LaRouche: The British Israelites': "Kenneth Hugh de Courcy, the leading geopolitician of the Low Churches' British Israel World Federation, was chosen by the British Establishment to be an intermediary in the 1989 railroad of Lyndon LaRouche, Jr. and six other defendants in an Alexandria, Virginia Federal Courtroom. LaRouche described the ``deal'' offered by de Courcy in his allocution to the Court, after the railroad guilty verdict had come in: ``I wish to deal briefly with a matter which bears directly on the business before us. During the middle of the preceding trial [that resulted in a mistrial in Boston, Massachusetts because of Government turpitude], I received a communication from a senior, well-known member of, high level to the British intelligence establishment. This gentleman is known as Kenneth de Courcy... He communicated to me that he had been in contact with people who claimed to be responsible in the Anglo-American liberal establishment for bringing of the prosecution and this trial. He also represented to me that he believed that persons with whom he had been discussing were interested in presenting to me political conditions to which if I would submit, they didn't specify the conditions, but if I would submit to them, they would use their influence to shape the outcoming of this proceeding trial and sentence. I responded to this by stating to them and to Mr. de Courcy that I was perfectly willing to discuss any political matter on its merits, but I was not going to engage in bargaining for influence on the outcome of the trial in the United States.... Mr. de Courcy subsequently informed me through intermediaries that my refusal to accept the offer, at very high levels of the British establishment, had meant that I was consigned in effect to hell...""
[86] The Times newspaper reports from the 1930s list Tennant as a prominent visitor of the Anglo-German Fellowship and a close associate of Ribbentrop. These articles do not identify Tennant as a founder of the Anglo-German Fellowship, but a number of internet sources do. Among them is the following Jstor source:
1970, James Douglas-Hamilton, 'Ribbentrop and War' (Jstor pdf): "During the late summer of 1939 the general manager of a bank sent to the Chief Intelligence Officer of RAF Fighter Command a document written be an acquaintance of his who had been a founding member of the Anglo-German Fellowship. The person who had written the document was a London merchant banker with business connections in Germany and his name was Ernest Tennant. The memorandum which he wrote was marked PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL and was dated 31 July 1939. It recorded in detail what Ribbentrop, the Nazi Foreign Minister, had said to Tennant during many hours of conversation on 26 July at Ribbentrop's castle on the Lake of Fuschl, near Salzburg in Austria, and on 27 July in the train carrying Ribbentrop to Berlin."
[87] Names taken from visitor lists that appeared in:
*) July 15, 1936, The Times, 'Dinners - Anglo-German Fellowship'
*) December 16, 1936, The Times, 'Germany's need of colonies - Vital to Standard of Life - Herr von Ribbentrop on Bolshevism'
*) December 3, 1937, The Times, 'Friendship with Germany - Lord Halifax's visit - Herr Ribbentrop on new contacts'
*) May 19, 1938, The Times, 'Receptions - Anglo-German Fellowship'
*) March 6, 1939, The Times, 'Britain and Germany - Appeal for mutual understanding - Ambassador's speech'
[88] Ibid.
[89] July 9, 1945, Drew Pearson, Tucson Daily Citizen, 'Bureaus Battle Over Documents - Nazi records subject to dispute over jurisdiction': "Top-notch I. G. Farben officials are also considered important for establishing war guilt and ascertaining war secrets. They have been kept in prison ever since the armistice, though several seemed confident that high U.S. and British businessmen would get them out. The name they most frequently mention as the friend who would rescue them is Lord McGowan, head of British Imperial Chemical, Ltd. Some also mentioned Lammot Du Pont. Both Du Pont and Imperial Chemical had agreements with I. G. Farben before the war. Thomas H. McKittrick, head of the Bank of International Settlements, was also one who the I. G. Farben officials thought would help them; together with Leon Fraser, formerly with the Bank of International Settlements, who committed suicide last winter. I. G Farben officials, incidentally, did not know that he was dead."
[90] December 3, 1937, The Times, 'Friendship with Germany - Lord Halifax's visit - Herr Ribbentrop on new contacts'
[91] 1970, James Douglas-Hamilton, 'Ribbentrop and War' (Jstor pdf) (text of Tennant's memorandum. 'PRIVATE & CONFIDENTIAL', July 31st. 1939).
[92] Full name Sir Ernest Tennant = Sir Ernest William Dalrymple Tennant (d. 1962). Full name Sir Peter Tennant = Sir Peter Frank Dalrymple Tennant (1910-1996). According to The Times of August 17, 1967, Peter Tennant was among a whole list of family members present at Sir Ernest Tennant's memorial.
[93] December 3, 1937, The Times, 'Friendship with Germany - Lord Halifax's visit - Herr Ribbentrop on new contacts'
[94] January 9, 2000, The Independent on Sunday, 'Secrets of the Red Book: The Who's Who of British Nazis; Exposed: the establishment figures who wanted to turn the UK into a fascist dictatorship'
[95] December 15, 1998, Daily Mail, 'Revealed: the Scots MP devoted to Hitler; The discovery of a little red book exposes fascist members of the upper classes'
[96] January 9, 2000, The Independent on Sunday, 'Secrets of the Red Book: The Who's Who of British Nazis; Exposed: the establishment figures who wanted to turn the UK into a fascist dictatorship': "Running my finger down the list, written with a fountain pen in Ramsay's hand, the names still resonate: Arthur Wellesley the 5th Duke of Wellington, the Second Baron Redesdale, the Earl of Galloway, Lord Ronald Graham, Princess Blucher, Sir Ernest Bennett, Prince Turka Galitzine and Britain's most notorious Second World War traitor, William Joyce, later known as Lord Haw-Haw as he broadcast propaganda from Germany."
[97] October 12, 2004, Daily Telegraph, 'Nobles and admirals on war `Suspect List'. File names 400 people with supposed pro-German views to be arrested on an invasion, reports Ben Fenton': "Domville and Maj Gen John Fuller, a close friend of Lord Rothermere, owner of the Daily Mail, were both linked to the Duke of Bedford through membership of Capt Archibald Ramsay MP's Right Club."
[98] Ibid.: "Domville, who was the founder of the fascist organisation The Link, was to be picked up from his home in Hampshire at the first sign of invasion. Part of the MI5 report on him says he had told the inmates of a home for ex-servicemen that Hitler "would soon be in this country, but that there was no reason to worry about it, because he would bring the Duke of Windsor over as King and conditions generally would be much improved"."
[99] See note 97.
[100] All names taken from the newspaper articles mentioned in notes 95, 96, and 97.
[101] October 12, 2004, Daily Telegraph, 'Nobles and admirals on war `Suspect List'. File names 400 people with supposed pro-German views to be arrested on an invasion, reports Ben Fenton': "At least five people on the list are named in MI5 reports as associates of Anna Wolkoff, a dress designer and leading figure in British fascism who was a close friend of the Duchess of Windsor. The Duke, who had abdicated in 1936 to marry the then Wallis Simpson, had been causing embarrassment to the British government in the immediate pre-war years by cultivating contacts with Hitler and his regime. In a number of cases the Suspect List quotes leading British fascists as expressing the hope that a victorious Nazi invasion would place the Duke back on the throne."
