The Pilgrims Society
Pilgrims of Great Britain dinner, January 9, 1951. Logo and flags in background.
|"There are several curious things about these Pilgrims functions. In the first place there is present at these dinners an array of notables such as it would be difficult to bring together under one roof for any other purpose and by any other society... Among the guests were John D. Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan, Thomas W. Lamont and other members of the House of Morgan... We are entitled to know what the Pilgrim Society is, what it stands for, and who these powerful Pilgrims are that can call out the great to hear a British Ambassador expound to Americans the virtues of a united democratic front." |
- John T. Whiteford asking very reasonable questions in his 1940 pamphlet 'Sir Uncle Sam: Knight of the British Empire'.
"[The aim of the international bankers was] nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole. This system was
|to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences." |
- Professor Carroll Quigley, 'Tragedy & Hope', p. 324. Can the Pilgrims, which Quigley never mentioned, verify his story of an Anglo-American Establishment?
Sources for membership identification only appear in the membership list.
Most people have at least vaguely heard of the "Eastern Establishment". This is a reference to a group of people in the Northeast of the United States which to many appears to wield a disproportionate amount of influence over the nation's politics. This influence, which goes back even further than the days of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. and J. P. Morgan, Sr. has been illustrated by the fact that a great number of individuals working in the senior positions of government have come from a number of New York-based banks, insurance companies and law firms, only to return to this group of banks and businesses after their public term came to an end. Often these individuals served in more than one administration, and together with a number of other peculiarities - think of controversial policies, suspected cover ups, ignored conflicts of interest, lack of media attention, etc. - some people have become suspicious of what at times appears to be almost like a permanent government. A 1962 newspaper column voiced these suspicions best:
"There is an establishment in the United States. The word "establishment" is a general term for the power elite in international finance, business, the professions largely from the Northeast, who wield most of the power regardless of who is in the White House.
"Most people are unaware of the existence of this "legitimate Mafia." Yet the power of the establishment makes itself felt from the professor who seeks a foundation grant, to the candidate for a cabinet post or State Department job. It affects the nation's policies in almost every area.
"For example, the Council on Foreign Relations in New York City, subsidized by Rockefeller interests since 1927 boasts a membership of at least 90 per cent establishment figures." 
The WASP elite
The origins of the Eastern Establishment is hardly part of accepted, official history. Authors writing about this topic have regularly been criticized; sometimes for seeing things that aren't there; sometimes for leaving out important aspects and missing the big picture. Some of the reasons that these discussions exist are quite obvious though:
1) there are large political and business interests involved here which like the way their system of private, behind-the-scenes conferences has evolved;
2) there's a small group of "insiders" and huge group of "outsiders", and because of their different lives they often are unable to understand, or refuse to understand, the other side.
What sets an elite apart from the regular population is influence: influence in domestic politics and economy, and influence in foreign politics and the world economy. This influence in many cases is hereditary, because within establishment circles it's as much about who you know as it is about what you know. In the modern age education is crucial, and in case of the Eastern Establishment of the United States, most members send their children to Yale, Harvard, or Princeton to get a law degree or a MBA. Members of the British establishment usually go to Oxford, with Cambridge coming in second. As soon as these young students graduate they are free to join the family bank or some other establishment business. Outsiders can join "the club" by going to the right schools and befriending other members of the establishment.
|The Eastern Establishment is a so-called "WASP" establishment - meaning "White Anglo-Saxon Protestant". The term specifically refers to Americans of British descent, even though there's a similar WASP establishment in Great Britain surrounding the royal family, which is closely associated with its American counterpart. |
The term WASP when applied to America's elite is somewhat inadequate. Usually its Anglo-Saxon descent and Protestant values are emphasized, followed by a general description of the historic influence of this group. Whenever the question comes up if this establishment still has great influence today few, if any, scholars come up with clear and definitive answers. Much further than throwing around terms like "Ivy League" and "old boys networks" they usually won't go.
Now, anno 2008, let's change this and write down a detailed list of characteristics which fully describes the traditional Eastern Establishment (or WASP elite).
The London Bush house, built in 1919 with funds provided by U.S. Pilgrim Irving T. Bush. Inscribed above the door is the text, "To the friendship of English Speaking Peoples". The two men represent the United States and Great Britain, holding a torch to symbolize their everlasting friendship.
- It is a social elite centered around a number of universities, a group of banks, insurance companies and law firms, and a group of influential, privately-funded foundations and think tanks.
- It is centered in and around New York, even though at any moment a large portion of this group is active within the government and non-government institutions in Washington.
- There is a close relationship with the British aristocracy and the British royal family via diplomatic officials, individual contacts, and private clubs.
- The dominant religion is Protestant, in particular the Episcopal (Anglican) and Presbyterian churches.
- British branches of Freemasonry and Templar orders are popular.
- This is the group behind the globalization process and members are generally great supporters of the United Nations and the sustainable development movement.
- Catholic and especially Zionist interests are not very much appreciated.
You probably heard of some of these points before and you may or may not agree with them. So how can we prove to you that this list is true? To do that we need to begin our discussion on the Pilgrims Society.
Official Pilgrims logo. "Hic et Ubique" means "here and everywhere", apparently a reference to the idea that the United States and Great Britain should stand together side by side everywhere. The eagle represents the United States; the lion Great Britain.
|At the turn of 20th century a number of influential persons were interested in bringing the establishments of the United States and Great Britain closer together. The St. George's |
Society in New York, the American Society in London, and the growing network of Anglo-American League branches in England (founded by a good number of later Pilgrims Society members), were seen as inadequate, so the idea arose to form a new, elitist society with branches in both London and New York. This became the Pilgrims Society, which organized regular meetings in such prestigious hotels as the Victoria, the Waldorf Astoria, the Carlton Ritz, and the Savoy.
At the July 11 meeting the attendants also discussed their plans of setting up a branch in New York. Lindsay Russell and Chauncey Depew went back to the United States and approached such men as Bishop of New York Henry Codman Potter, J. P. Morgan, Sr., and former U.S. President Grover Cleveland (a good friend of the Morgan family and employed by them since at least the 1880s). Under the leadership of Bishop Potter, the Pilgrims of the United States organized their first formal diner on February 4, 1903. The two societies have been organizing meetings ever since .