[102] Three Times newspaper articles have discussed this affair. This is where this information has been taken from.
*) October 18, 1968, The Times, 'The Mosley Memoirs-5 - Mussolini, Hitler, and wartime imprisonment'
*) December 4, 1982, The Times, 'Revealed: The strange story of Tyler Kent, MI5 and the Right Club - The American tearoom spy'
*) December 10, 1983, The Times, 'Moscow's moles and the 'nazi spy''
[103] See note 37.
[104] 1981, Professor Carroll Quigley, 'The Anglo-American Establishment - From Rhodes to Cliveden', p. 272.
[105] February 13, 1939, The Times, 'Too much defeatism - Capt. Balfour on British Air Strength'
[106] 1973, Jules Archer, 'The plot to seize the White House - The shocking true story of the conspiracy to overthrow FDR', p. 20.
[107] 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time', p. 642: "Thus, from March [1939; after Hitler's full annexation of Czechoslovakia] onward, it became almost impossible to sell appeasement to the public, especially to the British public, who were sufficiently sturdy and sensible to know when they had had enough. But the British public and the British government were two different things... To the government the seizure of Czechoslovakia in March was of little significance except for the shock it gave to British opinion. The government had already written of the rump of Czechoslovakia completely... Nevertheless, concessions to Germany continued. But now parallel with concessions went a real effort to build up a strong front against Hitler for the day when concessions would break down. Moreover, concessions were different after March 17th because now they had to be secret. They had to be secret because public opinion refused any longer to accept any actions resembling appeasement... The projects of the anti-Bolsheviks [have Germany destroy the Soviet Union and cripple France] and the "three-bloc-world" supporters [allow a strong pan-German nation to be build in Europe, but preferably avoid war with the Soviet Union] were to dangerous to admit publicly..."
[108] 1957, Walter Goerlitz, 'History of the German General Staff - 1647 - 1945 ', p. 376: "After the BEF had escaped, Hitler also remarked to von Kleist that, "he had no intention of sending his tanks into 'the mud of Flanders. The English won't show up again in this war, anyway.'" Taken from:
[109] May 17, 2005, BBC, 'WW2 - People's War - A Last Appeal to Reason by Adolf Hitler' (about: 19 July 1940, Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag, 'A Last Appeal to Reason')"A couple of months after the bus incident I was visiting Ramsey, a small village about four miles from Harwich, and found a German leaflet in the Hedgerow, which in all probability had been dropped by a bomber returning from an air raid on London. The leaflet, is double A3 size and has close type on all four sides. It is an excellent piece of crafted propaganda and quite likely had the hand of Josef Goebbels in its preparation and the making of the German case. There were no lies, but the manipulation of the facts stood truth on its head. The heading and brief note on some of the more salient points are: A LAST APPEAL TO REASON BY ADOLF HITLER SPEECH BEFORE THE RICHSTAG, 19 JULY 1940 The speech must have taken at least 2 hours to deliver, starting with the loss sustained after the 1914-118 War and that the conditions imposed on Germany at Versailles were considered to be intolerable and humiliating discriminate, thus depriving the German Nation of all its rights and empire. The Reich’s relations with the rest of the world was simply an attempt to bring about a definite revision of the Treaty of Versailles, through as far as at all possible, this was to be accomplished by peaceful means. The leaflet claims that all attempts made by democratic Germany to obtain equality for the German people by revision of the Treaty proved unavailing... "In this hour I feel it to be my duty before my own conscience to appeal once more to reason and common sense, in Great Britain as much as elsewhere. I consider myself in a position to make this appeal since I am not the vanquished begging favours, but the victor speaking in the name of reason. I can see no reason why this war must go on.""
[110] 2000, Ian Kershaw, 'Hitler 1936-1945, Nemesis', pp. 369-381. Kershaw describes in detail Hess's secret preparations before flying to Scotland and Hitler's unpreparedness and absolute outrage when he heard what Hess had done.
[111] 1962, Sefton Delmer (reporter/editor who worked for Lord Beaverbrook), 'Black Boomerang' (online edition): "Dressed, as ever, in his sober blue serge suit he walked into Hess's sick room, flung his soft black hat on a table and advanced towards Hess with the outstretched hand and wide cheery smile of an old friend. It was the very opposite to the frozen formality of Lord Simon... Hess now stated that the object of his flight to Scotland had been to make peace with Britain "on any terms", providing that Britain would then join Germany in attacking Russia. It was an odd statement for him to make in view of the fact that he had not mentioned the coming attack on Russia with so much as a word when he had his talk with Lord Simon. And to Kirkpatrick he had denied point blank that Hitler meant to attack Russia. Nor had the terms he put down in writing at the time of his talk with Lord Simon suggested Germany's readiness for peace with Britain "at any price"... Hess's main theme was that the British were wrong if they hoped that the conflict with the Soviet Union would so weaken both Russia and Germany that at the end of it Britain's 19th-century hegemony over Europe would be restored... 'world domination awaits the Soviet Union in the future, if her power is not broken now', Hess said."
[112] Iblibio ("the Public's Library and Digital Archive"), Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons Official Report, Jan. 27, 1942
[113] 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the Enemy', p. 6: "Chamberlain was a major shareholder in Imperial Chemical Industries , partner of I.G. Farben whose Hermann Schmitz was on the board of the BIS."
[114] 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time', pp. 654-655, 679-680: "The first British suggestion was that the Soviet Union should give unilateral guarantees to Poland and Romania similar to those given by Britain. The Russians probably regarded this as a trap to get them into a war with Germany in which Britain would do little or nothing or even give aid to Germany. That this last possibility was not completely beyond reality is clear from the fact that Britain did prepare an expeditionary force to attack Russia in March 1940, when Britain was technically at war with Germany but was doing nothing to fight her... France and Russia were both pushing Britain to form a Triple Alliance, but Britain was reluctant. Churchill and Lloyd George were pushing in the same direction, but Chamberlain fought back on the floor of the House... The Soviet attack of Finland [in November 1939] provided the leaders in the Entente countries with a heaven-sent opportunity to change the declared but unfought war with Germany, which they did not want, into an undeclared but fighting war against the Soviet Union... That Russia was an unprovoked aggressor is beyond question, but there was at least a surface inconsistency between the violence of the Anglo-French reaction against Russian aggression in 1939 and the complacency with which they had viewed other [mainly German] aggressions in 1931-1939... In the north, every effort was made by France and Britain to turn the Soviet attack on Finland into a general war against Russia."
[115] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of the United States - A Centennial History', pp. 16-17. Describes the invitation of the Imperial Policy Group and how leading Pilgrims went from appeasement to lobbying for American intervention in the war against Germany.
[116] 1973, Jules Archer, 'The plot to seize the White House - The shocking true story of the conspiracy to overthrow FDR'. Names mentioned here and there in the book.
[117] Ibid., p. 31
[118] Ibid., pp. 164, 166
[119] Ibid., pp. 212-213
[120] 1959, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jr., 'Man of the World', p. 154 (photocopy of report from Cornelius to FDR's private secretary)
[121] Ibid., pp. 258-264
[122] January 3, 1962, Amarillo Globe-Times, Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 'Finds Power Elite Has... Funnel Into Capital'
[123] November 15, 1961, Amarillo Globe-Times, ''We know best' boys... come from old line'
[124] September 8, 1970, Playground Daily News (Fort Walton Beach, Florida), p. 4: "Back on April 4, reports Edith Kermit Roosevelt, some 50,000 well-dressed, sincere, mostly middle-aged Americans traveled to Washington to conduct a March for Victory' in Vietnam. The parade was promoted and led by Rev. Carl McIntyre, president of the International Council of Christian Churches. The Rev. Mr. Mclntyre is hated by the leftwing establishment, and is always portrayed in the worst possible light by the major news media. Columnist Edith Kermit Roosevelt was there, anil she was appalled at the news treatment given this group. The television networks, she says, were under orders to "play down" the event. Such coverage as was given by newspapers was distorted and largely false, even to the extent of reports that only 10,000 showed up. The impression was circulated by some news media that the marchers were "Nazi types" and "white racists" when, in fact, they were nothing of the sort. Indeed, says Mrs. Roosevelt, she personally saw hundreds of clean-cut, neatly-dressed Negroes in the procession carrying their Bibles and holding patriotic signs and banners. These, of course, are not the kind of people who get favorable—or even fair -publicity. But let a mob of violent hippies or black militants get together, and the whole world is given a syllable-by-syllable report of what they think, and what they stand for, and what they threaten to do to this country."
[125] 1973, Jules Archer, 'The plot to seize the White House - The shocking true story of the conspiracy to overthrow FDR', p. 176: "In addition to Butler and himself, Van Zandt told reporters, MacArthur, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., and former Legion Commander Hanford MacNider had recently been sounded out on their interest in leading the proposed Fascist veterans organization [Butler only named MacArthur and MacNider].... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., decried as "ridiculous" the idea that he could be used to wrest the powers of the Presidency away from his fourth cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt."
[126] *) April 17, 1919, New York Times, 'Ten new directors named': "Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., now on Sinclair Oil Co. board."
*) 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism', p. 38: "It was Matteotti who discovered in 1924 that Mussolini, who had "marched" to Rome in a Pullman sleeper in 1922, was beginning to pay back the secret forces which had paid the money to put fascism in power. On May 27th, a few days before he was kidnapped and assassinated by Mussolini's gangsters and family friends, Matteotti denounced in the Italian parliament a law which would have given a monopoly in oil to the Sinclair firm--the same corporation run by Harry Sinclair which was involved in the filthy muck of the Teapot Dome scandal, and incidentally the same Harry Sinclair who told Dorethy Thompson that he and his associates put up most of the money to buy the Presidency of the United States every four years."
[127] 1994, Peter Grosse, 'Gentleman Spy - The Life of Allen Dulles', pp. 104, 129: "Clover [wife of Allen Dulles] sent both girls to an informal boarding school on the north shore of Long Island, between Cold Spring Harbor and Huntington, at the home of Archibald Roosevelt (son of Theodore). There the Dulles girls and the three Roosevelt daughters sat on the floor of an old-style farmhouse, drank tea, and read poetry. The curriculum centered on romantic verse. On Saturdays, if the Dulles girls were not summoned home for a family adventure, Mr. Roosevelt would take them walking, sometimes with his son and his nephew, Archie and Kim, who themselves would grow up to play the Great Game. ... Foster had long since planted his family in a mansion nearby [his brother Allen]; other neighbors were the Roosevelts, including young Archie and Kim, and Allen and Clover's glamorous new friends, [the famous fascist promoters] Charles and Anne Lindbergh."
[128] 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship', pp. 41-42: "To make matters worse, Nasser had a close relationship with the CIA. Prior to the coup that overthrew the monarchy, Kermit Roosevelt, the covert troubleshooter who engineered the restoration of the Shah of Iran, had been dispatched to make contact with Nasser and his fellow plotters in the Society of Free Officers. They found, Roosevelt cable back to Washington, "a large measure of agreement," so much so that the CIA assisted in the coup through which the insurgent officers took power. Roosevelt's informal and close relationship with Nasser, as well as his readiness to disburse U.S. covert funds on a profligate scale, made the CIA the main U.S. link with the Egyptian leader. Initially at least, the news seemed all good. Not only did Nasser appear to have friendly feelings toward the United States, he did not even appear to harbor any special animus toward Israel. ... Endowed with his bulging covert budget, Roosevelt was keen to do well by Nasser. Among other endowments, he arranged for the CIA to construct a powerful transmitter to beam Egyptian propaganda across the Middle East. Later, when times and loyalties had changed, the CIA had to finance stations elsewhere in order to counter the overly successful effect of the "Voice of the Arabs." ... [Nasser] asked Roosevelt to help him build up Egypt's military intelligence and internal security squads. This was considered too sensitive an area for the CIA to involve itself in directly, so Allen Dulles, who had become CIA director on Eisenhower's election, arranged to have a surrogate do the job. ... Gehlen took on the assignment and delegated responsibility for it to Otto Skorzeny, a wartime SS commando and personal favorite of Adolf Hitler. ... To help do the job he recruited various luminaries of the Third Reich, including a former deputy leader of Hitler Youth and Alois Brunner. Brunner had been Adolf Einchmann's expert on the deportation of Jews to the death camps and it is estimated to have played a part in the murder of some 128, 500 people."
*) 2006, Michael Karpin, The Bomb in the Basement', p. 203: "Israeli military intelligence had been following Egyptian missile development since 1959, and its estimate as of mid-1961 assumed that at least another five years would go by before the missiles would attain a 400 kilometer range (about 250 miles) and endanger Israel. Suddenly, years before the predicted time, the Egyptians had carried out 600 kilometer (372 miles) test launches, and could threaten targets anywhere in Israel. ... The heads of the defense establishment demanded that Harel [head Mossad] obtain all the information, and he promised Ben-Gurion that he would do so in a few months. And indeed, in the middle of August, at a meeting in the prime minister's office, the spy chieftain portrayed a situation that appalled the audience. Since the end of 1959, the Egyptians had recruited hundreds of German scientists and technicians, each an expert in one area of strategic-weaponry development. During World War II, some of them had worked at Peenemunde, on the staff of Wernher von Braun, the rocket scientist who developed for the Nazis the V-2 rocket that had terrorized Londoners late in the war. Harel's agents had located companies in Germany that were acquiring raw materials for the manufacturer of missiles and planes in Egypt, and an electronics laboratory in West Germany that was busy planning guidance systems, headed by a scientist named Hans Kleinwachter. The experts recruited in Germany were employed at secret army bases near Cairo and charged with designing aircraft and missiles." Harel attacked the Nazi enclave in the press and also ran a number of kidnappings/assassinations against scientists in Germany. Ben-Gurion, who was trying to rebuild a relationship with West Germany, was furious about Harel's approach to the problem. Many also suspected that Harel had exaggerated the threat of weapons of mass destruction allegedly being developed by Israel. Mossad-CIA-Gehlen Org diplomacy eventually resulted in the Nazi enclave being evacuated by the mid 1960s.