The Pilgrims network
Over the years more and more influential persons joined the Pilgrims Society, including virtually all the well known bankers, robber barons and their associates. Going through membership lists of the Pilgrims of the United States you'll find the following families:
|Aldrich||(Copeland) Du Pont||Meyer||Vanderbilt|
Within the ranks of the British Pilgrims one comes across a great many Barons, Viscounts, Earls, Marquisses, and Dukes. Member of the British royal family have been patrons of the Pilgrims Society since its inception and regularly attend meetings. Here also well known banking families as Baring, Hambro, Harcourt, Keswick, Rothschild, Kleinwort, Loeb, and Warburg can be found, just as the heads of Barclays and the British managers of U.S. banks as Chase Manhattan and J. P. Morgan.
At the moment of this writing the membership list compiled by PEHI contains 1496 names, the vast majority of them from the United States (rough estimate: about 82% or 1227). Analyzing the biographies of these members doesn't just show that the Pilgrims are part of the WASP elite - they are the WASP elite. The following banks, law firms, and insurance companies have been headed by Pilgrims Society members - usually for generations:
|American Securities Corp.||Federal Reserve||Kidder, Peabody and Co.||Morgan Joseph & Co. Inc.|
|Banker's Trust||Fidelity International Trust||Kleinwort Benson||New York Savings Bank|
|Bank of England||Fifth Avenue Bank||Kuhn, Loeb & Co.||N.M. Rothschild & Sons|
|Barclays Bank||First Boston Corporation||Lazard||Oppenheimer & Co.|
|Barings Bank||First National Bank||Lehman Brothers||Paine, Webber|
|Blackstone Group US/UK||Fourth Nat. Bank of N.Y.||Loeb, Rhoades & Co.||Rockefeller Center, Inc.|
|Bowery Savings Bank||Goldman Sachs||Manufacturers Hanover||Rockefeller Family & Ass.|
|Brown Brothers Harriman||Gotham National Bank||Marine Midland||Salomon Brothers|
|Bullock Fund||Hambro||Mellon Bank||S.G. Warburg|
|Chase National Bank||Harriman National Bank||J. P. Morgan & Co.||Shearson Loeb Rhoades|
|Chase Manhattan US/UK||International Banking Corp.||J. P. Morgan Chase||U.S. Trust Corp. of N.Y.|
|Chemical Bank||Irving Trust||Morgan Grenfell (UK)||*|
|Citibank||J. G. White & Co.||Morgan Guaranty Trust||*|
|Drexel & Co.||J. Henry Schroder & Co.||Morgan Stanley||*|
Law firms and insurance companies
|Chrysler||Forbes *||ICI||R.J. Reynolds|
|Corning Glass Works||General Electric||Int. Nickel Co. of Canada||Rio Tinto|
|De Beers (Anglo-Am Corp)||General Motors||Jardine Matheson||U.S. Steel|
|Dodge||IBM||Phelps-Dodge||W.R. Grace & Co.|
Looking at these tables, it is clear that the major banks of New York and London have been very prominent in the Pilgrims Society, closely followed by a group of influential law firms and insurance companies. A number of corporations have also had a considerable presence in the Pilgrims, comparable to some of the law firms and smaller banks. The most prominent of these might well be IBM, of the Watson family - but the founders and owners of Chrysler, Dodge, Jardine Matheson, W.R. Grace & Co., Reynolds, Corning Glass, and Forbes have all been Pilgrims. A vast range of other corporations have been represented by Pilgrims, but do not appear to have been part of the core of the Anglo-American establishment.
Media (and Operation Mockingbird)
Except for Forbes, we deliberately left out large media companies in this last section, as their presence in the Pilgrims Society and influence on society deserves to be discussed separately.
The New York Times and Time Magazine have been the news publications the most intimately tied to to the Pilgrims of the United States over the years. Since 1896 the New York Times has been owned by the Ochs-Sulzberger family, members of which have been generational members of the Pilgrims since the very beginning. Orvil E. Dryfoos, who married a daughter of Arthur Sulzberger and rose to president of the New York Times in 1957 and publisher in 1961, was another member of the Pilgrims. A number of outside Pilgrims held senior positions in the New York Times too over the years. Among them were John William Harding, George McAneny, Philip Du Val, Cyrus Vance and Charles H. Price II.
|Time Magazine was set up by Henry Luce in 1923. Although he himself appears not to have been a Pilgrim, most of his associates were, including some of those who financed the founding of his magazine: J. P. Morgan partners Thomas W. Lamont and Dwight Morrow, together with the Harriman and Harkness families. Among the Pilgrims that have held senior positions in Time Magazine are Paul Gray Hoffman (OSS-CIA), Philip G. Howlett, William J. Cross, Hedley Donovan, Donald M. Elliman, Jr., George A. Heard, Roy E. Larsen, Samuel W. Meek and Frank Pace, Jr. Henry Luce III became president of the U.S. Pilgrims in 1997. |
Another important Pilgrims-affiliated publication used to be the New York Herald Tribune, owned by the Reid family and dissolved in 1966. Whitelaw Reid, Whitelaw Reid II, Ogden Mills Reid, Ogden Rogers Reid and several other family members have all been members of the Pilgrims Society. In 1958, John Hay Whitney, a vice president of the U.S. Pilgrims, took over the newspaper from the Reids.
Although not very prominent within the Pilgrims Society, some of Reader's Digest most senior and long term managers have been Pilgrims, spanning the period from the 1940s to the 1980s. Among them were William John Cross, C. Robert Devine, Walter Wood Hitesman and Kent Rhodes.
Pilgrims-dominated U.S. publications. Some outside media are still very much in line with the Anglo-American Establishment. In case of CNN it seems that billionaire country boy Ted Turner, with his one billion dollar grant to United Nations causes, really wants to be part of an establishment for which he doesn't have the background.
News stations are considerably less prominent in the Pilgrims Society. One of the exceptions has been the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), located in Rockefeller Center and one of he most dominant broadcasting companies from the 1930s to the early 1970s. Morgan banker Owen D. Young founded the RCA in 1919. Young was chairman of General Electric, which took a controlling interest in the RCA. For the next fifty years, until 1970, the company was headed by James G. Harbord, Frank M. Folsom, and David Sarnoff. All these men, including Young, were members of the Pilgrims Society. In 1970, Sarnoff's son, Robert, took over the chairmanship of the RCA, but couldn't prevent the company from going into a permanent decline. Robert was ousted in 1975 and in the years after the RCA was taken over by other media conglomerates not particularly tied to the Pilgrims.