*) September 10, 1956, Time Magazine, 'The Star's Star': "What riled the Egyptians even more was his [a reporter of the Toronto Star] story reporting that a onetime Nazi propagandist and Jew baiter named Johann von Leers is employed at the Ministry of National Guidance and that other Germans are advising the Egyptian general staff." Former top-Nazi Johann von Leers was accepted in Egypt and became ingrained with Arab terrorists who fought Zionism (among his close friends were former Jerusalem grand mufti Mohammad Amin al-Husayni). Alois Brunner, a Nazi and a mass murderer, was also allowed into Egypt and in later decades protected by the Syrians. Nasser himself was an anti-semite. Francis Parker Yockey, author of the fascist book 'Imperium', met with Nasser and spoke highly of him.
*) May 3, 2000, Salon.com, 'Our Nazi allies': "In 1948, Skorzeny escaped from an American POW camp. He moved to Spain and became intimately involved in postwar neo-Nazi movements, and is suspected of involvement in the disposition of looted assets. According to several published accounts, including one by former U.S. intelligence agent Miles Copeland, Skorzeny, who died in 1975, helped the CIA train the Egyptian security services in the 1950s."
[129] *) Who's Who: "Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt, Jr. (Deceased) Occupation: banker Born: Boston, February 18, 1918 Education Grad., Groton School, 1936 BA, Harvard, 1939 Career Newspaperman, 1939-42; joined U.S. Foreign Service, 1947, Central Intelligence Group (later CIA), 1947; attache Am. embassy, Beirut, Lebanon, 1947-49 [CIA station chief here]; chief Near East section Voice of Am., 1949-50; consul Istanbul, Turkey, 1951-53 [CIA station chief here]; assigned Department State, 1953-58; 1st secretary, special assistant to ambassador to Spain Madrid, 1958 [CIA station chief here]; attaché, special assistant Am. Embassy, London, England, 1962-66 [CIA station chief here]; assigned Department State, 1966-74; [officially retired from CIA in 1974;] vice president, director international relations Chase Manhattan Bank, 1975-90 Creative Works Author: For Lust of Knowing-Memoirs of an Intelligence Officer, 1988. Civic Served from 2d lieutenant to captain Army of the United States, 1942-47. Memberships Member F Street Club. Family son of Archibald Bulloch and Grace Stackpole (Lockwood) R.; married Selwa Showker, September 1, 1950; 1 son, Tweed. Address Home: Washington DC Death Died May 31, 1990; buried Oyster Bay, New York ."
*) 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', p. 363: "Chase officer Archibald Roosevelt, cousin of Kermit Roosevelt, the CIA officer who had engineered the 1953 coup that restored the Shah to the throne, was with me on the trip [to the Middle East]. Archie, who had also worked for the CIA, had an astonishing political and historical knowledge of Central Asia and the Persian Gulf region. Archie said he though the "game was up" for the Shah."
[130] December 19, 1948, The News and Tribune, 'There Were Many Front Page Names Married During 1948': "Roosevelt. This year's Roosevelt marriage was that of Edith Kermit Roosevelt, 20, medical student and granddaughter of the late President Teddy Roosevelt. Edith married Alexander G. Barmine, a former Soviet general who turned anti-Communist and wrote "One Who Survived.""
[131] December 28, 1987, New York Times, 'Alexander G. Barmine, 88, Dies; Early High-Level Soviet Defector': "In 1940 he moved to New York City and from 1942 to 1943, served as a private the Army. After the war, he wrote for Reader's Digest, The Saturday Evening Post and other publications before his appointment as chief of the Russian branch for the Voice of America... Mr. Barmine held his post at the Voice of America until 1964, when he became the officer in charge of Soviet affairs for the United States Information Agency. In 1969, he became a special adviser to the agency, a post he held until his retirement in 1972."
[132] July 28, 1952, Time Magazine, 'New Horizons': "In Los Angeles, Mrs. Edith Kermit Roosevelt Barmine, 24, granddaughter of Teddy Roosevelt, filed suit for divorce from Alexander G. Barmine, ex-Soviet general and diplomat, who turned anti-Communist during the 1937 purge. Her charge: cruelty and nonsupport."
[133] Examples of extreme-right business and/or intelligence ties of the John Birch Society:
* The organizer of the John Birch Society, Robert Welch, Jr., was a member of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and chaired the NAM's Educational Advisory Committee. Before World War II, the NAM members were sponsors of American fascism and fought every legislation that would allow workers to organize themselves into labor unions. Welch belonged to the most extreme right, racist faction within the NAM: the Pews (friends), Pitcairns, Fords, etc.
* Archibald Roosevelt, member of a pro-fascist business family with highest level connections to the CIA, was an early member of the John Birch Society. Archibald was also the founder of the controversial Veritas Foundation, another extreme right organizations which tried to root out communist and socialist elements in society.
* Nelson Bunker Hunt has a long-time association with the John Birch Society and these days sits on the national council. In the past Hunt sponsored the "Jesus people" movement, an alleged intelligence operation, and is suspected of having been part of the group that killed President Kennedy. He used to be a member of the 1001 Club.
* Larry McDonald, who was a president of the John Birch Society, also founded the Western Goals Foundation, an extreme-right private intelligence organization which counted the involvement of many senior extreme-right, anti-communist army officers.
[134] A brief summary of William Guy Carr's classic conspiracy work 'Paws in the Game' (1958): anti-United Nations, anti-FDR and New Deal, anti-socialism and anti-communism; communism = Illuminati conspiracy. Carr, extremely religious, in his book defended the inquisition, claimed the Vatican was not responsible for the Dark Ages, and wrote the that Renaissance only began when the Jews were kicked out of Europe. Talks about the Khazars, a reasonably prominent topic in conspiracy circles. Described how Gibbon's 'Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire' to a large extent blamed Jewish money lenders for having contributed to the fall of the Roman Empire. Mentioned Count de Poncins, Nesta Webster, and Sir Walter Scott as those who inspired him.
[135] www.seekgod.ca/cnp.sh.htm: "Skousen spoke at the "God and Freedom Banquet" which was held in honor of Sun Myung Moon to welcome him home from prison. Cleon Skousen spoke very highly of Moon and said that God had sent "Rev." Moon to our country with a revelation and a message."
[136] 1970, Cleon Skousen, 'The Naked Capitalist', pp. 98-99
[137] December 2, 1986, New York Times, '': "Mr. Allen's most popular book, ''None Dare Call It Conspiracy'' published in 1971, expounded the conservative theory that international banking and politics control domestic decisions, taking them out of elected officials' hands. He was a contributing editor to the Conservative Digest and the John Birch Society's American Opinion magazine. He also wrote speeches for former Gov. George Wallace of Alabama during Mr. Wallace's Presidential campaigns and advised the conservative Texas millionaire Nelson Bunker Hunt, Mr. Allen's son, Mike, said."
[138] *) October 26, 2000, Philadelphia Inquirer: "Since 1985, the Maldon Institute - relying on nearly $2million from Pittsburgh philanthropist Richard Mellon Scaife - has churned out monographs on everything from protests against the World Bank to rebel movements in Colombia and Uzbekistan... In the search-warrant affidavits, the state police quoted from a recent Maldon Institute report, citing unnamed sources, that linked protesters to Communist money."
*) Mediatransparancy.org: "The Maldon Institute in 1993 claimed financial support from "public-spirited foundations including the Allegheny and Carthage Foundations, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith...." Both Allegheny and Carthage are controlled by Richard Mellon Scaife, who later funded several anti-Clinton investigations in conservative and hard right media. In 1993 Maldon Institute board members included three notable conspiracists: Dr. D. James Kennedy..."
[139] *) November 18, 2006, PEHI, Le Cercle: "John Hay Whitney was the one who took over the financial burden of FWF [Forum World Features] from the CIA when it was commercialized. Another billionaire CIA associate, Richard Mellon Scaife, later took over funding of FWF from Whitney. Scaife also funded Crozier's Institute for the Study of Conflict (ISC), which he founded in 1970, and showed up at gatherings of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute, an anti-communist and anti-terrorist propaganda group headed by several British Cercle members, including Crozier..."
*) November 18, 2006, PEHI, Le Cercle, biography of Brian Crozier: "[For his Institute for the Study of Conflict, Crozier] tried to get initial funding from John Hay Whitney (through this person's financial advisor, John Train, a very close associate of Sir James Goldsmith), the CIA, the IRD, and MI6, but failed. Received some initial, but very limited funding from BP and Shell. Soon thereafter, through his CIA contacts, he met with the now quite controversial Richard Mellon Scaife, who granted $100,000 a year to Crozier's ISC [see Crozier's biography]. Scaife was part heir to the Mellon fortune, a major shareholder in Gulf Oil, and the person who took over Crozier's FWF in the early 1970s. When the ISC took off, Crozier developed a closer relationship with the CIA and met with its representatives about 4 times a year in Langley."
[140] Israel has a long history of cooperation with America's pro-Zionist lobby groups, as has been partially discussed in this article (largely set up by Mossad founder Reuven Shiloah). Israel has also engaged in massive spy operation on American soil, and apparently with the consent of the CIA. The Israeli intelligence gathering unit LAKAM is a great example of this effort. Following are three news reports, one of them about ADL's intelligence gathering programs (largely in similar fashion as the Western Goals Foundation); another about recent reports that two AIPAC officers have been stealing U.S. national security secrets. There's also one report about the DoD warning its personnel about Israeli spy operations.
*) October 19, 1993, Washington Post, 'Jewish group's tactics investigated - Intelligence gathering methods of Anti-Defamation League at issue': "In April, San Francisco police investigators searched two California offices of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) of B'nai B'rith, a respected civil rights organization that they suspected had been secretly monitoring the activities of thousands of political activists They left with boxes of files a prosecutor later described in court as "contraband," including leaked copies of confidential law enforcement reports, fingerprint cards, driver's license photographs and individual criminal histories drawn from police records. They also seized pink copies of internal reports signed "Cal," a code name, police had been told, for San Francisco art collector Roy H. Bullock. When police questioned him, Bullock said he had worked for 32 years as one of the ADL's chief intelligence gatherers on the West Coast, carefully following the movements of Skinheads, white supremacists, Arab Americans and critics of the Israeli government. ... Prosecutors contend in court documents that the ADL had a network of friendly officers turning over confidential data. They also say the ADL has intelligence gatherers such as Bullock stationed in other cities. "In Chicago, there is an ex-police officer named Chi-3. In St. Louis there is Ironsides. In Atlanta, there is an Arab speaking man named Flipper. . . . There are other California code named employees such as Scout, Scumbag and Hot Spurs," an affidavit based on information from an ADL employee said. The ADL acknowledged that there are other field investigators like Bullock but insists their efforts are legal and benign. ... "I was an investigator for the ADL," Bullock explained. "I investigated any and all antidemocratic movements." His job, he told San Francisco police, was to gather "political intelligence" about groups that the ADL considered antisemitic or anti-Israel. ... Since news of the investigation broke, a group of Arab Americans listed in the ADL's files has charged in a civil lawsuit that the ADL invaded the Arab Americans' privacy with its "massive spying operation" and forwarded confidential information to the governments of Israel and South Africa. Evidence of the ADL's information sharing with the Israeli government is largely historical. In 1961, former ADL national director Benjamin R. Epstein wrote to a B'nai B'rith official that the ADL was following Arab diplomats and activists in America and sharing its information with the governments of Israel and the United States. In his 1988 autobiography, ADL general counsel Arnold Forster, who oversaw the fact-finding operation, described how "fact-finding and counteraction became the heart of the organization." He also wrote that he was often a "source" for the Mossad, Israel's CIA, in tracking down suspected Nazi war criminals. "
*) January 30, 1996, Washington Post, 'Defense memo warned of Israeli spying': "A Defense Department security office issued a confidential warning to many military contractors in October that the Israeli government was "aggressively" trying to steal U.S. military and intelligence secrets, partly by using its "strong ethnic ties" to the United States to recruit spies. ... "Placing Israeli nationals in key industries . . . is a technique utilized with great success," the memo said."
*) May 25, 2007, New York Times, 'National Briefing | Washington: New Effort To Continue Espionage Case': "Federal prosecutors have offered to provide more classified information in open court to keep alive their prosecution of two former pro-Israel lobbyists charged with violating the Espionage Act. The lobbyists, who had been with the American Israel Public Affairs Committee [AIPAC], are charged with illegally giving national security information to Israeli officials and reporters. Citing national security concerns, the prosecutors had tried to close from public scrutiny a substantial part of the information to be used at trial."
[141] In an email to PEHI after reading the Cercle article.
[142] 1991, Pat Robertson, 'The New World Order', pp. 98-102
[143] May 18, 2007, Daniel Hopsicker for his Mac Cow Morning News, 'The secret history of Jerry Falwell - Televangelist links to terror flight school in Florida': "Falwell made no mention, then or ever, of his curious debt to secretive Green Bay financier Wallace J. Hilliard, whose flight school abetted, if unwittingly, the terrorist presence in the United States... At one time Hilliard had assigned him the task, Burchill stated, of dunning deadbeat Falwell, the founder of Liberty University and Pastor of the Thomas Road Baptist Church, to repay the million bucks Falwell owed his boss."
[144] (1982). No Place to Hide: The Strategy and Tactics of Terrorism [Videotape]. Alexandria, VA: Western Goals Foundation. OCLC 10744020. Also, OCLC 19993388 .
[145] September 26, 1983, Philadelphia Inquirer, 'Self-Appointed sentinels - The right keeps tabs on 'revolutionary' figures': "Linda C. Guell, director of Western Goals, and John Rees, its editor of publications... Western Goals' aim, according to its literature, is to serve as "the first and only public foundation to . . . fill the critical gap caused by the crippling of the FBI, the disabling of the House Committee on Un-American Activities and the destruction of government files."... The organization has a paid staff of seven, a mailing list of more than 4,000 and, according to its annual report, raised about $2 million in contributions last year. Advisory board members of the tax-exempt foundation include author Taylor Caldwell, retired Gen. George S. Patton, Rep. Philip M. Crane (R., Ill), Mrs. Walter Brennan, lawyer Roy Cohn, Rep. Bob Stump (D., Ariz.), physicist Edward Teller, retired Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman Adm. Thomas H. Moorer and retired Gen. John Singlaub. "Larry (McDonald) asked me to come on board and help in 1979 with fund- raising, to get the ball rolling," Stump said. "Western Goals is a nonprofit foundation primarily dedicated to educating people against communism."