The RCA, in cooperation with General Electric and Westinghouse, had formed the NBC in 1926, which became its main broadcasting corporation. By the late 1930s, NBC had become so dominant on the airwaves that the FCC forced it into two companies, one becoming the significantly less influential ABC. At this moment it appears that the succeeding heads of both NBC and ABC weren't invited to the Pilgrims. Of course, the Pilgrims of the RCA did continue to exert their influence over NBC for many years. One person not mentioned before is John Brademas, one of the directors of the RCA/NBC. Brademas is a perfect example of a WASP elitist. A member of both the American and British Pilgrims, he was a Rhodes Scholar, a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation, on the advisory board of the David Rockefeller Fellowships, a director of the Aspen Institute, a governor of the American Ditchley Foundation, a member of the CFR and a member of the Trilateral Commission. Brademas also served on a number of Carnegie commissions.
The other exception of a broadcasting company that has been represented in the Pilgrims Society is CBS. Over the years several Pilgrims have been directors of this New York-based company, among them Henry Kissinger and Marietta Peabody Tree (vice chair Pilgrims; great-granddaughter of George E. Peabody, the famous Morgan partner). William S. Paley, the founder and continuous owner of CBS until his death in 1990, was a member of the Pilgrims Society. So was "the most trusted man in America", Walter Cronkite, the well known anchorman for the CBS Evening News from 1962 to 1982.
Walter Cronkite, "the most trusted man in America" - a Pilgrim, together with his main employer, William Paley.
|In the 1970s, after a number of scandals in which the CIA was implicated, several reports emerged about a working relationship between the CIA and a number of major media outlets. One of them was the 1979 book 'Katherine the Great' by investigative author |
Deborah Davis, who had been interviewing people in Washington for three years. She described the Washington Post's relationship with the CIA and how Watergate might not have been an accidental discovery. It even gave a name to the CIA's effort to establish contacts with the major media: Operation Mockingbird. Unfortunately virtually no one was able to read the book at the time, as it was immediately forced off the market, only to be republished in 1991. About Paley and Cronkite at CBS, Davis wrote:
Like Paley and Cronkite, Allen Dulles, head of the CIA from 1953 to 1961, could be found at Pilgrims gatherings in New York. The Alibi Club, on the other hand, was part of the "Georgetown Set" in Washington, D.C., an elite, liberal social group with strong anti-communist feelings and close connections to the New York WASP establishment. Members of the Georgetown Set included many senior CIA officers: Frank Wisner, Allen Dulles, James Angleton, Cord Meyer, Richard Bissell, and others. A few newspaper men like Washington Post owner Philip Graham and journalist Joseph Alsop -- and apparently Walter Cronkite -- were also part of this group. 
Davis and investigative reporters like Carl Bernstein have mentioned the names of important newspaper men who cooperated with the CIA. The CIA rated newspaper men among the best spies; they could go almost anywhere and ask questions without raising suspicions. At the same time newspaper men could be used to disseminate anti-communist propaganda, something which the major media outlets were only too happy to support the CIA with. As Newsweek's foreign editor stated: "The informal relationship was there. Why have anybody sign anything? What we knew we told them [the CIA] and the State Department.... When I went to Washington, I would talk to Foster or Allen Dulles about what was going on. ... We thought it was admirable at the time. We were all on the same side."  All this makes a lot of sense, of course. The only problem here is that if all these media people are so cozy with their CIA and State Department friends, who is going to keep these people in line? Apparently no one, hence the long list of conspiracies in American and world history which the major media outlets prefer not to investigate. Bernstein wrote:
"Among the executives who lent their cooperation to the Agency were William Paley of the Columbia Broadcasting System, Henry Luce of Time Inc., Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times, Barry Bingham Sr. of the Louisville Courier‑Journal, and James Copley of the Copley News Service. Other organizations which cooperated with the CIA include the American Broadcasting Company [ABC], the National Broadcasting Company [NBC], the Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps‑Howard, Newsweek magazine, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the Miami Herald and the old Saturday Evening Post and New York Herald‑Tribune... By far the most valuable of these associations, according to CIA officials, have been with the New York Times, CBS and Time Inc... When Newsweek was purchased by the Washington Post Company, publisher Philip L. Graham was informed by Agency officials that the CIA occasionally used the magazine for cover purposes, according to CIA sources." 
It's interesting to note that many of these media owners have appeared in the membership lists of the Pilgrims Society. In addition to the earlier-mentioned owners of the New York Times, Time Magazine, the New York Herald Tribune, RCA/NBC, and CBS who were involved with this prestigious Anglo-American society, Barry Bingham, Sr. of the Louisville CourierJournal, Jack R. Howard of Scripps-Howard, and the Muir family of Newsweek were also Pilgrims.
This last publication, Newsweek, from 1937 to 1961 was dominated by Pilgrims Society members. Besides the Muir influence, Newsweek was owned by the Astor Foundation, named after a family with whole generations of members in both the British as the American Pilgrims. Among the directors of the Astor Foundation also was Gates W. McGarrah , a first rate example of Pilgrims influence. McGarrah had been chairman of the Rockefellers' Chase National Bank, a U.S. member of the General Council of the German Reichsbank, chairman of the New York Federal Reserve, and the first president of the Bank for International Settlements. He also was a grandfather of CIA director Richard Helms.
In 1961, Newsweek was taken over by the Washington Post, the establishment newspaper from Washington, D.C. It seems the only reason no Washington Post men can be found among the U.S. Pilgrims is because the society is focused primarily on New York high society. There had been plans in the early years to open other Pilgrims clubs in cities as Washington and Paris, but these ideas never manifested . Interestingly, once considered one of the most "reliable" Mockingbird newspapers, in 1992 the Washington Post revealed to its readers the contents of an internal CIA memorandum, written the year before. In part it read:
"A. Media. 1) Current program: a) PAO [CIA's Public Affairs Office] now has relationships with reporters from every major wire service, newspaper, news weekly, and television network in the nation. This has helped us turn some intelligence failure stories into intelligence success stories, and it has contributed to the accuracy of countless others. In many instances, we have persuaded reporters to postpone, change, hold, or even scrap stories that could have adversely affected national security interests or jeopardized sources and methods." 