[146] October 23, 1981, Washington Post, 'Taking a Right to the Left': "The crowd of several hundred was full of retired generals: Gens. Raymond Davis and Lewis Walt of the Marines, Gen. John Singlaub, who left the Army after bucking President Carter on the question of removing U.S. troops from Korea, and Gen. George Patton, wandering about with a small cigar and a hard stare. Rebuilding Western civilization (one of many foundation goals) being too important to be left to the generals, there were also in attendance conservative lights such as Reps. Bob Stump (D-Ariz.) and Phil Crane (R-Ill.), Sen. Paul Laxalt (R-Nev.), Sam Francis of the Heritage Foundation and Howard Phillips of the Conservative Caucus, along with a string quartet, a bartender handing out champagne to drinkers and water to nondrinkers, and, of course, Stein... "I would say 60 percent of people here are reactionists, you know Newton's Third Law of equal and opposite reaction? The younger ones, 30-40 percent, have a program.""
[147] September 29, 2006 issue, Jeffrey Steinberg for EIR, 'John Train and the Bankers' Secret Government'
[148] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, The Pilgrims of the United States - A centennial history', pp. 32-33: "In January 1996, for the first time since he became president, Bullock missed an annual meeting because of ill-health. It was soon after this that Dixon realized that, if the Pilgrims were to survive, day-to-day affairs needed to be run by a younger and more active person, acting as a chief executive officer under the continued presidency of Bullock. Although Bullock accepted the idea, he would have liked this person to be Dixon. Dixon thought it should be an older person, but he was worried that the Pilgrims might die out altogether, so he approached John Train... [discussion on how Train reorganized the Pilgrims] ... It was not clear whether John train was intended to be Hugh Bullock's successor as president - the title of "president-designate" was suggested at one point... [didn't succeed Bullock]."
[149] 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent' (don't know exact page; threw away the book)
[150] See PEHI's article on Le Cercle for details on Whitney's ties to the CIA.
[151] EIR has claimed that Decter was a director and founding treasurer of the C. Northcote Parkinson Fund, a claim which is repeated in certain online biographies, although not one with a degree of authority. PEHI has never seen though that EIR made up information. The fund is not mentioned in Decter's Who's Who, but these tend to be incomplete. (extra note: Jerry Michael Mosier of the C. Northcote Parkinson Fund went to the Committee for the Free World, like Decter) Midge Decter Who's Who: "Midge Decter Occupation: writer Born: St. Paul, July 25, 1927 Education Student, University Minnesota, 1946 Student, Jewish Theological Seminary America, 1948 Career Assistant editor Midstream magazine, 1956-58; managing editor Commentary, 1961-62; editor Hudson Institute, 1965-66, CBS Legacy Books, 1966-68; executive editor Harper's magazine, 1969-71; book review editor Saturday Rev./World magazine, 1972-74; senior editor Basic Books, Inc., 1974-80; executive director Committee for Free World, 1980-90; senior fellow Institute on Religion and Pub. Life, 1991—1995 Creative Works Author: The Liberated Woman and Other Americans, 1971, Liberal Parents, Radical Children, 1975, The New Chastity and Other Arguments Against Women's Liberation, 1997, An Old Wife's Tale: My Seven Decades in Love and War, 2001, Losing the First Battle, Winning the War, 2002, Rumsfeld: A Personal Portrait, 2003; member editorial bd.: First Things Awards Recipient National Humanities medal, 2003 Civic Board directors Heritage Foundation, Center for Security Policy, Philadelphia Society; founding member Coalition for Dem. Majority; former director Nicaraguan Freedom Fund. Family Daughter of Harry and Rose (Calmenson) Rosenthal; Married Norman Podhoretz, October 21, 1956; children: Rachel, Naomi, Ruth, John."
[152] Story described in two books:
*) 1993, Gary Murray, 'Enemies of the State'
*) 1995, Gerald James, 'In the Public Interest'
[153] Sen. John DeCamp, 'The Franklin Cover-Up,' second edition, pp. 387-388 (Feb. 2006 edition)
[154] July 29, 1997, The Times, 'Secret members of the Other Club'. Gave a list of members as of January 1994. Apparently there are about 90 members in total.
[155] Roxburghe Club membership list taken from: 1999, Donald Young and Quentin Keynes, 'The search for the source of the Nile - Correspondence between captain Richard Burton, Captain John Speke and others, from Burton's unpublished East African Letter Book' ("Dedicated and presented to the president and members of the Roxburghe Club"). Can be found at
http://www.cypherpress.com/books/burton/burton.pdf. Membership has been quite secretive and very few references to the important members have existed, until this booklet was uploaded that is. The important families tend to be in the club for generation after generation. Some of these families also meet each other at the Other Club (July 29, 1997, The Times, Secret members of the Other Club).
* As for Paul Mellon, the late Pilgrims Society member: February 3, 1999, The Times, Paul Mellon obituary: "Mellon was widely honoured by academic and sporting institutions, including Oxford, Cambridge, the Jockey Club and the Royal Veterinary College. As one of the great book collectors of the world, he was a member of both the Grolier Society and the Roxburghe Club."
[156] 1995, Gerald James, 'In the Public Interest', pp. 121, 124, 126, 140.
[157] *) November 1994, journalist David Hellier in the New Internationalist (as reproduced in Gerald James's 'In the Public Interest', p. 229): "During this period something happened to unsettle me. [PEHI: First he was threatened over the phone...] I was walking home one night on the pavement of a busy road a car slid onto the pavement and knocked me to the ground. I was shocked but not badly hurt ... [Then] on one occasion I spotted a photographer taking pictures of me with one of my contacts [actually two, Tim Laxton and Chris Gumbley] as we sat in a pub during one of his [Gumbley's] days on release from prison. I then discovered that another journalist [Jane Renton], who was working on the same story at the London Observer newspaper, had received a warning that something might happen if she continued her investigations. Her paper took this seriously and put her in a hotel for a few days. Other things happened to disturb me. One of my contacts died suddenly, days after giving me a lift to the trial of the former chief executive of Astra [Chris Gumbley] who was being charged with corruption. The person in question, Lionel Jones, complained on the way down to the trial about a boil on his neck..."
*) 1995, Gerald James's 'In the Public Interest', pp. 286-287: "What is for sure is that when Lionel Jones came over to our side, he laid himself open to risk. Lionel gave the journalist David Hellier, a lift down to Gumbley's trial, which was in March 1991, and a real manipulated farce. Lionel complained to Hellier that he had a boil on his neck and was felling run down. He went home afterwards and I spoke to him that evening, apologising for not being there the day he attended. He sounded terrible on the phone, his speech slurred. He said he didn't feel very well. I asked him what was wrong, and he said he didn't really know. The next day I rang, and he was in a coma. He never came out of it... I told |John Reed of Defence Industry Digest what I suspected because Lionel had been one of his best sources of information on the propellant story. No one apart from his family seemed to do anything about him. He seemed to go down so quickly, and no one did anything about him. He seemed to go down so quickly, and no one did anything. Then, after all that, he was cremated so there was no possibility of an autopsy. Reed expressed no surprise; Lionel's demise fitted a clear pattern in what was happening - the arrests, the threats, the comments on Gumbley's arrest by the Prime Minister's office, the murders of Moyle and Bull, the extraordinary activities of the MoD police, and the assassination shortly afterwards of Andre Cools, the man investigating the circumstances surrounding the role of PRB. Lionel's funeral was in April 1991, just a week or so after Gumbley was sentenced to nine months in prison. I didn't like many of the people from RO [Royal Ordnance], but Lionel was a human being, a very decent man. It worries me still, and always will, that he died because he was trying to help us. I attended his funeral, as did Gordon Foxley. Poor Chris Gumbley was by that time framed up in jail. When I visited him in May 1991 and told him of Lionel's death, the first words he uttered were, 'Was he murdered?'"
[158] *) 1995, Gerald James's 'In the Public Interest', p. 262, 264: "We were due to have a board meeting in Brussels around the middle of the month and Gumbley suggested we - Kock, myself, Gumbley and Miller - have a private dinner in a suite at the Berkely Hotel to try to get everything into perspective... [Over dinner James's said] 'The trouble with you, Stephan, is that however hard you try you'll never really belong to the club.' 'What's that?' he snapped back at me. 'It's Englishmen only,'I said. 'No one belongs where you come from.' That seemed to do it. Kock was looking through me now and appeared to be having trouble breathing. 'I'll have you put down,' he hissed. 'I will have you put down, eliminated, I'll have you killed!'"
*) 1995, Gerald James's 'In the Public Interest', p. 154: "In an unguarded moment Richard Unwin told me that Kock, in his more active days, had been head of Group 13. The Foreign Office is said to draw Group 13 operatives from the SAS as well as from private security firms. Its duties involve 'service to the nation' of kind given only to the most ruthlessly experienced SAS officers. Kock certainly still moved in such circles when he was working for Astra, and was close to former SAS personnel and men active in the private security business, including Major Peter Hamilton, a former Military Intelligence man who has admitted having 'spent much of his life in the Security and Intelligence world', and was linked to the 'highest echelons of British Intelligence'. Hamilton's firm, Zeus Security Consultant [also counted the involvement of Lord Chalfont], provided services to the government, as did Defence Systems Ltd., the firm of another of Kock's friends, SAS Major Alastair Morrison MC."
[159] Discussed in detail in: 1993, Gary Murray, 'Enemies of the State'
[160] 1966, Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', pp. 324, 581, 950-951
[161] 1940, H. G. Wells, 'The New World Order' (full text)
[162] R. A. Wilford in the Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 11, No. 1, (Jan., 1976), 'The Federation of Progressive Societies and Individuals', pp. 49-82 (accessed through jstor.org: "It was in the face of this defeat and the factionalism which it had engendered within the Labour movement, that the FPSI was formed. The Federation did not attempt to capitalize on this depletion by presenting itself as a direct alternative to the Labour Party nor did it offer itself as the mouthpiece of the Party. In its first number of Plan (April 1934) the Federation proclaimed its non-partisanship, claiming instead to represent 'progressive thought'. To assert these claims, it published a formidable list of 'vice-presidents' who held highly individualistic social and political views, even if they were, broadly speaking, left-of-centre. The list included Aldous and Julian Huxley, Cyril Burt, David Low, Miles Malleson, Barbara Wootton, A. S. Neill, Kingsley Martin, Rebecca West, Bertrand Russell, Harold Nicholson, Leonard Woolf and H. G. Wells... Besides this overt expression of the spread of fascism, the Federation claimed to detect a thread of 'fascisation' in the activities of the Tory dominated Government - notably the Incitement to Disaffection Bill of 1934, and the Public Order Bill of 1936 - both measures being eventually enacted in the face of the Federation's opposition... The Socialist League, in some respects the Federation's closest parallel, was similarly preoccupied. The League was led by the archexponent of the 'Bankers' Ramp' conspiracy 'theory', Stafford Cripps. On this view, widely circulated during the early 1930s in the aftermath of the 1931 election, many disillusioned left-wingers claimed the defeat of the 1929-31 Labour Government occurred as a result of a series of economic crises engineered by financial interests... Like Joad, Paul indicated that intellectuals had a vested interest in combatting fascism, which he too asserted was beginning to permeate British society. As instances of this 'fascisation process', Paul cited the press attacks on Cripps, the 'pro-Blackshirt' (i.e. British Union of Fascists) line of the Rothermere Press, and the campaign against 'the only democratic trading institution in the country', the Co-operative Movement."
[163] January 6, 2006, issue of Executive Intelligence Review, 'What's a 'Rohatyn'?': "Meanwhile, in 1933, H.G. Wells and Aldous and Julian Huxley had already created a brother British Synarchist organization in London, called the Federation of Progressive Society and Individuals (FPSI). In their published Manifesto, they wrote: ... [quote] ... [source:] Manifesto (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1934)."
Note: PEHI doubts that Wells or the FPSI had anything to do with Synarchism.
[164] Monnet's background has been discussed extensively in PEHI's Cercle article. Monnet was a founding member of Le Cercle.
[165] 1970, Zbigniew Brzezinski, 'Between Two Ages - America's Role in the Technetronic Era', p. 29
[166] Largely described in the following book: 2007, Peter Dale Scott, 'The Road to 9/11'.
[167] *) Ibid.
*) 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pp. 365-366: "My relationship with the Shah had never been that close... but I told Newsom [under secretary of state for political affairs] I found it incomprehensible that the President [Carter] would ignore American tradition by denying political asylum to a man who had been a great friend of our country. I refused to become complicit in the decision... I had dinner with Henry Kissinger and Happy Rockefeller, Nelson's widow, at her home in Pocantico. Henry and I discussed our telephone calls from David Newsom and the Shah's plight. Happy told me of Nelson's close friendship with the Shah and about the weekend they had spent with him and Farah Diba, the Shah's wife, in Tehran in 1977. Happy reminded me that when the Shah realized he would have to leave Iran, Nelson offered to find a suitable property for him in the United States. We also talked about the precedent that President Carter had established by refusing to admit the Shah into the United States. Both of us believed our allies, particularly those in the Middle East such as Sadat and King Hussein, who had taken great risks on our behalf, were likely to entertain second thoughts about the dependability of the United States in light of this action... Jack McCloy... soon joined our effort [to convince Carter to allow the Shah access to the US]."
[168] 1970, Zbigniew Brzezinski, 'Between Two Ages - America's Role in the Technetronic Era', p. 97
[169] 1997, Zbigniew Brzezinski, 'The Grand Chessboard', p. 35.