In his 1977 Rolling Stone article, Bernstein mentioned one British-based news agency (with an important New York department) that has been significantly influenced by Pilgrims: Reuters. Among the Pilgrims who have held senior positions in Reuters are Sir Christopher Chancellor, general manager from 1944 to 1959; Lord William Barnetson, chairman from 1968 to 1979; Sir Denis Hamilton, chairman from 1979 to 1985; and directors Lord Thomson of Fleet and Sir David Walker. Information on British Pilgrims is still quite scarce compared to its American counterpart, so this list of senior executives will undoubtedly grow as more historical members become known.
|Among the British news outlets that have been influenced by Pilgrims are the The Observer, The Financial Times, The Economist, and especially The Times and the Commonwealth Press Union. The press baron Lord Beaverbrook, who owned the widely circulated Daily Express, is known to have visited the Pilgrims at least once in 1941, but is not very likely to have been a member of the Pilgrims as he was not particularly interested in an Anglo-American partnership. Pilgrims have also headed the world famous Encyclopedia Britannica. Examples are Senator William Benton, Philip M. Kaiser and Elmo Roper. |
Britain appears to have had some sort of Mockingbird program similar to the United States. In 1994 Private Eye magazine reported how in 1976 John Snow, a well known newscaster, had been approached by a representative of British intelligence. Snow was asked if he would provide the security services with information on the political activities of his colleagues. His salary of 3,600 pound sterling would be matched and there wouldn't be any problems with Inland Revenue. Snow refused, but Private Eye suspected that most large newspapers and media stations employed persons who had been more susceptible to this kind of approach. The magazine also wondered aloud if a recent story about the Guardian's owner, Richard Gott, falsely tying him to the KGB, had been written by journalists on the payroll of British Intelligence. At the time Gott's newspaper was digging into the affairs of Jonathan Aitken, a person with numerous ties to hard right national and international intelligence people. 
British media influenced by Pilgrims.
Additionally, in 1995 a person named Gerald James published his rather controversial book 'In the Public Interest'. James had been a banker at Barings Brothers (a Pilgrims bank) and a member of the aristocratic Monday Club. He knew many people in intelligence, including the former deputy head of MI6, George Kennedy Young (who became a banker at Kleinwort). James was also chairman of the arms company Astra Holdings. In his biography/expose James wrote how a cabal of City bankers and intelligence men were running the major illegal arms deals, had infiltrated and corrupted smaller companies, and collapsed a number of them after fearing exposure in the wake of the Iraqgate scandal. James's Astra Holdings had been among these "front companies" which had been collapsed, prompting James to write a book in an effort to clear his name. This turned out to be not entirely without risk: journalists he talked to were intimidated and several important witnesses died under suspicious circumstances. Relevant here is page 138 of his book, in which James describes his experiences with the British media:
"I have been involved with a number of journalists in researching this story [arms-to-Iraq affair]. At any one time there might be as many as half a dozen following up this or that line of inquiry and we keep constantly in touch by telephone. It is to our mutual benefit, except that the relationship, which has now been going on for for nearly five years, has frequently been marked by sudden changes of policy by newspaper editors or the unexplained removal of a journalist from the case or even from the paper (sometimes to a more exalted position on another where the arms-to-Iraq inquiry is not part of the brief.)... It never really surprised me until I was amazed to receive, from one of my other sources, a list of journalists with affiliations to MI5, on which were posted some of my own contacts in the press, indeed some who had at the beginning made something of a name for themselves on the back of the arms-to-Iraq affair." 
British Pilgrims can hardly be tied to this British "Mockingbird" program, probably because there's too little information available on the collusion between British intelligence and the press. The exception might be some of the more reactionary aristocrats in the British Pilgrims, like Sir Frederick Bennett, Lord Chalfont, Lord William Rees-Mogg and their ally in the United States, John Train, though a discussion of these people will have to wait a few paragraphs.
Education is the key to success, and this is no different for Pilgrims. The majority of U.S. Pilgrims have studied at Harvard, Princeton or Yale and majored in either law or economics - if not both. It might not be a surprise then that at any time the boards of these three universities are filled with Pilgrims Society members. There are a few other universities from which Pilgrims have graduated. They include New York University, Columbia University, Dartmouth and a few prestigious European universities. MIT is popular among the small number of scientists that have joined the Pilgrims. Additionally, a good number of Pilgrims have been on the board of the American Academy in Rome, a New York-based school for artists. This is not a mainstay of the average Pilgrims education, however. It is more a reflection of the Pilgrims influence on aspects of New York social life.
In England things are even simpler: the vast majority of future Pilgrims go to Oxford and to a lesser extent, Cambridge - or they come to the United States to study at Harvard, Princeton or Yale.
Cultural, scientific and revolutionary societies
|Next to the Pilgrims influence over the major East Coast universities, the Pilgrims are also involved in a wide range of cultural and educational institutes in New York. They include the Museum of Modern Arts, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Royal Society of Art, the American Museum of Natural History, the New York Zoological Society (renamed Wildlife Conservation Society), the National Institute of Social Sciences, the Smithsonian, the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the New York Public Library, and the Pierpont Morgan Library. |
Many American Pilgrims are members of societies commemorating the revolutionary wars and the founding fathers, and since membership is usually based on achievements of ancestors, genealogical societies are not far behind. The Society of the Cincinnati is extremely popular among Pilgrims; so is the Society of Colonial Wars or the Sons of the American Revolution. The Pilgrims headquarter in New York is actually home to a whole range of societies, even though the sign atthe door only reads "New York Genealogical and Biographical Society", which is generally also headed by a Pilgrim. Following is a list of all the societies at 122 East 58th Street: 
October 26, 2007, Pilgrims headquarters. Entrance behind cars on the right.
|Pilgrims of the United States||Holland Society of New York|
|Daughters of the Cincinnati||New York Genealogical Society|
|Huguenot Society of America||Society of Colonial Wars|
|Military Order of Foreign Wars||New York Genealogical & Biographical Library|
|New England Society in New York||Society of Mayflower Descendants|
|St. Nicholas Society||*|
Ever since the 16th century reformation movement began, the countries of Europe have mainly been divided between Catholicism and different branches of Protestantism. In Great Britain the Protestant branch became known as the Anglican Church. The church came under the patronage of successive Protestant royal families, a tradition which was interrupted now and then, but managed to survive until the present day. Since the British aristocracy to a large extent still is a "cradle to grave dependence on and relationship with the monarchy", as Lord Weidenfeld - a Pilgrim - put it , it shouldn't come as a surprise that members of the British royal family are patrons of the Pilgrims of Great Britain while most of these Pilgrims belong to the Anglican Church.