[170] *) 1975, Trilateral Commission, Michel Crozier, Samuel P. Huntington and Joji Watanuki, 'THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRACY Task Force Report #8'
http://www.trilateral.org/projwork/tfrsums/tfr08.htm. Sections Huntington wrote: III. THE UNITED STATES by Samuel P. Huntington A. The Viability and Governability of American Democracy B. The Expansion of Governmental Activity C. The Decline in Governmental Authority - The Democratic Challenge to Authority - Decline in Public Confidence and Trust - The Decay of the Party System - The Shifting Balance Between Government and Opposition D. The Democratic Distemper: Consequences E. The Democratic Distemper: Causes F. Conclusion: Toward a Democratic Balance
*) 2007, Peter Dale Scott, 'The road to 9/11', p. 69. Gives the quote. In his notes Scott lists the relevant pages of the Crises of Democracy' document as 105 and 115.
[171] Brzenzinski's tendency towards globalization is obvious from his role in the Trilateral Commission.
March 1, 2004, Samuel P. Huntington for the National Interest, 'Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite': "Comprising fewer than 4 percent of the American people, these transnationalists have little need for national loyalty, view national boundaries as obstacles that thankfully are vanishing, and see national governments as residues from the past whose only useful function is to facilitate the elite's global operations"
[172] 1991 version, (1979 original) Deborah Davis, 'Katherine the Great', p. 177: "Without asking Katherine [owner of the Washington Post], [President] Kennedy appointed John Hayes, still the [Washington] Post Company's vice president for radio and television, to a secret CIA task force to explore methods of beaming American propaganda broadcasts to Communist China. The other members of the team were Richard Salant, president of CBS News; Zbigniew Brzezinski, a professor at Columbia University who had been on the agency [CIA] payroll for several years; Cord Meyer of the CIA [and Operation MOCKINGBIRD]; McGeorge Bundy, special assistant to the president for national security; Leonard Marks, director of the USIA; Bill Moyers, who went on to become a distinguished and highly independent journalist for CBS and then for PBS; and Paul Henze, the CIA chief of station in Ethiopia who had established secret communications capabilities there and who later worked on African problems for Brzezinski in the Carter White House."
[173] 1990, Ron Chernow, 'The House of Morgan', p. 281: "As the big $100 million loan hung in the balance, Lamont made his most startling shift with Mussolini, one that went far beyond basic banking requirements. This former champion of the League of Nations began to coach the Italian dictator on how to appeal to Anglo-American opinion. He fed him sugared phrases, language that would make reprehensible policies palatable abroad. A modern man, Lamont knew that any product, if attractively packaged, could be marketed to the public. After Mussolini suspended town councils and bullied Parliament into passing 2,364 decrees at once, Lamont sent fresh publicity angles to Fummi for il Duce's consideration... "


[1] 1934, Matthew Josephson, 'The Robber Barons - The classic account of the influential capitalists who transformed America's future''
[2] 1935, Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler, 'War is a Racket'
[3] 1939, George Seldes, 'The Catholic Crisis'
[4] 1942, Harry E. Brittain, 'Pilgrim Partners - Forty Years of British-American Fellowship' (100 copies)
[5] 1942, John Hargrave, 'Montagu Norman'
[6] 1943, George Seldes, 'Facts and Fascism'
[7] 1946, E. G. Knuth, 'The Empire of the City'
[8] 1947, William L. Langer, 'Our Vichy gamble'
[9] 1948, Sir Basil Liddell Hart, 'The German Generals Talk'
[10] 1959, Cornelius "Neil" Vanderbilt, Jr., 'Man of the World'
[11] 1966, Professor Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time'
[12] 1973, Jules Archer, 'The plot to seize the White House - The shocking true story of the conspiracy to overthrow FDR'
[13] 1978, Executive Intelligence Review, 'Dope Inc.'
[14] 1978, Simon Schama, 'Two Rothschilds and the land of Israel'
[15] 1981, Professor Carroll Quigley, 'The Anglo-American Establishment - From Rhodes to Cliveden'
[16] 1983, Charles Higham, 'Trading with the enemy - The Nazi-American money plot 1933-1949'
[17] 1990, Ron Chernow, 'The House of Morgan'
[18] 1990, Andrew Hurley, 'One Nation Under Israel'
[19] 1991 version, (1979 original) Deborah Davis, 'Katherine the Great'
[20] 1992, Andrew and Leslie Cockburn, 'Dangerous Liaison - The Inside Story of the U.S.-Israeli Covert Relationship'
[21] 1992, Burton Hersh, 'The Old Boys - The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA'
[22] 1993, Gary Murray, 'Enemies of the State'
[23] 1994, Peter Grosse, 'Gentleman Spy - The Life of Allen Dulles'
[24] 1995, Gerald James, 'In the Public Interest'
[25] 1997 (1988 original Hebrew), Haggi Eshed, 'Reuven Shiloah - The Man Behind the Mossad'
[26] 1999, Niall Ferguson, 'The House of Rothschild - The World's Banker 1849-1999'
[27] 2000, Ian Kershaw, 'Hitler 1936-1945, Nemesis'
[28] 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs'
[29] 2002, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of Great Britain - A Centennial History'
[30] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of the United States - A Centennial History'
[31] 2003, James T. Baker, 'Andrew Carnegie, Robber Baron as American Hero'
[32] 2007, Peter Dale Scott, 'The Road to 9/11'
[33] Who's Who and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
[34] The Times, Time Magazine, New York Times, Washington Post and numerous other newspapers and magazines.

Material for download

[1] 1903, Pilgrims of the United States membership list from: 2002, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of Great Britain' [photocopy]
[2] 1907, Pilgrims of the United States officers list [photocopy]
[3] 2003, Anne Pimlott Baker, 'The Pilgrims of the United States - A centennial history', p. 102, showing a Pilgrims document with executive members on it dated November 11, 1919, in which the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII and Duke of Windsor) is thanked for accepting an invitation. [photocopy]
[4] 1942, Pilgrims of Great Britain officers list [(bad) photocopy]
[5] The Pilgrims, 'Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of Members', 1973, 1976, 1978-1986, and 1988-1995 (Located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Historical Society Library Pamphlet Collection). These proceedings contain a list of officers and a necrology of members who died since the last gathering. Only the officers lists are shared here; not the necrologies or the transcripts of the proceedings.

U.S. lists:
[1973] [1976] [1978] [1979] [1980] [1981] [1982] [1983] [1984] [1985] [1986] [1988] [1989] [1990] [1991] [1992] [1993] [1994] [1995]

U.K. lists:
[1973] [1976] [1978] [1979] [1980] [1981] [1982] [1983] [1984] [1985] [1986] [1988] [1989] [1990] [1991] [1992] [1993] [1995]
[6] The Pilgrims of Great Britain, membership list (complete list; circa 1969; photocopy supplied to PEHI by Charles Savoie in June 2008) [download]
[7] 1980, The Pilgrims of the United States and Great Britain, 'List of Members and Rules' (complete list; photocopy supplied to PEHI by Brian Porter in February 2008) [download] (too large; not yet available)
[8] File with about 250 news articles from Great Britain and the United States in which names of Pilgrims Society members are mentioned. [download] (too large; not yet available)

Author: Joël van der Reijden
July 17, 2008



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