At the time of the American Revolution and the wars against the British Empire, the Anglican Church in the United States was separated from its British counterpart, forming the Episcopal Church. This change had been necessary, as all the Anglican clergy had to swear allegiance to the British monarch. The Episcopal Church did retain its classical Anglican theology.
|The ranks of the Pilgrims are filled with members of the Episcopal Church, among them the Morgans and Vanderbilts. Neil Vanderbilt once gave a brief description of these two families' weekly Sunday visits to St. Thomas's, the Episcopal church at Fifth Avenue, New York: |
"Father [Cornelius Vanderbilt III, a Pilgrims executive] had business friends whom Mother did not invite to parties at the house--at least, not until she found they were accepted, as sometimes happened, by people she liked in England. Then there were people who liked Mother but not Father. One of these was J. P. Morgan the elder [a Pilgrim]... At St. Thomas's on Sunday, when the Morgan car drove up behind ours--their footmen in dark blue, ours in maroon--Mr. Morgan would call Mother by her first name but hardly speak to Father." 
Although the Episcopal Church of the United States officially is independent from the Anglican Church and the British Royal family, this shouldn't be taken too strictly. There has been a long tradition of inviting the Archbishop of Canterbury, the head of the Church of England, and the Episcopal Bishops of New York, to senior positions in the Pilgrims Society. As discussed before, one of the primary founders of the Pilgrims of the United States was Bishop Henry C. Potter. This was the Bishop of New York from 1887 to 1908 who regularly went to England to preach at Canterbury Cathedral, St. Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, and the Chapel Royal. Having many important friends at both sides of the Atlantic, in 1895 Bishop Potter officiated at the wedding of Consuelo Vanderbilt and the 9th Duke of Marlborough. Potter was also president of the Pilgrims of the United States from 1903 to 1907.
Canterbury Cathedral in London and the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine in New York, both staffed by Pilgrims Society members.
Next to the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterians are also well established in the Pilgrims. The Presbyterian Church is descended from the Scottish branch of the reformation.
A few of the Pilgrims have been of French descent which explains the fact that the Huguenot Society sometimes shows up in the biographies of members. The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France.
Catholics have formed a small minority within the Pilgrims. They include a number of Knights of Malta. Examples of the latter are Myron C. Taylor, Joseph Kennedy, Dean Rusk, Elmer Bobst, J. Peter Grace, Alexander Haig, Lord Lothian and Lord Mowbray. Haig is on the executive committee of the Pilgrims since 1983. The Dukes of Norfolk, probably the most distinguished Catholic family in England and representatives to the Vatican for centuries, have also been occasional visitors of the Pilgrims gatherings.
Why would Catholics be allowed in such a strong Protestant milieu as the Pilgrims? One obvious reason would be to avoid accusations of discrimination; another to maintain good relations with the Vatican. However, traditionally the Anglo-American establishment has not been fond of Catholics holding high office. In the following example Neil Vanderbilt describes the reaction of the Anglo-American establishment when FDR appointed Joseph Kennedy as U.S. Ambassador to England, a position traditionally held by a Pilgrim:
"Nevertheless I feel sure that if Roosevelt were alive today he would disagree with Senator Kennedy [JFK, a Catholic] about the desirability of Catholics in high places. True, FDR nominated Al Smith and made Joseph Kennedy, the young Senator's wealthy dad, our ambassador to England. But Smith eventually took a famous walk, and I'm not sure that the Kennedy appointment was made with any degree of enthusiasm; it was partly to please Jimmy Roosevelt, a business associate of Joe Kennedy's. Certainly the English raised a terrific hue and cry over the appointment. And in private FDR did not hesitate to mention Catholic connections as a bar to political trust. Among high churchmen, the only one he trusted was Cardinal Stritch." 
Although both FDR and the Anglo-American establishment were extremely wary of Catholic influence, Joseph Kennedy was treated with respect during his visits to the British Pilgrims while Roosevelt tried to maintain a good relationship with the Vatican by appointing Knight of Malta Myron C. Taylor as his personal representative to the Vatican. The Catholic Taylor, a Pilgrim and J. P. Morgan man, had already established a working relationship with the Holy See. At one point Cardinal Pacelli (Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1958) stayed at Taylor's home, and for dinner Taylor invited some of his most influential friends. These included the Rockefellers, the widow of Andrew Carnegie, the Bakers (Morgan partners) and members of the Ogden Mills family - all Pilgrims by the way . Roosevelt at one point explained to his friend Neil Vanderbilt why he was reaching out to the Vatican. It is likely that the Pilgrims allow a small number of Catholics and Knights of Malta for similar diplomatic reasons:
"Non-Catholic churches here put up a big howl [after FDR appointed Myron C. Taylor as ambassador to the Vatican]. Mr. Roosevelt told me one evening in the Lincoln Study at the White House why he had done this. He told me, first of all, he had wanted to make peace with the Catholic Church in the United States as represented in his cabinet by James Farley, the postmaster general, and with various other high Catholic personages, such as Archbishop Stritch of Chicago and Spellman of New York. But in addition, he said, he had appointed Mr. Taylor because the best intelligence system in the entire world, better even than the British, was the intelligence system of the Catholic Church, as received through its priests and high church personnel throughout the entire world. I remembered my reference to the Vatican dossier back in the twenties, and agreed." 
Templar and Masonic orders
Apart from membership in the regular Protestant churches or membership in honorary Templar orders as the Knights of the Garter, the Knights of the Thistle (Scotland) and the Order of St. John, a good number of Pilgrims have also been Freemasons. More interestingly, a small percentage of Pilgrims have also been involved in rather exotic royalist Templar orders. We aren't talking here about highly irregular lodges as Memphis Misraim or the Synarchist and Martinist Order, but names like the Order of the Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priest or the Order of the Merovingian Dynasty still sound quite mystical. Here is a larger list of the orders different Pilgrims have been involved with:
|Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite||Order DeMolay|
|Descendants of the Knights of the Garter||Order of the Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priest|
|Grand Lodge of the State of New York||Shriners|
|International Society Fraternal Chief Executives||Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia|
|Knights Templar||United Grand Lodge|
|Knights of Pythias||Order of Plantagenet|
|Masonic Brotherhood Foundation||Order of the Merovingian Dynasty|
|"Mason"||Order of the Crown of Charlemagne|
Among the literally hundreds of institutes the British royal family are patrons of, is the United Grand Lodge. The legend is that Freemasonry has descended from the rituals of the Knights Templar, which had a peculiar obsession with Solomon's Temple and were said to be involved in certain occult or ritualistic practices. The Knights Templar were active in France until their persecution by the Papacy in 1307. Some of these Templars allegedly fled to Scotland where they were accepted by fellow crusaders Robert de Bruce and the Sinclair family. Connected or not, some time after these Templars arrived, the Sinclair family began to build Rosslyn Chapel, which is supposed to be a replica of Solomon's Temple; accounts of Rosicrucian (often translated as "Rosy Cross", after the Rosicrucian symbol involving a rose and a cross; translating the Dutch term "Rozekruiser" literally means "Crusader of the Rose") initiations began to surface, and an apparently Rosicrucian-connected Martin Luther set off the reformation against the Vatican .
As for Freemasonry, is it really linked to Templarism and Rosicrucianism? It appears so, but at least to this author the history of these secret societies is too complex, too controversial and too unknown to go into any amount of detail. For this article it is sufficient to note that all the traditional secret societies in the West ultimately have taken their inspiration from the Middle-East, particularly Egypt, and that the men heading these different societies today seem to have a pretty good idea of that. The average Freemasonry lodge makes you feel as if you went back in time to ancient Egypt. As for Templars, the highest level of the York Rite of Freemasonry is a Knights Templar order, which is a layer above the Royal Arch Masons and the Cryptic Masons. The Scottish Rite has a similar system. The following excerpt comes from the text 'Masonry Beyond the Third Degree', written by the Supreme Council, 33° in the United States:
"The Scottish Rite degrees give insight to the expansion of Masonic legends. The Lodge of Perfection, 4°–14°, is concerned with events following the murder of Hiram Abiff [linked to the sacred geometry architects of the Cult of Dionysis]: burying him; capturing and punishing his murderers; finding a new master builder; and discovering treasurers buried under King Solomon’s temple. The 15° and 16° explain the return of Zerubbabel from Babylon to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem. The 17° and 18° center around re-instituting the word under the Law of Love as taught by Jesus and other religious reformers. The 19°–30° culminate with the Degree of Knight Kadosh, a spiritual knighthood similar to the Knight Templar, and develop the Scottish Rite's myth of Masonic succession from crusading knights." 
It appears that these romantic Templar stories have become part of the history and culture of Britain. They are essentially part of the Arthurian legends, like King Arthur, Merlin, the Knights of the Round Table, and even the Holy Grail. Knights, royalty, and ancient "secret" knowledge have always combined well, and this should especially be the case in the British upper classes whose direct ancestors have often been the source for these legends. In other words, British aristocrats involved in royalist, Freemasonic and Templar organizations appear to be doing nothing more than upholding their heritage, even if this heritage to some extent is a romantic fairy tale. The "pagan" Celtic groves, in which even senior members of the Anglican Church have become members, is a similar example . Another example of the influence of Arthurian legends is a club named the Society of Knights of the Round Table which is filled with aristocrats and top military figures. The society regularly meets at the prestigious Army and Navy Club .
Interestingly, besides membership in a number of templar organizations, among the Pilgrims have been the 20th century descendants of the two most legendary templar-related families. These are David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce, who was a vice president of the society, his brother, and William MacDonald Sinclair, a member of the executive committee of the Pilgrims who played a significant role in setting up the American branch of the society. This may well be one more example of the British upper classes' interest in keeping the Arthurian legends alive.
The big interests
We have taken a little bit of a detour here. From banking, business and media we soon ended up discussing revolutionary societies and templar orders. This is all part of who the Pilgrims are, but many of the most important institutes and interests haven't been discussed yet. So let's get back to the core issues: politics and business.
There are a lot of private institutes and a number of big interests which repeatedly come up in the biographies of Pilgrims. The following table lists these institutes and interests, together with how many persons in PEHI's membership list of 149 have been involved with them. Keep in mind that there have been at least 1,500 additional Pilgrims which we either don't know about or haven't written a biography of. Also, there are many other political institutes Pilgrims have been involved with that have been left out for practical reasons. The IISS, the Atlantic Councils, the Foreign Policy Association, the Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs and the Aspen Institute are all examples of this.
|CFR members|| |
|This means that about 18% of the US Pilgrims are CFR members.|
|CFR executives|| |
|About half of total leadership until late 1980s, including all four chairmen and all vice chairmen until at least 1991.All presidents until 1971, except Norman Davis.|
|Rockefeller interests|| |
|Includes executives from Standard Oil, Chase Manhattan, and the foundations, but also family members and close friends of the Rockefellers. Museum of Modern Art trustees not included, even though this museum is almost exclusively loaded with close Rockefeller associates. John D., Jr., Nelson, David, Percy Avery, James Stillman, and William (d. 1990) were all members of the Pilgrims Society.|
|Morgan interests|| |
|Includes executives from all the different Morgan banks, trustees of the Pierpont Morgan Library, and also family and close friends of the Morgans. J. P. Morgan, Sr., J. P. Morgan, Jr., and Henry S. Morgan were all Pilgrims.|
|United Nations posts|| |
|Ambassadors or other representatives to the United Nations, including a number of founders. Also board members of the private UN Association. The League of Nations, the predecessor of the United Nations, was also dominated by Pilgrims.|
|Carnegie network|| |
|Includes anyone associated with the Carnegie Corporation, the Carnegie Foundation and the Carnegie Endowment, and also family and close friends of the late Andrew Carnegie. The Carnegie Corporation gives huge research grants to virtually all the major universities in the United States and southern Africa. Andrew Carnegie was a member of the Pilgrims Society.|
|Mostly governors of either the American or British Ditchley Foundation. Ditchley is an important Anglo-American discussion group.|
|Federal Reserve|| |
|The vast majority of these have been senior officers in the New York branch or the overall Federal Reserve Board.|
|Trilateral Commission|| |
|Didn't specifically look for this, so there are probably more.|
|Didn't specifically look for this so there are probably more. However, many of the most important Pilgrims also tend to be important Bilderberg members. Bilderberg chairmen Lord Carrington and Lord Roll are among the Pilgrims.|
|Atlantic Institute of International Affairs|| |
|Executive level members. There are likely quite a number more among the Pilgrims, as not that many names of the AIIA are known. The AIIA appears to be mainly a think tank for NATO, the OECD and European integration along the lines of Jean Monnet (who was sponsored by a clique of Pilgrims bankers).|
None of these institutes and big interests should really come as a surprise, as they have been talked about for decades; and not only in more recent conspiracy and patriotic circles. The Morgans' all-powerful influence on the U.S. economy in the late 19th and early 20th century was known everywhere. During World War I the bank was accused of war profiteering. In the late 1930s, just before World War II, the Morgans were continually attacked for being in league with the British, because they were part of the campaign to bring the United States into the war on the side of England. Not only the public, but also officials in FDR's administration, including FDR himself, kept a close eye on the Morgan bank, trying to make sure it would not profit from the war as it had done in the first World War.  FDR fully realized that the Morgans, Rockefellers and New York high society in general "often represented important forces or areas of influence". 
The Pilgrims also reckoned the Morgans and Rockefellers as major interests which shouldn't be carelessly tossed aside. Frederick Cunliffe-Owen, chairman of the Pilgrims of the United States in 1920, wrote a letter on February 8, 1924 in which he clearly identified the influence of the Morgans and Rockefellers:
"That bounder Charles Sherrill [who had been forced to resign as chairman of the Pilgrims]. By his tactlessness and indiscretion, he had queered himself with everybody, with the Government at Washington... with the British Embassy... as well as with the French Embassy, with the Morgans, the Standard Oil people and all the big interests including the Chamber of Commerce of New York..." 
The influence of the Morgan family largely ceased to exist with the death of Jack Morgan in 1943. Jack's son, Henry S. Morgan, did remain a partner in the investment branch, Morgan Stanley, until his death in 1982, but by that time the influence of the Morgan Bank had little do anymore with the family.
The Rockefeller influence continued to exist after their huge Standard Oil monopoly was broken up in 1911. It actually made John D. Rockefeller, Sr. the richest man on the planet, leaving the family free to maintain a significant interest in several of the new companies. Exxon (Standard Oil of New Jersey) was the most important of these and was dominated by the Rockefellers until at least the late 1980s.  John D. Rockefeller, Jr. continued to oversee his father's business and philantropic interests, but it was his oldest son, Nelson Rockefeller, who rose to some of the most important posts in the U.S. government. Nelson was the de facto ruler of Latin America during World War II, was influential in setting up the United Nations, briefly oversaw some of the most classified special operations under Eisenhower and was vice president of the United States under Gerald Ford from 1974 to 1977. After Nelson died, his younger brother David became the most visible face of the Rockefeller family. Instead of being active in regular politics, David has been an important player in some of the most important private NGOs the world has seen; from the CFR and Bilderberg to the Trilateral Commission, the Americas Society and the Atlantic Institute; you name it. Nelson's main focus was anti-communism while David has been more concerned with the globalization process.
There are many other aspects of the Rockefeller family that can be discussed, but the main purpose here is to show that these Rockefeller family interests and the Morgan bank have continued to be dominant forces in the Anglo-American Establishment. The table above which listed the Rockefeller and Morgan interests within the Pilgrims Society already said a lot, but just to be sure it might be helpful to focus on the Morgan and Rockefeller ties of the more recent Pilgrims Society leadership.
For this analysis PEHI has used nineteen annual Pilgrims of the United States officers list dating from 1973 to 1995. There are a total of 54 different people on these lists. John C. Whitehead and Thomas L. Pulling have been added to this analysis, as we know the former at the moment is a Pilgrims vice president and member of the executive committee, while Pulling was an executive member in the late 1990s. This brings us to a total of 56 Pilgrims of the United States Officers since 1973 that we know about (ignoring two others of the late 1990s). The table below shows the 21 officers with rather obvious connections to the Rockefeller interests or the Morgan bank.
|Hulbert S. Aldrich|| |
|Cousin of the Rockefellers. President of Greer School with Mrs. David Rockefeller (1942-1947). Vice chairman and a director the Chemical Bank New York Trust Company.|
|Winthrop W. Aldrich|| |
|Uncle of Nelson Rockefeller. Early member CFR. President and chair of Chase National Bank.|
|Hoyt Ammidon|| |
|Personal-investment manager for Vincent Astor in the 1950s. Chair U.S. Trust Co. Fellow Pierpont Morgan Library. His son became managing director of Chase Manhattan Investment Bank and shared a board with Peter C. Rockefeller.|
|Kingman Brewster|| |
|Special assistant in the governmental office of Nelson Rockefeller. Member CFR. Trustee Carnegie Endowment.|
|Eli Whitney Debevoise|| |
|Heir to the Rockefeller-Whitney Standard Oil fortune through his mother. Associate of Winthrop W. Aldrich, an uncle of Nelson Rockefeller. Trustee of Rockefeller University. Member CFR.|
|C. Douglas Dillon|| |
|Schoolmates had included Nelson, Laurance and John Rockefeller III. Director and later chair of Dillon, Read & Co. which financed the Nazis. Chairman Rockefeller Foundation. Board member Chase Manhattan Bank. Vice chair CFR. Associated with many other important people and institutions.|
|John R. Drexel III|| |
|The Drexel banker firm historically were partners of J.P. Morgan. The Astors, Aldriches and Rockefellers were among John Drexel's friends. John's son, John R. Drexel, IV, also became a Pilgrims executive.|
|John W. Gardner|| |
|Associate of Nelson Rockefeller. Director or advisor of Rockefeller Brothers Fund and Rockefeller University. President of the Carnegie Corporation and Carnegie Foundation. Member CFR.|
|Thomas S. Gates|| |
|CEO and chairman of Morgan Guaranty Trust. Member CFR.|
|S. Parker Gilbert|| |
|Son and godson of two J. P. Morgan partners who were early CFR members. Chairman of Morgan Stanley and trustee of the Morgan Library who still keeps a close eye on the traditional Morgan interests. CFR member.|
|Alfred Hayes|| |
|Employee. National City Bank. Chair Morgan Stanley. Member CFR.|
|Robert V. Lindsay|| |
|Assistant vice president J.P. Morgan & Co. Chair Morgan Guarantee Trust. Director Americas Society. Member CFR.|
|John M. Meyer, Jr.|| |
|Chair and CEO of J.P. Morgan & Co. and Morgan Guaranty Trust. Member CFR.|
|Henry S. Morgan|| |
|A son of J.P. Morgan, Jr. Partner in J. P. Morgan & Co. and co-founder Morgan Stanley. Trustee of the Morgan Library. Early member CFR. OSS during WWII, together with his brother.|
|Ellmore C. Patterson|| |
|Married into the Choate family, which was intimately connected to the Rockefeller and Morgan interests, just as the Pilgrims. Chair J.P. Morgan & Co. Shared at least two boards with Laurance Rockefeller. Member CFR.|
|Pulling, Thomas L.|| |
|Assistant treasurer J.P. Morgan & Co. Inc., New York City, 1962-1968. Retired as a managing director of Citigroup in 2006.|
|Eben W. Pyne|| |
|President and director of National City Trust and senior vice president National City Bank.|
|William Rockefeller|| |
|Son of William Avery Rockefeller and descendant of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. Chair Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge Foundation.|
|Dean Rusk|| |
|Rhodes Scholar. President Rockefeller Foundation. Co-founder Club of Rome. CFR member.|
|John C. Whitehead|| |
|Huge globalist and long-time close associate of David Rockefeller. Director Rockefeller University.|
|John Hay Whitney|| |
|Brother-in-law of Vincent Astor. Worked on inter-American cooperation with Nelson Rockefeller during WWII. Chair of the Museum of Modern Art, which has a very strong Rockefeller influence. Trustee Carnegie Foundation.|
At any one time from the 1970s to the 1990s there was a dominant presence of Morgan and Rockefeller men on the board of the Pilgrims of the United States, leading to the obvious conclusion that these interests still represent the cornerstone of the Anglo-American Establishment. The Carnegie foundations are also quite dominant among the recent Pilgrims leadership, just as most of the other institutes listed earlier in this paragraph.
It is also possible to spot the Rockefeller and Morgan interests in the leadership of the Pilgrims of Great Britain. Viscount William Harcourt, for example, who was an executive member of the Pilgrims of Great Britain until his death in 1979, was the great-grandson of Junius S. Morgan and the great-nephew of J. P. Morgan. After having been educated at Oxford, Harcourt spent two months at J. P. Morgan & Co. and Morgan Stanley in New York. Eventually, in 1968, he became chairman of Morgan Grenfell, the British branch of J. P. Morgan. Lord Carrington, president of the Pilgrims of Great Britain since 1983, used to be a member of the international council of the Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank. There are a few other, less important examples of British Pilgrims representing Morgan and Rockefeller interests. Sir Evelyn Baring, a British executive member, had his traineeship at J. P. Morgan in New York. Pilgrim Bill Mackworth-Young was head of Morgan Grenfell from 1980 until his death in 1984. Pilgrim John M. Wallace head of Chase National Bank's London offices while also vice president of Equitable Trust Company. More examples will surface when more names of the British Pilgrims become known.
The officers and regular members of the Pilgrims of Great Britain have represented a greater variety of influential banks than their friends on the other side of the ocean. The most important English banks in the Pilgrims of Great Britain, next to Morgan Grenfell and to some extent Chase, have been Lazard, Barings, Barclays, Hambros, J. Henry Schroder, S. G. Warburg and probably also National Westminster. The families and individuals heading these banks at the same time have dominated the Bank of England for generation after generation.
The following Bank of England governors are known to have been members of the Pilgrims of Great Britain:
|Hugo Baring||Lord Cameron Cobbold||Lord Robert Kindersley||Lord Gordon Richardson*|
|Sir Evelyn Baring||Sir Charles Hambro||Sir Maurice Henry Parsons||Lord Montagu Norman*|
|Laurence John Cadbury||Sir William Keswick||Lord R. Leigh-Pemberton||*|
|Lord Thomas Catto||Sir John Keswick||Sir David Walker||*|
Even though PEHI's membership list contains about 250 British members, it's already obvious that not only the Bank of England, but also such institutes as the the Foreign Office and the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) are strongly represented. This might have been expected, because they are the British counterparts of the Federal Reserve, the State Department and the Council on Foreign Relations.
As for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, it's impossible at this moment to do as thorough an analysis as has been done with its US counterpart, simply because there's not that much information on membership. However, the following Pilgrims have played a significant role in the Royal Institute of International Affairs:
|3rd Marquess of Salisbury||Member of a prominent Pilgrims Society family. Co-founder and first chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs in 1920|
|Waldorf Astor||Member of one of the most prominent Pilgrims Society families in both Britain and the United States. Chairman of the Royal Institute for International Affairs from 1935 to 1949 and had helped to establish it in 1920.|
|Sir Duncan Oppenheim||Chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs from 1966 to 1971.|
|Lord Greenhill||Chaired some of the meetings of the Royal Institute of International Affairs back in the 1970s.|
|Sir David Ormsby-Gore||Chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs from 1978 to 1984.|
|Lord Gordon Richardson||In early 1984 The Times named Lord Richardson as the soon-to-be-appointed chairman of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Can't tell if he was actually appointed.|
|Lord Carrington||Long-time president of the Pilgrims Society. Member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs.|
|Lord Paddy Ashdown||One of today's three presidents of the Royal Institute of International Affairs.|
|Lord George Robertson||Another one of today's three presidents of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Previously he was for seven years on RIIA governing council.|
Like their American colleagues the British Pilgrims also tend to support the United Nations, together with NATO and liberal globalist institutions as the World Bank, the IMF, the OECD and the Atlantic Institute of International Affairs (quite a number of Pilgrims are governors of this last institute).
Labels: The Pilgrims Society Part 1